Displaying all 11 publications

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  1. Castaño-Rodríguez N, Kaakoush NO, Lee WS, Mitchell HM
    Gut, 2017 02;66(2):235-249.
    PMID: 26508508 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310545
    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive global systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and IBD. As bacterial antigen cross-reactivity has been postulated to be involved in this association, published data on enterohepatic Helicobacter spp (EHS) and Campylobacter spp and IBD was also analysed.

    DESIGN: Electronic databases were searched up to July 2015 for all case-control studies on H. pylori infection/EHS/Campylobacter spp and IBD. Pooled ORs (P-OR) and 95% CIs were obtained using the random effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity and stratified analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: Analyses comprising patients with Crohn's disease (CD), UC and IBD unclassified (IBDU), showed a consistent negative association between gastric H. pylori infection and IBD (P-OR: 0.43, p value <1e-10). This association appears to be stronger in patients with CD (P-OR: 0.38, p value <1e-10) and IBDU (P-OR: 0.43, p value=0.008) than UC (P-OR: 0.53, p value <1e-10). Stratification by age, ethnicity and medications showed significant results. In contrast to gastric H. pylori, non H. pylori-EHS (P-OR: 2.62, p value=0.001) and Campylobacter spp, in particular C. concisus (P-OR: 3.76, p value=0.006) and C. showae (P-OR: 2.39, p value=0.027), increase IBD risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori infection is negatively associated with IBD regardless of ethnicity, age, H. pylori detection methods and previous use of aminosalicylates and corticosteroids. Antibiotics influenced the magnitude of this association. Closely related bacteria including EHS and Campylobacter spp increase the risk of IBD. These results infer that H. pylori might exert an immunomodulatory effect in IBD.

  2. Castaño-Rodríguez N, Kaakoush NO, Goh KL, Fock KM, Mitchell HM
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e98899.
    PMID: 24901306 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098899
    Currently, it is well established that cancer arises in chronically inflamed tissue. A number of NOD-like receptors (NLRs) form inflammasomes, intracellular multiprotein complexes critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-18). As chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa is a consequence of Helicobacter pylori infection, we investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms and expression of genes involved in the NLR signalling pathway in H. pylori infection and related gastric cancer (GC).
  3. Castaño-Rodríguez N, Kaakoush NO, Pardo AL, Goh KL, Fock KM, Mitchell HM
    Hum. Immunol., 2014 Aug;75(8):808-15.
    PMID: 24929142 DOI: 10.1016/j.humimm.2014.06.001
    Gastric cancer (GC) is a progressive process initiated by Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation. Initial recognition of H. pylori involves Toll-like receptors (TLRs), central molecules in the host inflammatory response. Here, we investigated the association between novel polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR signalling pathway, including TLR2, TLR4, LBP, MD-2, CD14 and TIRAP, and risk of H. pylori infection and related GC.
  4. Schmidt HM, Andres S, Nilsson C, Kovach Z, Kaakoush NO, Engstrand L, et al.
    PMID: 20157752 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-010-0881-7
    Helicobacter pylori-related disease is at least partially attributable to the genotype of the infecting strain, particularly the presence of specific virulence factors. We investigated the prevalence of a novel combination of H. pylori virulence factors, including the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), and their association with severe disease in isolates from the three major ethnicities in Malaysia and Singapore, and evaluated whether the cag PAI was intact and functional in vitro. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect dupA, cagA, cagE, cagT, cagL and babA, and to type vacA, the EPIYA motifs, HP0521 alleles and oipA ON status in 159 H. pylori clinical isolates. Twenty-two strains were investigated for IL-8 induction and CagA translocation in vitro. The prevalence of cagA, cagE, cagL, cagT, babA, oipA ON and vacA s1 and i1 was >85%, irrespective of the disease state or ethnicity. The prevalence of dupA and the predominant HP0521 allele and EPIYA motif varied significantly with ethnicity (p < 0.05). A high prevalence of an intact cag PAI was found in all ethnic groups; however, no association was observed between any virulence factor and disease state. The novel association between the HP0521 alleles, EPIYA motifs and host ethnicity indicates that further studies to determine the function of this gene are important.
  5. Castaño-Rodríguez N, Kaakoush NO, Goh KL, Fock KM, Mitchell HM
    Helicobacter, 2015 Oct;20(5):353-69.
    PMID: 25664588 DOI: 10.1111/hel.12211
    Autophagy, a degradation pathway in which cytoplasmic content is engulfed and degraded by lysosomal hydrolases, plays a pivotal role in infection and inflammation. Given that defects in autophagy lead to increased susceptibility to infection, we investigated the role of autophagy in Helicobacter pylori-related gastric cancer (GC).
  6. Castaño-Rodríguez N, Goh KL, Fock KM, Mitchell HM, Kaakoush NO
    Sci Rep, 2017 11 21;7(1):15957.
    PMID: 29162924 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-16289-2
    The gastric microbiome has been proposed as an etiological factor in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gastric microbiota in subjects presenting with gastric cancer (GC, n = 12) and controls (functional dyspepsia (FD), n = 20) from a high GC risk population in Singapore and Malaysia. cDNA from 16S rRNA transcripts were amplified (515F-806R) and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250 bp chemistry. Increased richness and phylogenetic diversity but not Shannon's diversity was found in GC as compared to controls. nMDS clustered GC and FD subjects separately, with PERMANOVA confirming a significant difference between the groups. H. pylori serological status had a significant impact on gastric microbiome α-diversity and composition. Several bacterial taxa were enriched in GC, including Lactococcus, Veilonella, and Fusobacteriaceae (Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia). Prediction of bacterial metabolic contribution indicated that serological status had a significant impact on metabolic function, while carbohydrate digestion and pathways were enriched in GC. Our findings highlight three mechanisms of interest in GC, including enrichment of pro-inflammatory oral bacterial species, increased abundance of lactic acid producing bacteria, and enrichment of short chain fatty acid production pathways.
  7. Underwood AP, Kaakoush NO, Sodhi N, Merif J, Seah Lee W, Riordan SM, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2016 Mar;65(3):219-26.
    PMID: 26698172 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000216
    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.
  8. Rehvathy V, Tan MH, Gunaletchumy SP, Teh X, Wang S, Baybayan P, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2013;1(5).
    PMID: 24051312 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00687-13
    Helicobacter pylori causes human gastroduodenal diseases, including chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. It is also a major microbial risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Twenty-one strains with different ethnicity, disease, and antimicrobial susceptibility backgrounds were sequenced by use of Illumina HiSeq and PacBio RS platforms.
  9. Schmidt HM, Andres S, Kaakoush NO, Engstrand L, Eriksson L, Goh KL, et al.
    Gut Pathog, 2009;1(1):5.
    PMID: 19338650 DOI: 10.1186/1757-4749-1-5
    The putative H. pylori pathogenicity-associated factor dupA has been associated with IL-8 induction in vitro, and duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC) development in certain populations, but this association is inconsistent between studies. We aimed to investigate dupA prevalence in clinical isolates from Sweden, Australia and from ethnic Chinese, Indians and Malays resident in Malaysia and Singapore and to examine the association with DU and GC. In addition we investigated the sequence diversity between isolates from these diverse groups and compared the level of IL-8 secretion in isolates possessing and lacking dupA.
  10. Gunaletchumy SP, Teh X, Khosravi Y, Ramli NS, Chua EG, Kavitha T, et al.
    J. Bacteriol., 2012 Oct;194(20):5695-6.
    PMID: 23012278
    Helicobacter pylori is the main bacterial causative agent of gastroduodenal disorders and a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The draft genomes of 10 closely related H. pylori isolates from the multiracial Malaysian population will provide an insight into the genetic diversity of isolates in Southeast Asia. These isolates were cultured from gastric biopsy samples from patients with functional dyspepsia and gastric cancer. The availability of this genomic information will provide an opportunity for examining the evolution and population structure of H. pylori isolates from Southeast Asia, where the East meets the West.
  11. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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