Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

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  1. Majeed N, Jamshed S
    J Nurs Manag, 2020 Sep 02.
    PMID: 32881098 DOI: 10.1111/jonm.13144
    AIM: To explore the influence of leader emotional intelligence on the working culture prevailing in teams that ultimately impacts nurses' intent to leave the job.

    BACKGROUND: Global shortages of nursing professionals have been concerning issues of extreme vitality in the delivery of superior services. Though the state-of-the-art system provides relief, the hospital management continued worrying about losing highly skilled nursing professionals due to a higher level of emotional exhaustion exhibiting progressive turnover.

    METHODS: A survey technique was employed for data collection from nurses. Further data were analysed by structural equation modelling in the light of 313 substantial responses by using SmartPLS.

    RESULTS: The findings revealed that leader emotional intelligence impulses critical constructive effects by fulfilling the needs of nurses and has an impact on their turnover intentions simultaneously.

    CONCLUSION: The research provides an empirical lens of leadership and culture, which noticeably explain turnover intention. This study affirmed solid connections amongst the leader emotional intelligence, team culture and turnover intentions.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: The study provides valuable insight for health management organisations to focus on factors that decrease the turnover intention of nurses. Considering a global shortage of nurses, nursing management must consider crucial aspects of the work environment and plan interventions to restrain nursing turnover intentions.

  2. Hadi H, Elkalmi R, Awadh A, Jamshed S, Al-Shami A
    Value Health, 2014 Nov;17(7):A605.
    PMID: 27202095 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.2105
    Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge and perception of medical and pharmacy students toward the usage of sunblock as skin protection against ultraviolet (UV).
    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the undergraduate final year medical and pharmacy students at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Validated questionnaire were used to collect the data. The questionnaires were distributed to 134 students from medicine and 100 pharmacy students. Descriptive and inferential statistics are used whenever appropriate.
    Results: Overall, 161 participants out of a total of 234 completed the questionnaire with 101 medical students (75.4%) and 60 pharmacy students (60.0%). Majority of the respondents were female 64 (63.4%) and 37 (36.6%) were male. The median of knowledge scores of the final year medical students was significantly lower than the final year pharmacy students (p<0.01). There is no significant differnce between the knowledge of the female and male students (Mann Whitney U Test value = 0.27, p<0.01). This study reported that 24 (39.3 %) of pharmacy students were influenced by the media to use sunblock whereas 35 (34.7%) of medical students had the highest influence from friends to use sunblock. However, this study showed there was no significant difference in the perception of pharmacy and medical students p=0.020.
    Conclusion: In conclusion, the knowledge of pharmacy students is significantly higher than the knowledge of medical students had on the usage of sunblock. Both medical and pharmacy students have the same level of perception towards the usage of sunblock.
  3. Samsiah A, Othman N, Jamshed S, Hassali MA
    PLoS One, 2016;11(12):e0166114.
    PMID: 27906960 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166114
    OBJECTIVE: To explore and understand participants' perceptions and attitudes towards the reporting of medication errors (MEs).

    METHODS: A qualitative study using in-depth interviews of 31 healthcare practitioners from nine publicly funded, primary care clinics in three states in peninsular Malaysia was conducted for this study. The participants included family medicine specialists, doctors, pharmacists, pharmacist assistants, nurses and assistant medical officers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the data was guided by the framework approach.

    RESULTS: Six themes and 28 codes were identified. Despite the availability of a reporting system, most of the participants agreed that MEs were underreported. The nature of the error plays an important role in determining the reporting. The reporting system, organisational factors, provider factors, reporter's burden and benefit of reporting also were identified.

    CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare practitioners in primary care clinics understood the importance of reporting MEs to improve patient safety. Their perceptions and attitudes towards reporting of MEs were influenced by many factors which affect the decision-making process of whether or not to report. Although the process is complex, it primarily is determined by the severity of the outcome of the errors. The participants voluntarily report the errors if they are familiar with the reporting system, what error to report, when to report and what form to use.
  4. Samsiah A, Othman N, Jamshed S, Hassali MA
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2020 Aug;42(4):1118-1127.
    PMID: 32494990 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-020-01041-0
    Background Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors that occur in health care organisations; however, these errors are largely underreported. Objective This study assessed knowledge on medication error reporting, perceived barriers to reporting medication errors, motivations for reporting medication errors and medication error reporting practices among various health care practitioners working at primary care clinics. Setting This study was conducted in 27 primary care clinics in Malaysia. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to family medicine specialists, doctors, pharmacists, pharmacist assistants, nurses and assistant medical officers. Main outcome measures Health care practitioners' knowledge, perceived barriers and motivations for reporting medication errors. Results Of all respondents (N = 376), nurses represented 31.9% (n = 120), followed by doctors (n = 87, 23.1%), pharmacists (n = 63, 16.8%), assistant medical officers (n = 53, 14.1%), pharmacist assistants (n = 46, 12.2%) and family medicine specialists (n = 7, 1.9%). Of the survey respondents who had experience reporting medication errors, 56% (n = 62) had submitted medication error reports in the preceding 12 months. Results showed that 41.2% (n = 155) of respondents were classified as having good knowledge on medication error and medication error reporting. The mean score of knowledge was significantly higher among prescribers and pharmacists than nurses, pharmacist assistants and assistant medical officers (p 
  5. Awadh AI, Jamshed S, Elkalmi RM, Hadi H
    J Res Pharm Pract, 2016 Jul-Sep;5(3):193-9.
    PMID: 27512711 DOI: 10.4103/2279-042X.185731
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, perception, and practice of medical and pharmacy students toward the usage of sunscreen as protection for the skin against ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among final year medical and pharmacy undergraduates at the International Islamic University Malaysia. Validated questionnaires were distributed to 134 medical students and 100 pharmacy students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used where appropriate.
    FINDINGS: One hundred and sixty-one out of 234 participants completed the questionnaires. The participants comprised 101 medical students (75.4%) and sixty pharmacy students (60.0%). The majority of the respondents were females (102; 63.4%), and 59 (36.6%) were males. The median of the knowledge scores of the final year medical students was significantly lower than that of the final year pharmacy students (P < 0.001). The female students showed significantly higher knowledge scores than the male students (P = 0.027). This study reported that 24 (39.3%) pharmacy students were influenced by the media to use sunscreen, whereas 35 (34.7%) medical students were influenced the most by friends to use sunscreen. The final year pharmacy students had a better perception compared to the medical students, with the total perception score of the final year pharmacy students being significantly higher than that of the final year medical students (P = 0.020). Most of the participants were also aware of the harmful effects of UV radiation and had a positive reaction toward the usage of sunscreen to prevent those harmful effects.
    CONCLUSION: The knowledge and perception of final year pharmacy students were significantly higher than the knowledge and perception of final year medical students with regard to the usage of sunscreen.
    KEYWORDS: Attitude; knowledge; perception; practice; sunscreen
  6. Samsiah A, Othman N, Jamshed S, Hassali MA, Wan-Mohaina WM
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 2016 Dec;72(12):1515-1524.
    PMID: 27637912
    PURPOSE: Reporting and analysing the data on medication errors (MEs) is important and contributes to a better understanding of the error-prone environment. This study aims to examine the characteristics of errors submitted to the National Medication Error Reporting System (MERS) in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A retrospective review of reports received from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2012 was undertaken. Descriptive statistics method was applied.

    RESULTS: A total of 17,357 MEs reported were reviewed. The majority of errors were from public-funded hospitals. Near misses were classified in 86.3 % of the errors. The majority of errors (98.1 %) had no harmful effects on the patients. Prescribing contributed to more than three-quarters of the overall errors (76.1 %). Pharmacists detected and reported the majority of errors (92.1 %). Cases of erroneous dosage or strength of medicine (30.75 %) were the leading type of error, whilst cardiovascular (25.4 %) was the most common category of drug found.

    CONCLUSIONS: MERS provides rich information on the characteristics of reported MEs. Low contribution to reporting from healthcare facilities other than government hospitals and non-pharmacists requires further investigation. Thus, a feasible approach to promote MERS among healthcare providers in both public and private sectors needs to be formulated and strengthened. Preventive measures to minimise MEs should be directed to improve prescribing competency among the fallible prescribers identified.

  7. Mohamed MHN, Rahman A, Jamshed S, Mahmood S
    BMC Public Health, 2018 Aug 20;18(1):1028.
    PMID: 30126382 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5951-2
    BACKGROUND: Current studies on electronic cigarettes (ECs) have assessed the smoking cessation effectiveness and safety of EC among sole EC users. However, in Malaysia and elsewhere, most EC users also smoke conventional cigarettes (CCs). We aimed to investigate nicotine cessation for both ECs and CCs. Additionally, safety issues among sole EC and dual (EC and CC) users over a six-month period were reported.

    METHODS: We observed 218 sole Malaysian EC and dual users over 6 months from June 2015 to November 2015. Both groups underwent exhaled breath carbon monoxide and saliva cotinine analyses to verify their nicotine cessation from both EC and CC use. Adverse events and withdrawal symptoms were assessed based on self-reports.

    RESULTS: Only 3.3% of observed users quit both ECs and CCs, whereas 20.5% quit smoking CCs. Quitting ECs and CCs was significantly higher among sole EC users (5 vs 2, respectively; OR: 5.62; P = 0.036) than it was among dual users, a result that was similar for CCs smoking (29 vs. 15; OR: 6.33; P ≤ 0.001). No severe health issues were reported over the entire study period.

    CONCLUSION: The rates of quitting CCs and ECs were higher in sole EC users than those in dual users. No serious health effects were reported over 6 months in either group. ECs may serve as a smoking cessation aid in Malaysia, but appropriate regulations are necessary to encourage sole EC use to ensure product quality. Large randomised clinical trials (RCTs) with a longer follow-up are required to better measure the effectiveness and safety of ECs use alone and in combination with CCs.
  8. Shakeel S, Nesar S, Iffat W, Fatima B, Maqbool T, Jamshed S
    Integr Pharm Res Pract, 2019;8:75-83.
    PMID: 31309080 DOI: 10.2147/IPRP.S196318
    Objectives: The study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the prescribers' approach of interaction with medical representatives for drug promotion. Methods: An explanatory, cross-sectional design was used to evaluate prescribers' interactions with the medical sales representatives (MSRs) through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire from June to December 2017. Data presented as means±SEM or as percentages and statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA, using significance level of 0.05. Results: A response rate of 82.8% was achieved. More than 70% agreed that knowledge obtained from MSRs is reliable and useful. A large proportion of respondents acknowledged that MSRs are a key link between pharmaceutical companies and health care professionals, and their interactions are beneficial as MSRs perform an important teaching function. More than 45% agreed that gifts are influential; however, physicians cannot be compromised with very expensive gifts. The majority of the respondents (76%) considered that promotional items are ethically appropriate; however, 66.21% thought that promotional items influence the practice of prescribing. More than half (52.18%) deemed a promotional material more reliable than a printed advertisement. More than 80% of the respondents opined that medication samples are considered appropriate; however, they should only be given to those patients who cannot financially afford them. Around 69% thought that company-sponsored meetings promote their own drugs under the disguise of CME programs. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes the importance of employing scientifically sound prescribing decision by prescribers in their day to day practice without being influenced by pharmaceutical company's promotional activities. There is a need for restricting unprincipled practices by the concerned regulatory authorities to evade preventable harm to the patient's well-being.
  9. Shakeel S, Iffat W, Nesar S, Zaidi H, Jamshed S
    Integr Pharm Res Pract, 2020;9:33-39.
    PMID: 32104664 DOI: 10.2147/IPRP.S231134
    Objective: A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the practice of unlicensed and off-label drug prescribing/dispensing in children and neonates by physicians and clinical pharmacists in the metropolitan city of Karachi.

    Methods: The study was conducted for the duration of 5 months - November 2018 to March 2019 - in different clinics and tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Respondents were interviewed by our researchers using 30 items questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the answers of respondents to survey items. Pearson correlation and independent sample t-test were employed to recognize the association between the responses of participants and independent variables. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

    Results: A total of 421 questionnaires were completed by physicians and clinical pharmacists. The mean age of the study participants was 49.5 years. Around 98% of pharmacists and 93.5% of physicians were well conversant with the definition of unlicensed and off-label drugs. Around 68% of physicians and 77% of pharmacists reported that they were more concerned about the efficacy of such drugs as compared to that of licensed medicines in children. The most frequent off-label categories observed in the study were dose (65.21%) and indication (17.52%). A vast majority (>80%) thought that approving new drugs by regulatory authorities will drop the occurrence of medication errors due to incorrect dosing. The British National Formulary (BNF) for children was used as the best reliable source of information among respondents.

    Conclusion: The present study highlighted the common practice of unlicensed and off-label drug prescribing in pediatrics; however, respondents showed their concern towards decreasing such practice and are likely to welcome initiatives intended to assure medication safety in children.

  10. Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Jamshed S, Ibrahim MI, Awaisu A
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2009 Apr;17(2):79-88.
    PMID: 20214255
    OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on consumers' knowledge, attitudes and opinions of the use of generic medicines.
    METHOD: A narrative review of studies conducted from 1970 to 2008 on consumers perceptions and views towards generic medicines was performed. An extensive literature search was undertaken using indexing services available at the authors' institution library. The following keywords were used for the search: brand, generic, multisource, medications, medicines, drugs, pharmaceuticals and consumers, customers, and patients. Electronic databases searched were Medline, Inside Web, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Springer Link, JSTOR, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. These electronic databases were searched for full text papers published in English from 1970 to October 2008.
    KEY FINDINGS: Twenty studies were identified. Eleven were from the USA, four were from Europe, two were from Canada and one each was from Australia, Brazil and Malaysia. In general, consumers showed mixed reactions towards the use of generic medicines. This was evident from the divergence of views observed by country development level, consumers' socioeconomic characteristics, drug product characteristics, pharmaceutical reimbursement system, policy environment, contact with health care professionals, past experience with medications, and knowledge of the seriousness of a medical condition.
    CONCLUSIONS: Patient confidence and knowledge pertaining to generic medicines use have increased over the past four decades, especially in developed countries. Mass educational efforts, financial incentives, and greater communication among patients and health care professionals were seen as major drivers to the uptake of generic medicines among consumers.
  11. Umair Khan M, Ahmad A, Ejaz A, Ata Rizvi S, Sardar A, Hussain K, et al.
    PMID: 26072906 DOI: 10.3352/jeehp.2015.12.28
    PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to compare the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy and medical students regarding adverse drug reactions (ADRs), as well as their perceptions of barriers to ADR reporting, in a Higher Education Commission-recognised Pakistani university.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among final-year pharmacy (n=91) and medical (n=108) students in Pakistan from June 1 to July 31, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The responses of pharmacy students were compared to those of medical students.
    RESULTS: Pharmacy students had a significantly better knowledge of ADRs than medical students (mean±SD, 5.61±1.78 vs. 3.23±1.60; P<0.001). Gender showed a significant relationship to knowledge about ADRs, and male participants were apparently more knowledgeable than their female counterparts (P<0.001). The attitudes of pharmacy students regarding their capability to handle and report ADRs were significantly more positive than those of medical students (P<0.05). In comparison to pharmacy students, a lack of knowledge of where and how to report ADRs was the main barrier that medical students perceived to ADR reporting (P=0.001).
    CONCLUSION: Final-year pharmacy students exhibited more knowledge about ADRs and showed more positive attitudes regarding their capacity to handle and report ADRs than final-year medical students.
    KEYWORDS: Comparison; Medical; Pakistan; Pharmacovigilance; Pharmacy; Students
  12. Ayob A, Awadh AI, Hadi H, Jaffri J, Jamshed S, Ahmad HM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):203-9.
    PMID: 27413348 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171681
    Increased usage of cosmetic products has caused a growing concern about the safety of these products, and yet little is known about cosmetics from the consumers' perspective. Hence, this study's aim is to develop a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers' awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products.
  13. Ayob A, Awadh AI, Jafri J, Jamshed S, Ahmad HM, Hadi H
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):229-34.
    PMID: 27413352 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.174232
    Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers.
  14. Sakeena MHF, Bennett AA, Jamshed S, Mohamed F, Herath DR, Gawarammana I, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2018 05 08;18(1):209.
    PMID: 29739360 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3107-8
    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major challenge for global health care. Pharmacists play a key role in the health care setting to help support the quality use of medicines. The education, training, and experiences of pharmacy students have the potential to impact on patterns of antibiotic use in community and hospital settings. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic use, knowledge of antibiotics and AMR among undergraduate pharmacy students at Sri Lankan universities and to compare this between junior and senior pharmacy student groups.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the six universities in Sri Lanka that offer pharmacy undergraduate programmes. All pharmacy students in each university were invited to participate in this study using a self-administered questionnaire with ethics approval. The study instrument comprised five major sections: demographic information, self-reported antibiotic use, knowledge of antibiotic uses in human health, knowledge of AMR and antibiotic use in agriculture. Descriptive data analyses were conducted and Chi-squared analysis was used to explore associations between different variables and level of pharmacy education.

    RESULTS: Four hundred sixty-six pharmacy students completed the questionnaire. A majority of participants (76%) reported antibiotic use in the past year. More than half (57%) of the junior pharmacy students incorrectly indicated that antibiotic use is appropriate for the management of cold and flu conditions. Senior pharmacy students (n = 206) reported significantly better antibiotic knowledge than junior students (n = 260), p 

  15. Naqvi AA, Hassali MA, Rizvi M, Zehra A, Iffat W, Haseeb A, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2018;9:1124.
    PMID: 30356775 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01124
    Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate a self-reporting adherence tool termed as General Medication Adherence Scale (GMAS) in Urdu language for measuring adherence toward medication use among Pakistani patients with a chronic disease. Methods: A month-long study (December 2017) was conducted in three tertiary health care settings of Karachi, Pakistan. The tool underwent content and face validity as well as factor analyses, i.e., exploratory, partial confirmatory and confirmatory factor analyses. Random sampling was conducted, and sample size was calculated using item response theory. The item-to-respondent ratio was 1:15. Fit indices namely normed fit index (NFI), Tucker Lewis index (TLI), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), absolute goodness of fit (AGFI), parsimony goodness of fit index (PGFI), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and standard root mean square residual (SRMR) were calculated. Additionally, estimation of the convergent, discriminant and known group validities, was conducted. Internal consistency was analyzed by test-retest reliability, McDonald's and Pearson correlation coefficient. The factor analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS version 22 and IBM SPSS AMOS version 25. Results: Content validity index (CVI) was reported at 0.8 (SD 0.147) and the tool was content validated with three hypothetical constructs. Factor analyses highlighted a 3-factor structure. The fit indices were calculated with satisfactory results, i.e., PGFI, GFI, AGFI, NFI, TLI, and CFI were greater than 0.9 and PGFI > 0.5. The values of RMSEA and SRMR were less than 0.07. A Cronbach's alpha value of 0.84 was obtained in reliability analysis. The test-retest Pearson's correlation coefficient value was reported at 0.996 (p-value < 0.01). Convergent and discriminant validities for all constructs and, known group validity for two constructs, were established. A high response rate of 91% was achieved in respondents. Patients without insurance coverage appeared to be low adherent compared to those with insurance coverage (p-value < 0.05). Non-comorbid patients were more likely to be highly adherent as compared to comorbid patients (p-value < 0.01). Conclusion: A novel tool GMAS was developed in Urdu language and was subsequently validated in patients with chronic diseases.
  16. Shakeel S, Nesar S, Rahim N, Iffat W, Ahmed HF, Rizvi M, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):266-271.
    PMID: 29456378 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_327_16
    Aims: Despite an increased popularity of print and electronic media applications, there is a paucity of data reflecting doctors' opinions regarding efficient utilization of these resources for the betterment of public health. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the perception of physicians toward the effect of electronic and print media on the health status of patients.
    Setting and Design: The current research is a cross-sectional study conducted from January 2015 to July 2015. The study population comprised physicians rendering their services in different hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan, selected by the nonprobability convenience sampling technique. In this study, 500 questionnaires were distributed through email or direct correspondence.
    Methods and Materials: Physicians' perception toward the impact of electronic and print media on the health status of patients was assessed with a 20-item questionnaire. Different demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, institution, position, and experience of respondents, were recorded. Quantitative data were analyzed with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). The association of the demographic characteristics of the responses of physicians was determined by one-way ANOVA using 0.05 level of significance.
    Results: In this study, 254 physicians provided consent to show their responses for research purposes. A response rate of 50.8% was obtained. Nearly one-third of the respondents negated that patients get health benefit using electronic and print media. The majority did not consider electronic and print media as lifestyle-modifying factors. Physicians thought that patients particularly do not rely on mass media for acquiring health information and consider healthcare professionals as unswerving information resource.
    Conclusions: Mass media can be productive resources to augment awareness among patients, although physicians seem unconvinced about the extended usage of print/electronic media.
  17. Ahmed AAA, Al-Shami AM, Jamshed S, Fata Nahas AR
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Oct 16;19(1):1300.
    PMID: 31619202 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7596-1
    BACKGROUND: The awareness of symptoms and action towards heart attack and stroke is important to reduce the morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire on awareness and action towards symptoms and risk factors of heart attack and stroke among lay public in Malaysia. The questionnaire was developed in both English and Bahasa Melayu.

    METHODS: Primarily the questions were generated in English. Face and content validity were performed by five experts in Pharmacy Practice and Medicine. A translation as per guidelines into Malay language was performed; followed by face-to-face interview of 96 lay public in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. For internal consistency, reliability was assessed utilizing Cronbach's alpha.

    RESULTS: The mean ± SD of the awareness and action towards heart attack symptoms and risk factors was 65.52 ± 6.3, with a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.75), whereas the mean of the awareness and action towards stroke symptoms and risk factors was 61.93 ± 7.11, with an accepted internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86).

    CONCLUSION: The current validation research showed that the developed questionnaire is valid and reliable for assessing the awareness and action towards symptoms and risk factors of heart attack and stroke among lay public in Malaysia.

  18. AlQarni K, AlQarni EA, Naqvi AA, AlShayban DM, Ghori SA, Haseeb A, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2019;10:1306.
    PMID: 31787894 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01306
    Objective: Medication adherence is defined as taking medications as advised and prescribed by health care professionals for stated duration. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to document medication adherence in Saudi patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in Saudi out-patients with type 2 DM in the city of Khobar, Saudi Arabia. The study used the General Medication Adherence Scale (GMAS) to document medication adherence in this population. Data was analyzed through SPSS version 23. Study was ethically approved. Results: Data was collected from 212 patients. Few patients (35.8%) had high adherence to anti diabetic medications. The correlation between HbA1c level and adherence score was negative and significantly strong (ρ = -0.413, p < 0.0001). Most patients (N = 126, 59.4%) modified their medication therapy during month of Ramadan and on Eid occassion. Education level was not a determinant of adherence in this population. Conclusion: This study highlighted that medication adherence is influenced by religious and social factors. Patient counseling is required to improve patient beliefs and increase awareness of adhering to prescribed anti diabetic pharmacotherapy. A pharmacist can play constructive role of a disease educator and patient counselor.
  19. Abdo Ahmed AA, Mohammed Al-Shami A, Jamshed S, Fata Nahas AR, Mohamed Ibrahim MI
    PMID: 33276636 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17238982
    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and Malaysia is not an exception in this regard. The current research is an attempt to explore symptom awareness of and necessary actions in response to heart attack (HA) among lay public.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study design, and a survey was conducted from May to July 2018 among general public in Kuantan, Pahang state, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: A total of 393 respondents recruited. Slightly more than one-fourth of the respondents (26.35%) were aware of HA symptoms like pain and/or discomfort in the jaw, neck, or back, while 71.65% showed awareness only of chest pain or discomfort as symptoms. Only 35.6% reported to call an ambulance if they experience someone suffering from HA symptoms, while 82% recognized ≥1 symptom, and only 11.5% recognized all five HA symptoms. Very few respondents, i.e., 1.3% reported awareness about correct recognition of all five HA symptoms. Respondents who had diabetes and hypercholesteremia were more likely to recognize all five HA symptoms. For those who had excellent awareness of all five HA symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) were significantly higher among single respondents (OR 0.023; 95% CI 0.001-0.594), Malay (OR 0.376; 95% CI 0.193-0.733), and those who received information associated with HA (OR 7.540; 95% CI 2.037-27.914). However, those who were aware that HA requires quick treatment had significantly low odds ratio (OR 0.176; 95% CI 0.044-0.710).

    CONCLUSIONS: The awareness of and action towards the signs and symptoms of HA among the public were poor.

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