BACKGROUND: Metastatic tumours are more frequent in older individuals and can be the only sign/symptom of an undiagnosed primary malignancy.
CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old lady presented with an enlarging mandibular swelling. Incisional biopsy and imaging studies were suggestive of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Metastatic tumours should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mandibular swellings especially in older individuals.
METHODS: A total of 760 voluntary donors who attended the Blood Bank, Penang Hospital or offsite blood donation campaigns from April to May 2014 were recruited. The ABO and RhD blood groups were determined by the conventional tile method and the solid phase method, in which the tube method was used as the gold standard.
RESULTS: For ABO blood grouping, the tile method has shown 100% concordance results with the gold standard tube method, whereas the solid-phase method only showed concordance result for 754/760 samples (99.2%). Therefore, for ABO grouping, tile method has 100% sensitivity and specificity while the solid phase method has slightly lower sensitivity of 97.7% but both with good specificity of 100%. For RhD grouping, both the tile and solid phase methods have grouped one RhD positive specimen as negative each, thus giving the sensitivity and specificity of 99.9% and 100% for both methods respectively.
CONCLUSION: The 'InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit' is suitable for offsite usage because of its simplicity and user friendliness. However, further improvement in adding the internal quality control may increase the test sensitivity and validity of the test results.
RESULTS: Increases in homogenization pressure and emulsifier concentration were observed to have significant (P 0.05) differences between the prepared and commercial LNDCs in terms of their color, appearance, and overall acceptability.
CONCLUSION: Shelf-stable LNDCs with qualities comparable to commercial LNDC were successfully fabricated. Valuable insights into the effects of homogenization pressure, oil type, and emulsifier concentration, as well as functionality and consumer acceptance of the LNDCs when added into black coffee, were obtained. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
Scope and approach: This review aims to provide a broad view of SCRes reactive strategies for FSMEs in dealing with crises in the context of COVID-19. Attention is given to the literature on resilience in other types of supply chain and situated in the context of food settings. The factors are monitored or controlled to contribute to FSME resiliency.Key findings and conclusion: Four quadrants, i.e., (1) rapid with low cost, (2) rapid with high cost, (3) slow with low cost and (4) slow with high cost, are offered based on the limitations and the time needed to react, and the strategies of each quadrant are explained in depth. This review also provides a better understanding of and guidance on reactive strategies for SCRes as options for FSMEs in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic. This review suggests future directions as extensions based on the logical flow of this review.