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  1. Jin Y, Teh SS, Lau HLN, Mah SH
    J Oleo Sci, 2021 Dec 03;70(12):1749-1759.
    PMID: 34759114 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess21215
    Refined red palm-pressed mesocarp olein (PPMO) is recovered from palm-pressed mesocarp fiber, which is a by-product from palm oil mill. Its utilization in food industry is extremely limited even though it contains various phytonutrients. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate its toxicity effects by using the male Sprague-Dawley rat model. The rats were administered with a single dose of 2 g/kg PPMO in an acute toxicity study while administered with 2, 1, or 0.5 g/kg PPMO daily for 28 days in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mortality, oral LD50 value, clinical observation, body and organ weight, hematological and biochemical analyses, pathological and histopathological examinations were assessed. The overall outcomes indicated that PPMO is non-toxic up to 2 g/kg and considered safe to be used in food application, especially as functional food ingredient and supplement attributed to its phytonutrients. Besides, this study provides an insight in alternative utilization of the wastes from palm oil mill.
  2. Brough L, Jin Y, Shukri NH, Wharemate ZR, Weber JL, Coad J
    Matern Child Nutr, 2015 Oct;11(4):646-55.
    PMID: 23782592 DOI: 10.1111/mcn.12055
    Iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation may adversely affect fetal and infant development. Two initiatives were introduced in New Zealand to prevent deficiency: (1) mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt; and (2) provision of a subsidised iodine supplement (150 μg) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women. The aim of this study was to assess iodine intake and status among a self-selecting sample of pregnant and lactating women in Palmerston North, both before and after the two initiatives. Pregnant and breastfeeding women were recruited before (n = 25 and 32; 2009) and after (n = 34 and 36; 2011) the initiatives. Iodine concentration was determined in 24-h urine and breast milk samples using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Use of supplements and salt, knowledge of iodine deficiency, and awareness of the initiatives were determined by questionnaire. Median urine iodine concentration (UIC) was higher in 2011 compared with 2009 for both pregnant (85 and 47 μg L(-1) ) and breastfeeding (74 and 34 μg L(-1) ) participants; median UIC were below the cut-offs for adequate iodine status. However, in 2011, the estimated daily iodine intake during pregnancy was 217 μg day(-1) ; 74% of women achieved the Estimated Average Requirement. Knowledge of the initiatives was low, only 28-56% were aware of the need for iodine supplements and only 15-22% were aware of the mandatory addition of iodised salt to bread. Despite initiatives, UIC of these women indicates iodine deficiency, however, dietary intakes appear adequate. Ongoing surveillance of supplement use and iodine status among pregnant and lactating women throughout New Zealand is needed to fully assess the efficacy of the initiatives. Alternative strategies may require evaluation to ensure all women have adequate iodine during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  3. Cao Y, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Jin Y, Zhang Y, Hayford F
    Foods, 2018 Apr 12;7(4).
    PMID: 29649123 DOI: 10.3390/foods7040059
    The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.
  4. Jin Y, Wang H, Li J, Dang M, Zhang W, Lei Y, et al.
    Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2020 Jul 01;24(4):311-317.
    PMID: 32587125 DOI: 10.4196/kjpp.2020.24.4.311
    In the present experimental study, cecal ligation and puncture significantly increased the myocardial injury assessed in terms of excess release of creative kinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), interleukin (IL)-6 and decrease of IL-10 in the blood following 12 h of laparotomy procedure as compared to normal control. Also, a significant increase in protein expression levels of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and decreased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) was observed in the myocardial tissue as compared to normal control. A single independent administration of telmisartan (2 and 4 mg/kg) and AR-A014418 (1 and 2 mg/kg) substantially reduced sepsis-induced myocardial injury in terms of decrease levels of CK-MB, cTnI and IL-6, HMGB1, GSK-3β and increase in IL-10 and p-GSK-3β in the blood in sepsis- subjected rats. The effects of telmisartan at dose 4 mg/kg and AR-A014418 at a dose of 2 mg/kg were significantly higher than the telmisartan at a dose of 2 mg/kg and AR-A014418 1 mg/kg respectively. Further, no significant effects on different parameters were observed in the sham control group in comparison to normal. Therefore it is plausible to suggest that sepsis may increase the levels of angiotensin II to trigger GSK-3β-dependent signaling to activate the HMGB1/receptors for advanced glycation end products, which may promote inflammation and myocardial injury in sepsis-subjected rats.
  5. Guo W, Wu X, Li Y, Gao J, Wang F, Jin Y, et al.
    J Drug Target, 2020 01;28(1):41-45.
    PMID: 30943812 DOI: 10.1080/1061186X.2019.1601199
    Purpose: The present study evaluated biochemical as well as biophysical mechanisms behind the synergistic effects of curcumin and resveratrol during prostate carcinogenesis.Methods: The rats were segregated into five groups that included normal control, 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMAB)treated, DMAB + curcumin treated, DMAB + resveratrol-treated and DMAB + curcumin + resveratrol-treated.Results: The DMAB treatment resulted in a significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in DMAB treated rats. Also, significant changes were recorded in the enzyme activities of both drug metabolising enzyme and antioxidant enzymes after DMAB treatment. Further, radiorespirometric studies showed a significant increase in the 14C-glucose turnover as well as 14C-glucose uptake in the prostate slices of DMAB treated rats. Moreover, a significant rise in cell proliferation was confirmed indirectly by enhanced uptake of 3H-thymidine in the prostate slices of DMAB treated rats. Interestingly, combined treatment of curcumin and resveratrol to DMAB treated animals resulted in a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, 14C glucose uptakes/turnover and 3H-thymidine uptake in the DMAB treated rats. Besides this, curcumin and resveratrol in combination significantly modulated biochemical indices including drug-metabolising enzymes; antioxidant enzymes in DMBA treated rats.Conclusion: The study, therefore, concludes that the combination of curcumin and resveratrol holds strong modulatory potential against prostate carcinogenesis.
  6. Azad SM, Jin Y, Ser HL, Goh BH, Lee LH, Thawai C, et al.
    J Appl Microbiol, 2022 Feb;132(2):772-784.
    PMID: 34260807 DOI: 10.1111/jam.15222
    Extensively produced by members of the genus Streptomyces, piericidins are a large family of microbial metabolites, which consist of main skeleton of 4-pyridinol with methylated polyketide side chain. Nonetheless, these metabolites show differences in their bioactive potentials against micro-organisms, insects and tumour cells. Due to its close structural similarity with coenzyme Q, piericidins also possess an inhibitory activity against NADH dehydrogenase as well as Photosystem II. This review studied the latest research progress of piericidins, covering the chemical structure and physical properties of newly identified members, bioactivities, biosynthetic pathway with gene clusters and future prospect. With the increasing incidence of drug-resistant human pathogen strains and cancers, this review aimed to provide clues for the development of either new potential antibiotics or anti-tumour agents.
  7. Kim M, Jung JH, Jin Y, Han GM, Lee T, Hong SH, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2016 Jul 15;108(1-2):281-8.
    PMID: 27167134 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.04.049
    The molecular composition and distribution of sterols were investigated in the East China Sea to identify the origins of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in offshore waters influenced by Changjiang River Diluted Water (CRDW). Total sterol concentrations ranged from 3200 to 31,900pgL(-1) and 663 to 5690pgL(-1) in the particulate and dissolved phases, respectively. Marine sterols dominated representing 71% and 66% in the particulate and dissolved phases, respectively. Typical sewage markers, such as coprostanol, were usually absent at ~250km offshore. However, sterols from allochthonous terrestrial plants were still detected at these sites. A negative relationship was observed between salinity and concentrations of terrestrial sterols in SPM, suggesting that significant amounts of terrestrial particulate matter traveled long distance offshore in the East China Sea, and the Changjiang River Diluted Water (CRDW) was an effective carrier of land-derived particulate organic matter to the offshore East China Sea.
  8. Ravichanthiran K, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Cao Y, Wang CW, Muhammad S, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2018 May 23;7(6).
    PMID: 29789516 DOI: 10.3390/antiox7060071
    Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has been widely consumed for centuries by many Asian countries. Studies have suggested that brown rice is associated with a wide spectrum of nutrigenomic implications such as anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, cardioprotective and antioxidant. This is because of the presence of various phytochemicals that are mainly located in bran layers of brown rice. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications that focuses on the bioactive compounds and nutrigenomic implications of brown rice. Although current evidence supports the fact that the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for health, these studies are heterogeneous in terms of their brown rice samples used and population groups, which cause the evaluation to be difficult. Future clinical studies should focus on the screening of individual bioactive compounds in brown rice with reference to their nutrigenomic implications.
  9. Gao M, Lin Y, Wang P, Jin Y, Wang Q, Ma H, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 Sep 05;417:126037.
    PMID: 33992013 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126037
    Chinese liquor distillers' grain (CLDG) is an abundant industrial organic waste showing high potential as feedstock for biofuel conversion. In this study, CLDG was used as substrate by microbial community in pit mud to produce medium-chain fatty acids (especially caproate). Simulated and real fermentation were used to evaluate the effect of ethanol and lactic acid being the electronic donors (EDs) during the anaerobic chain elongation (CE). The caproate concentration was achieved at 449 mg COD/g VS, with the corresponding high carbon selectivity at 37.1%. Microbial analysis revealed that the domestication of pit mud increased the abundance of Caproiciproducens (converting lactic acid into caproate) and Lactobacillus (producing lactic acid), leading to enhanced caproate production. The lactic acid conversion facilitated in full utilization of ethanol through CE consumption. The coexistence of EDs benefited the CE system and that this green energy production can be a promising high-performance biofuel donor for sustainable industrial production development.
  10. Chen X, Tan X, Li J, Jin Y, Gong L, Hong M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(12):e82861.
    PMID: 24340064 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082861
    Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is responsible for nearly 50% of all the confirmed hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases in mainland China, sometimes it could also cause severe complications, and even death. To clarify the genetic characteristics and the epidemic patterns of CVA16 in mainland China, comprehensive bioinfomatics analyses were performed by using 35 CVA16 whole genome sequences from 1998 to 2011, 593 complete CVA16 VP1 sequences from 1981 to 2011, and prototype strains of human enterovirus species A (EV-A). Analysis on complete VP1 sequences revealed that subgenotypes B1a and B1b were prevalent strains and have been co-circulating in many Asian countries since 2000, especially in mainland China for at least 13 years. While the prevalence of subgenotype B1c (totally 20 strains) was much limited, only found in Malaysia from 2005 to 2007 and in France in 2010. Genotype B2 only caused epidemic in Japan and Malaysia from 1981 to 2000. Both subgenotypes B1a and B1b were potential recombinant viruses containing sequences from other EV-A donors in the 5'-untranslated region and P2, P3 non-structural protein encoding regions.
  11. Hughes TP, Munhoz E, Aurelio Salvino M, Ong TC, Elhaddad A, Shortt J, et al.
    Br J Haematol, 2017 10;179(2):219-228.
    PMID: 28699641 DOI: 10.1111/bjh.14829
    The Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials-Extending Molecular Responses (ENESTxtnd) study was conducted to evaluate the kinetics of molecular response to nilotinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase and the impact of novel dose-optimization strategies on patient outcomes. The ENESTxtnd protocol allowed nilotinib dose escalation (from 300 to 400 mg twice daily) in the case of suboptimal response or treatment failure as well as dose re-escalation for patients with nilotinib dose reductions due to adverse events. Among 421 patients enrolled in ENESTxtnd, 70·8% (95% confidence interval, 66·2-75·1%) achieved major molecular response (BCR-ABL1 ≤ 0·1% on the International Scale) by 12 months (primary endpoint). By 24 months, 81·0% of patients achieved major molecular response, including 63·6% (56 of 88) of those with dose escalations for lack of efficacy and 74·3% (55 of 74) of those with dose reductions due to adverse events (including 43 of 54 patients with successful re-escalation). The safety profile of nilotinib was consistent with prior studies. The most common non-haematological adverse events were headache, rash, and nausea; cardiovascular events were reported in 4·5% of patients (grade 3/4, 3·1%). The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01254188).
  12. Wills C, Wang B, Fang S, Wang Y, Jin Y, Lutz J, et al.
    PLoS Comput Biol, 2021 04;17(4):e1008853.
    PMID: 33914731 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008853
    When Darwin visited the Galapagos archipelago, he observed that, in spite of the islands' physical similarity, members of species that had dispersed to them recently were beginning to diverge from each other. He postulated that these divergences must have resulted primarily from interactions with sets of other species that had also diverged across these otherwise similar islands. By extrapolation, if Darwin is correct, such complex interactions must be driving species divergences across all ecosystems. However, many current general ecological theories that predict observed distributions of species in ecosystems do not take the details of between-species interactions into account. Here we quantify, in sixteen forest diversity plots (FDPs) worldwide, highly significant negative density-dependent (NDD) components of both conspecific and heterospecific between-tree interactions that affect the trees' distributions, growth, recruitment, and mortality. These interactions decline smoothly in significance with increasing physical distance between trees. They also tend to decline in significance with increasing phylogenetic distance between the trees, but each FDP exhibits its own unique pattern of exceptions to this overall decline. Unique patterns of between-species interactions in ecosystems, of the general type that Darwin postulated, are likely to have contributed to the exceptions. We test the power of our null-model method by using a deliberately modified data set, and show that the method easily identifies the modifications. We examine how some of the exceptions, at the Wind River (USA) FDP, reveal new details of a known allelopathic effect of one of the Wind River gymnosperm species. Finally, we explore how similar analyses can be used to investigate details of many types of interactions in these complex ecosystems, and can provide clues to the evolution of these interactions.
  13. Sibidanov A, Varvell KE, Adachi I, Aihara H, Al Said S, Asner DM, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2018 Jul 20;121(3):031801.
    PMID: 30085771 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.031801
    We report the results of a search for the rare, purely leptonic decay B^{-}→μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ} performed with a 711  fb^{-1} data sample that contains 772×10^{6}  BB[over ¯] pairs, collected near the ϒ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider. The signal events are selected based on the presence of a high momentum muon and the topology of the rest of the event showing properties of a generic B-meson decay, as well as the missing energy and momentum being consistent with the hypothesis of a neutrino from the signal decay. We find a 2.4 standard deviation excess above background including systematic uncertainties, which corresponds to a branching fraction of B(B^{-}→μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ})=(6.46±2.22±1.60)×10^{-7} or a frequentist 90% confidence level interval on the B^{-}→μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ} branching fraction of [2.9,10.7]×10^{-7}.
  14. Guido E, Mussa R, Tamponi U, Aihara H, Al Said S, Asner DM, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2018 Aug 10;121(6):062001.
    PMID: 30141661 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.062001
    We report the first observation of the hadronic transition ϒ(4S)→η^{'}ϒ(1S), using 496  fb^{-1} data collected at the ϒ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider. We reconstruct the η^{'} meson through its decays to ρ^{0}γ and to π^{+}π^{-}η, with η→γγ. We measure B(ϒ(4S)→η^{'}ϒ(1S))=[3.43±0.88(stat)±0.21(syst)]×10^{-5}, with a significance of 5.7σ.
  15. Fulsom BG, Pedlar TK, Adachi I, Aihara H, Al Said S, Asner DM, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2018 Dec 07;121(23):232001.
    PMID: 30576207 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.232001
    We report the observation of ϒ(2S)→γη_{b}(1S) decay based on an analysis of the inclusive photon spectrum of 24.7  fb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} collisions at the ϒ(2S) center-of-mass energy collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider. We measure a branching fraction of B[ϒ(2S)→γη_{b}(1S)]=(6.1_{-0.7-0.6}^{+0.6+0.9})×10^{-4} and derive an η_{b}(1S) mass of 9394.8_{-3.1-2.7}^{+2.7+4.5}  MeV/c^{2}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The significance of our measurement is greater than 7 standard deviations, constituting the first observation of this decay mode.
  16. Li YB, Shen CP, Yuan CZ, Adachi I, Aihara H, Al Said S, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2019 Mar 01;122(8):082001.
    PMID: 30932568 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.082001
    We present the first measurements of absolute branching fractions of Ξ_{c}^{0} decays into Ξ^{-}π^{+}, ΛK^{-}π^{+}, and pK^{-}K^{-}π^{+} final states. The measurements are made using a dataset comprising (772±11)×10^{6} BB[over ¯] pairs collected at the ϒ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e^{+}e^{-} collider. We first measure the absolute branching fraction for B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0} using a missing-mass technique; the result is B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})=(9.51±2.10±0.88)×10^{-4}. We subsequently measure the product branching fractions B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+}), B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→ΛK^{-}π^{+}), and B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→pK^{-}K^{-}π^{+}) with improved precision. Dividing these product branching fractions by the result for B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0} yields the following branching fractions: B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+})=(1.80±0.50±0.14)%, B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→ΛK^{-}π^{+})=(1.17±0.37±0.09)%, and B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→pK^{-}K^{-}π^{+})=(0.58±0.23±0.05)%. For the above branching fractions, the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. Our result for B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+}) can be combined with Ξ_{c}^{0} branching fractions measured relative to Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+} to yield other absolute Ξ_{c}^{0} branching fractions.
  17. Seong IS, Vahsen SE, Adachi I, Aihara H, Al Said S, Asner DM, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2019 Jan 11;122(1):011801.
    PMID: 31012694 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.011801
    We report on the first Belle search for a light CP-odd Higgs boson, A^{0}, that decays into low mass dark matter, χ, in final states with a single photon and missing energy. We search for events produced via the dipion transition ϒ(2S)→ϒ(1S)π^{+}π^{-}, followed by the on-shell process ϒ(1S)→γA^{0} with A^{0}→χχ, or by the off-shell process ϒ(1S)→γχχ. Utilizing a data sample of 157.3×10^{6} ϒ(2S) decays, we find no evidence for a signal. We set limits on the branching fractions of such processes in the mass ranges M_{A^{0}}<8.97  GeV/c^{2} and M_{χ}<4.44  GeV/c^{2}. We then use the limits on the off-shell process to set competitive limits on WIMP-nucleon scattering in the WIMP mass range below 5  GeV/c^{2}.
  18. Guan Y, Vossen A, Adachi I, Adamczyk K, Ahn JK, Aihara H, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2019 Feb 01;122(4):042001.
    PMID: 30768311 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.042001
    We report the first observation of the spontaneous polarization of Λ and Λ[over ¯] hyperons transverse to the production plane in e^{+}e^{-} annihilation, which is attributed to the effect arising from a polarizing fragmentation function. For inclusive Λ/Λ[over ¯] production, we also report results with subtracted feed-down contributions from Σ^{0} and charm. This measurement uses a dataset of 800.4  fb^{-1} collected by the Belle experiment at or near a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. We observe a significant polarization that rises with the fractional energy carried by the Λ/Λ[over ¯] hyperon.
  19. Adachi I, Adye T, Ahmed H, Ahn JK, Aihara H, Akar S, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2018 Dec 28;121(26):261801.
    PMID: 30636113 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.261801
    We present first evidence that the cosine of the CP-violating weak phase 2β is positive, and hence exclude trigonometric multifold solutions of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) Unitarity Triangle using a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis of B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} with D→K_{S}^{0}π^{+}π^{-} decays, where h^{0}∈{π^{0},η,ω} denotes a light unflavored and neutral hadron. The measurement is performed combining the final data sets of the BABAR and Belle experiments collected at the ϒ(4S) resonance at the asymmetric-energy B factories PEP-II at SLAC and KEKB at KEK, respectively. The data samples contain (471±3)×10^{6}BB[over ¯] pairs recorded by the BABAR detector and (772±11)×10^{6}BB[over ¯] pairs recorded by the Belle detector. The results of the measurement are sin2β=0.80±0.14(stat)±0.06(syst)±0.03(model) and cos2β=0.91±0.22(stat)±0.09(syst)±0.07(model). The result for the direct measurement of the angle β of the CKM Unitarity Triangle is β=[22.5±4.4(stat)±1.2(syst)±0.6(model)]°. The measurement assumes no direct CP violation in B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} decays. The quoted model uncertainties are due to the composition of the D^{0}→K_{S}^{0}π^{+}π^{-} decay amplitude model, which is newly established by performing a Dalitz plot amplitude analysis using a high-statistics e^{+}e^{-}→cc[over ¯] data sample. CP violation is observed in B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} decays at the level of 5.1 standard deviations. The significance for cos2β>0 is 3.7 standard deviations. The trigonometric multifold solution π/2-β=(68.1±0.7)° is excluded at the level of 7.3 standard deviations. The measurement resolves an ambiguity in the determination of the apex of the CKM Unitarity Triangle.
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