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  1. Ooi HK, Chai SC, Kadar M
    Clin Rehabil, 2020 Apr;34(4):515-523.
    PMID: 32037862 DOI: 10.1177/0269215520905050
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of pressure (Lycra) garment on the spasticity and function of the arm in the early stages after stroke.

    DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.

    SETTING: Occupational therapy unit of a public hospital.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 46 adults with stroke.

    INTERVENTION: After random assignment, for six weeks, both intervention group and control group received a 2 hour/week conventional occupational therapy program, with the intervention group receiving an extra 6 hour/day pressure garment application (long glove).

    MAIN MEASURES: Modified Modified Ashworth Scale, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome Measure, and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. Eligibility measures: Mini Mental State Examination and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale. Assessments were performed at baseline and six weeks postintervention.

    RESULTS: There were 21 participants with the mean age of 51.19 (8.28) years in the intervention group and 22 participants with the mean (SD) age of 52.82 (8.71) years in the control group. The intervention group had median (interquartile range (IQR)) post-stroke duration of 1 (1) month, while for the control group, they were 2 (2) months. There was no difference in spasticity, and both perceived and actual arm functions between the groups at six weeks after baseline.

    CONCLUSION: Wearing a pressure garment on the arm for 6 hours daily had no effect in controlling spasticity or on improving arm function in the early stages after stroke.

  2. Baharudin NS, Harun D, Kadar M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Mar;27(2):21-36.
    PMID: 32788838 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.2.3
    Various standardised assessment tools have been used to evaluate children with disabilities. However, assessment tools that provide information on the movement and function of children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) are still limited. This article provides a narrative review of the characteristics of five movement and/or function assessment tools. The strengths and limitations of the tools will be highlighted. Empirical studies on the assessment tools used are reviewed based on three criteria: (i) standardised tools; (ii) assessment of movement and/or function; (iii) applicability to children with SLD ranging from 4-17 years of age and widely used in practice. The following instruments have been included as they have been found to fulfil the criteria: (i) the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency-2 (BOT-2); (ii) the movement assessment battery for children-2 (MABC-2); (iii) the pediatric balance scale (PBS); (iv) the Vineland adaptive behaviour scale-II (VABS-II) and (v) the pediatric evaluation of disability inventory-computerised adaptive test (PEDI-CAT). The article presents the characteristics, strengths and limitations of five standardised assessment tools that are currently in use, which measure the movement and/or function of children with SLD. This article concludes with a discussion of recommendations for the best approaches to evaluating the movement and functional abilities of children with SLD.
  3. Chai SC, Teoh RF, Razaob NA, Kadar M
    Hong Kong J Occup Ther, 2017 Dec;30(1):42-48.
    PMID: 30186079 DOI: 10.1016/j.hkjot.2017.05.002
    Objective/Background: Occupational therapy that focuses on servicing clients demands motivated workers for quality service delivery. The objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the level of work motivation among occupational therapy graduates in Malaysia and (b) to determine if there is a difference in work motivation among these graduates based on work sector, job position, length of work experience, and gender.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited occupational therapy bachelor's degree graduates using an online survey. The Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) was used to measure level of work motivation.

    Results: Responses from 82 (60.3%) graduates (male: 26.8%; female: 73.2%) were analysed. Sixty-two (75.6%) graduates worked locally and 20 (24.4%) worked in foreign countries. The average Work Self-Determination Index (W-SDI) score for WEIMS is +11.38 with 78 (95.1%) of graduates demonstrated a self-determined motivational profile and 4 (4.9%) demonstrated a nonself-determined profile. Graduates in the private sector (13.10 ± 6.47) show significantly higher W-SDI score compared to those in the public sector (9.40 ± 6.06), p = 0.01. W-SDI scores appeared higher among clinician (11.67 ± 6.40), case manager (13.33), and others (14.90 ± 8.23); and those with work experience of 5-6 years (13.11 ± 6.90) and less than one year (12.65 ± 7.12). Male (10.29 ± 6.86) and female (11.79 ± 6.39) graduates shared equally high score. There is no significant difference in W-SDI score based on job position, length of work experience, and gender.

    Conclusion: Occupational therapy graduates have high work motivation as evident by their self-determined profile. Only work sector imposes difference in work motivation among these graduates. Copyright © 2017, Hong Kong Occupational Therapy Association. Published by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  4. Kadar M, Ibrahim S, Razaob NA, Chai SC, Harun D
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2018 02;65(1):63-68.
    PMID: 29315609 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12441
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale is a tool often used to assess independence among elderly at home. Its suitability to be used with the elderly population in Malaysia has not been validated. This current study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version to Malay speaking elderly in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents.

    RESULTS: Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community.

  5. Abd Aziz N, Kadar M, Harun D, Mohd Rasdi HF
    PMID: 33511894 DOI: 10.1080/07380577.2021.1876967
    This scoping review explores the implementation of video modeling (VM) by occupational therapists during the intervention process for children and adolescents with special needs. Four primary electronic databases were used to conduct the scoping review: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Proquest (Nursing and Allied Health). Research methodologies by Arksey and O'Malley were used as a framework to perform the review process. From the review, two themes emerged: (1) implementing VM by occupational therapists during the intervention process can successfully improve a client's desired skills; (2) VM can be applied through several types of technologies. The findings support occupational therapists' use of VM during interventions to positively enhance and promote desired skills among children and adolescents with special needs. Also, it can be incorporated into technological devices to suit a client's specific needs.
  6. Kadar M, Wan Yunus F, Tan E, Chai SC, Razaob Razab NA, Mohamat Kasim DH
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2020 02;67(1):3-12.
    PMID: 31799722 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12626
    INTRODUCTION: Handwriting skills play a significant role in all stages of an individual's life. Writing interventions should be considered at a younger age to ensure proper development of writing skills. Hence, the aims of this study is to evaluate the current evidence of occupational therapy interventions in handwriting skills for 4-6 year old children.

    METHODS: Published literature was systematically searched according to PRISMA guidelines using specific key terms. Initial search identified 785 studies; however only seven met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for final review. Studies were methodologically appraised using the McMaster Critical Review Form-Quantitative Studies.

    RESULTS: The review found no randomised control trial study design pertaining to the reviewed area. However, it can be seen that occupational therapy interventions for writing skills in 4-6 year old children managed to increase the targeted skills. The results were similar across samples with or without disabilities. An effective integration of occupational therapy interventions into educational curriculum was found to save both time and cost.

    CONCLUSION: The long-term benefit from these interventions and the effects of these interventions on a broader spectrum of fine motor abilities need to be explored further with stronger research designs. However, the lack of studies adopting high level study designs, i.e., RCT designs means, results need to be approached with caution by occupational therapists when implementing handwriting skills intervention in practice.

  7. Razaob NA, Tham SY, Mohd Rasdi HF, Wan Yunus F, Kadar M
    Occup Ther Health Care, 2020 Jan;34(1):32-47.
    PMID: 31920126 DOI: 10.1080/07380577.2020.1712632
    The Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised (CIQ-R) is a self-report standardized instrument designed to assess an individual's degree of community integration. The aim of this study was to translate, validate and conduct a reliability test of the CIQ-R Malay version. The development involved the three phases of translation, content validation and cognitive interviewing, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the CIQ-R Malay version. The Content Validity Index (CVI) showed perfect agreement between the panel experts. The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) demonstrated a moderate to excellent level of test-retest agreement (ICC 0.72 to 0.93). The Total CIQ-R Malay version and Home Integration subscale showed good internal consistency, with values of Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.81 to 0.90. The findings from the present study provided preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the CIQ-R Malay version as a valid and reliable instrument to be used in Malaysia.
  8. Suhaili I, Harun D, Kadar M, Hanif Farhan MR, Nur Sakinah B, Evelyn Jong TH
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 02;74(1):34-39.
    PMID: 30846660
    INTRODUCTION: Limitations in motor performances among children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) can lead to impaired functional skills. Thus, this study aimed to determine the level of motor performances and functional mobility, and the influence of motor performances on the functional mobility in children with SLD.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 148 children with SLD and their caregivers. The evaluation consisted of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) and the Functional Mobility domain from Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT). The level of motor performances and functional mobility were determined. A linear regression was then conducted to assess the influence of motor performances that could be accounted for functional mobility scores.

    RESULTS: More than half of the children with SLD showed motor performance difficulty in manual dexterity subscale (54.7%). For functional mobility, the mean standard T-score indicated an average level of capability (49.49±15.96). A regression analysis revealed that both manual dexterity and balance were significant predictors for functional mobility. According to the regression coefficients, manual dexterity (B=1.37, β=0.303, sr2=0.077) was found to be a stronger predictor compared to balance (B=0.85, β=0.178, sr2=0.028).

    CONCLUSION: Manual dexterity was found to influence functional mobility among children with SLD. Therefore, fine motor skills intervention for children with SLD should emphasize on manual dexterity training. Future studies that involve dual tasks and inclusion of typical children would give useful additional information on motor performances issues in children with SLD.

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