Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Munisvaradass R, Kumar S, Govindasamy C, Alnumair KS, Mok PL
    Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Sep 08;18(9).
    PMID: 28885562 DOI: 10.3390/ijms18091797
    Breast cancer is a common malignancy among women. The innate and adaptive immune responses failed to be activated owing to immune modulation in the tumour microenvironment. Decades of scientific study links the overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2) antigen with aggressive tumours. The Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) coding for specific tumour-associated antigens could initiate intrinsic T-cell signalling, inducing T-cell activation, and cytotoxic activity without the need for major histocompatibility complex recognition. This renders CAR as a potentially universal immunotherapeutic option. Herein, we aimed to establish CAR in CD3+ T-cells, isolated from human peripheral blood mononucleated cells that could subsequently target and induce apoptosis in the ERBB2 overexpressing human breast cancer cell line, SKBR3. Constructed CAR was inserted into a lentiviral plasmid containing a green fluorescent protein tag and produced as lentiviral particles that were used to transduce activated T-cells. Transduced CAR-T cells were then primed with SKBR3 cells to evaluate their functionality. Results showed increased apoptosis in SKBR3 cells co-cultured with CAR-T cells compared to the control (non-transduced T-cells). This study demonstrates that CAR introduction helps overcome the innate limitations of native T-cells leading to cancer cell apoptosis. We recommend future studies should focus on in vivo cytotoxicity of CAR-T cells against ERBB2 expressing tumours.
  2. Khalid S, Aris MS
    BMJ Case Rep, 2016 Mar 30;2016.
    PMID: 27030452 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2015-213165
    A 25-year-old gravida 2 para 1 with 12-week amenorrhoea presented a second time for recurrent vomiting in pregnancy. She was diagnosed to have a missed miscarriage following absent fetal heart seen in an early scan. She opted for conservative management. However, on the third presentation, her vomiting continued. Repeated transvaginal ultrasound scan showed a fetus with a crown rump length of 19 mm, which is equivalent to 8 weeks and 4 days, with absence of fetal heart pulsation. Thyroid function tests and β human chorionic gonadotropin were then requested. Results showed that the patient's serum β human chorionic gonadotropin level was markedly raised to 147,000. A molar pregnancy was suspected. Her thyroid function tests came back normal. Suction curettage was performed and histopathology confirmed a partial molar pregnancy. On follow-up, the β human chorionic gonadotropin level was normal by 7 weeks after the curettage.
  3. Mohd Khalid SA, Bajuri MY
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):80-83.
    PMID: 32175048
    The injection of a local anesthetic in combination with a corticosteroid is an accepted choice in the treatment of plantar fasciitis with recalcitrant heel pain. When the injection is performed properly, post-injection infection is extremely rare. We are reporting a rare case of chronic calcaneal osteomyelitis that developed secondary to a local corticosteroid injection. A 56-year-old lady diagnosed with right plantar fasciitis presented with a 6-month history of pain and a persistent sinus with serous discharge of her right heel following a local infiltration of a corticosteroid. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging demonstrated right calcaneal osteomyelitis with intramuscular abscess. Surgical drainage and debridement were done, followed by antibiotic therapy. A recurrence of infection was not detected throughout the duration of follow-up. It is suggested that a plantar heel injection be done in a more controlled environment, such as in operating theatre, to reduce the risk of infection and to avoid injecting a steroid as compared to platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in view of their safety profiles. However, such an injection should only be offered after conservative treatment has failed, as 80% of patients recover well after initial conservative management.
  4. Khandaker MU, Shuaibu HK, Alklabi FAA, Alzimami KS, Bradley DA
    Health Phys, 2019 06;116(6):789-798.
    PMID: 30889102 DOI: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001042
    The presence of natural radionuclides in the food chain point to a need to assess concentration levels and concomitant radiological risk. Highly popular and forming a staple part of the diet in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and West Asia, palm dates growing naturally there have even greater marketability than simple satisfaction of domestic demand, the palm dates representing a valuable export item. Accurate knowledge of the levels of natural radioactivity in the fruit is thus of importance. In this study, using high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometry, quantification has been made of natural radionuclide concentrations in imported dates originating from Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia. Sample analyses reveal respective mean activity concentrations of 1.4 ± 0.3, 0.8 ± 0.4, and 186 ± 9 Bq kg dry weight for Ra, Ra, and K. For each nuclide, the mean concentration varies little between the dates of the three represented regions. The estimated committed effective dose resulting from the consumption of date fruits for a typical adult was found to be 29.9 μSv y, well below the global internal dose of 290 μSv y assessed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to be due to food and water intake. Similarly, the excess lifetime cancer risk due to naturally occurring radioactive material exposure via date fruit consumption is seen to be below the International Commission on Radiological Protection cancer risk factor of 2.5 × 10 based on the additional annual dose limit of 1 mSv for a member of the general public. The results show no significant uptake in the analyzed date fruits.
  5. Aldubai SAR, Aljohani AM, Alghamdi AG, Alghamdi KS, Ganasegeran K, Yenbaawi AM
    J Family Med Prim Care, 2019 02;8(2):657-662.
    PMID: 30984690 DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_268_18
    Background and Aim: Burnout is a common problem for interns and residents. It has been associated with physical and mental health of health care providers as well as low job satisfaction and medical errors. Few studies have investigated this problem among residents. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of burnout and its associated factors among family residents in Al Madina city, Saudi Arabia.

    Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 75 residents in the family medicine residency programs in Al Madina, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used that includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics and sources of stress and burnout. T test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, and multiple linear regression analysis were employed.

    Results: Majority were female (54.7%) and aged 26 to 30 years (84.0%). The significant predictors of burnout in the final model were "tests/examinations" (P = 0.014), "large amount of content to be learnt" (P = 0.016), "unfair assessment from superiors" (P = 0.001), "work demands affect personal/home life" (P = 0.001), and "lack of support from superiors" (P = 0.006).

    Conclusion: Burnout is present among family medicine residents at a relatively high percentage. This situation is strongly triggered by work-related stressors, organizational attributes, and system-related attributes, but not socio-demographics of the respondents. Systemic changes to relieve the workload of family medicine residents are recommended to promote effective management of burnout.

  6. Bradley DA, Zubair HT, Oresegun A, Louay GT, Ariffin A, Khandaker MU, et al.
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2018 Nov;141:176-181.
    PMID: 29673719 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.02.025
    In previous work we investigated the real-time radioluminescence (RL) yield of Ge-doped silica fibres and Al2O3 nanodot media, sensing electron- and x-ray energies and intensities at values familiarly obtained in external beam radiotherapy. The observation of an appreciable low-dose sensitivity has given rise to the realisation that there is strong potential for use of RL dosimetry in diagnostic radiology. Herein use has been made of P-doped silica optical fibre, 2 mm diameter, also including a 271 µm cylindrical doped core. With developing needs for versatile x-ray imaging dosimetry, preliminary investigations have been made covering the range of diagnostic x-ray tube potentials 30 kVp to 120 kVp, demonstrating linearity of RL with kVp as well as in terms of the current-time (mAs) product. RL yields also accord with the inverse-square law. Given typical radiographic-examination exposure durations from tens- to a few hundred milliseconds, particular value is found in the ability to record the influence of x-ray generator performance on the growth and decay of beam intensity, from initiation to termination.
  7. Muniandy K, Gothai S, Tan WS, Kumar SS, Mohd Esa N, Chandramohan G, et al.
    PMID: 29670658 DOI: 10.1155/2018/3142073
    Impaired wound healing is one of the serious problems among the diabetic patients. Currently, available treatments are limited due to side effects and cost effectiveness. In line with that, we attempted to use a natural source to study its potential towards the wound healing process. Therefore, Alternanthera sessilis (A. sessilis), an edible and medicinal plant, was chosen as the target sample for the study. During this investigation, the wound closure properties using stem extract of A. sessilis were analyzed. Accordingly, we analyzed the extract on free radical scavenging capacity and the cell migration of two most prominent cell types on the skin, human dermal fibroblast (NHDF), keratinocytes (HaCaT), and diabetic human dermal fibroblast (HDF-D) to mimic the wound healing in diabetic patients. The bioactive compounds were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We discovered that the analysis exhibited a remarkable antioxidant, proliferative, and migratory rate in NHDF, HaCaT, and HDF-D in dose-dependent manner, which supports wound healing process, due to the presence of wound healing associated phytocompounds such as Hexadecanoic acid. This study suggested that the stem extract of A. sessilis might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing, supporting its traditional medicinal uses.
  8. Muglu J, Rather H, Arroyo-Manzano D, Bhattacharya S, Balchin I, Khalil A, et al.
    PLoS Med, 2019 07;16(7):e1002838.
    PMID: 31265456 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002838
    BACKGROUND: Despite advances in healthcare, stillbirth rates remain relatively unchanged. We conducted a systematic review to quantify the risks of stillbirth and neonatal death at term (from 37 weeks gestation) according to gestational age.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched the major electronic databases Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar (January 1990-October 2018) without language restrictions. We included cohort studies on term pregnancies that provided estimates of stillbirths or neonatal deaths by gestation week. We estimated the additional weekly risk of stillbirth in term pregnancies that continued versus delivered at various gestational ages. We compared week-specific neonatal mortality rates by gestational age at delivery. We used mixed-effects logistic regression models with random intercepts, and computed risk ratios (RRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen studies (15 million pregnancies, 17,830 stillbirths) were included. All studies were from high-income countries. Four studies provided the risks of stillbirth in mothers of White and Black race, 2 in mothers of White and Asian race, 5 in mothers of White race only, and 2 in mothers of Black race only. The prospective risk of stillbirth increased with gestational age from 0.11 per 1,000 pregnancies at 37 weeks (95% CI 0.07 to 0.15) to 3.18 per 1,000 at 42 weeks (95% CI 1.84 to 4.35). Neonatal mortality increased when pregnancies continued beyond 41 weeks; the risk increased significantly for deliveries at 42 versus 41 weeks gestation (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.86, p = 0.012). One additional stillbirth occurred for every 1,449 (95% CI 1,237 to 1,747) pregnancies that advanced from 40 to 41 weeks. Limitations include variations in the definition of low-risk pregnancy, the wide time span of the studies, the use of registry-based data, and potential confounders affecting the outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest there is a significant additional risk of stillbirth, with no corresponding reduction in neonatal mortality, when term pregnancies continue to 41 weeks compared to delivery at 40 weeks.


  9. Muniandy K, Gothai S, Tan WS, Kumar SS, Esa NM, Chandramohan G, et al.
    PMID: 32617103 DOI: 10.1155/2020/2705479
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2018/3142073.].
  10. Atif M, Khalid SH, Onn Kit GL, Sulaiman SA, Asif M, Chandersekaran A
    J Young Pharm, 2013 Mar;5(1):26-9.
    PMID: 24023449 DOI: 10.1016/j.jyp.2013.01.005
    A simple, sensitive and selective HPLC method with UV detection for determination of Glipizide in human plasma was developed. Liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the drug from the plasma samples. Chromatographic separation of Glipizide was achieved using C18 column (ZORBAX ODS 4.6 × 150 mm). The mobile phase was comprised of 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate and acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) adjusted to pH 4.25 with glacial acetic acid. The analysis was run at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with an injection volume was 20 μL. The detector was operated at 275 nm. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 50-1600 ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy values were below 15%. The limit of quantification was 50 ng/mL and the mean recovery was above 98%. Freeze-thaw, short-term, long-term and post-preparative stability studies showed that Glipizide in plasma sample was stable. The method may be successfully applied to analyze the Glipizide concentration in plasma samples for bioavailability and bioequivalence studies.
  11. Zubir MN, Badarudin A, Kazi SN, Misran M, Amiri A, Sadri R, et al.
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2015 Sep 15;454:245-55.
    PMID: 26048724 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2015.05.019
    The present work highlighted on the implementation of a unique concept for stabilizing colloids at their incipiently low charge potential. A highly charged nanoparticle was introduced within a coagulated prone colloidal system, serving as stabilizer to resist otherwise rapid flocculation and sedimentation process. A low size asymmetry of nanoparticle/colloid serves as the new topic of investigation in addition to the well-established large size ratio nanoparticle/microparticle study. Highly charged Al2O3 nanoparticles were used within the present research context to stabilize TiO2 and Fe3O4 based colloids via the formation of composite structures. It was believed, based on the experimental evidence, that Al2O3 nanoparticle interact with the weakly charged TiO2 and Fe3O4 colloids within the binary system via absorption and/or haloing modes to increase the overall charge potential of the respective colloids, thus preventing further surface contact via van der Waal's attraction. Series of experimental results strongly suggest the presence of weakly charged colloids in the studied bimodal system where, in the absence of highly charged nanoparticle, experience rapid instability. Absorbance measurement indicated that the colloidal stability drops in accordance to the highly charged nanoparticle sedimentation rate, suggesting the dominant influence of nanoparticles to attain a well-dispersed binary system. Further, it was found that the level of colloidal stability was enhanced with increasing nanoparticle fraction within the mixture. Rheological observation revealed that each hybrid complexes demonstrated behavior reminiscence to water with negligible increase in viscosity which serves as highly favorable condition particularly in thermal transport applications.
  12. Anwar A, Khalid S, Perveen S, Ahmed S, Siddiqui R, Khan NA, et al.
    J Nanobiotechnology, 2018 Jan 29;16(1):6.
    PMID: 29378569 DOI: 10.1186/s12951-017-0332-z
    BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles are useful candidate for drug delivery applications and are associated with enhancement in the bioavailability of coated drugs and/or therapeutic agent. Since, heterocyclic compounds are known to exhibit antimicrobial potential against variety of pathogens, we designed this study to evaluate the antibacterial effects of gold nanoparticles conjugation with new synthesized cationic ligand; 4-Dimethyl aminopyridinium propylthioacetate (DMAP-PTA) in comparison with pure compound and antibiotic drug Pefloxacin. Antibacterial activity of DMAP-PTA coated gold nanoparticles was investigated against a fecal strain of E. coli (ATCC 8739).

    RESULTS: A new dimethyl aminopyridine based stabilizing agent named as DMAP-PTA was synthesized and used for stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles coated with DMAP-PTA abbreviated as DMAP-PTA-AuNPs were thoroughly characterized by UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopic methods and transmission electron microscope before biological assay. DMAP-PTA, DMAP-PTA-AuNPs and Pefloxacin were examined for their antibacterial potential against E. coli, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to be 300, 200 and 50 µg/mL respectively. Gold nanoparticles conjugation was found to significantly enhance the antibacterial activity of DMAP-PTA as compared to pure compound. Moreover, effects of DMAP-PTA-AuNPs on the antibacterial potential of Pefloxacin was also evaluated by combination therapy of 1:1 mixture of DMAP-PTA-AuNPs and Pefloxacin against E. coli in a wide range of concentrations from 5 to 300 µg/mL. The MIC of Pefloxacin + DMAP-PTA-AuNPs mixture was found to be 25 µg/mL as compared to Pefloxacin alone (50 µg/mL), which clearly indicates that DMAP-PTA-AuNPs increased the potency of Pefloxacin. AFM analysis was also carried out to show morphological changes occur in bacteria before and after treatment of test samples. Furthermore, DMAP-PTA-AuNPs showed high selectivity towards Pefloxacin in spectrophotometric drug recognition studies which offers tremendous potential for analytical applications.

    CONCLUSIONS: Gold nanoparticles conjugation was shown to enhance the antibacterial efficacy of DMAP-PTA ligand, while DMAP-PTA-AuNPs also induced synergistic effects on the potency of Pefloxacin against E. coli. DMAP-PTA-AuNPs were also developed as Pefloxacin probes in recognizing the drug in blood and water samples in the presence of other drugs.

  13. Shahzad MI, Ashraf H, Aslam A, Parveen S, Kamran Z, Naz N, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2019 Nov;32(6):2751-2756.
    PMID: 31969311
    Avian influenza or bird flu is a common problem of domestic and wild birds. Some of its strains are able to cross the species barrier and cause infection in various members of class Mammalia. In view of relatively lesser efficacy of vaccines, antiviral therapies remain the only choice for the sustenance of mammals acquiring this highly devastating infection. This study is based on the evaluation of antiviral potential of methanol extracts of eleven selected Cholistani plants. The methanol extracts were prepared by using dried plants material followed by concentrating in a rotary evaporator and finally air dried before dissolving in nanopure water. The suspension was filter sterilized and subjected to in ovo antiviral assays. The allantoic fluids were harvested and haemagglutinin (HA) titers were determined. Among the eleven plants evaluated all methanol extracts were found effective against AIV H9N2 except S. baryosma extract. The medicinal plants O. compressa, N. procumbens, and S. surattense were found to be more effective than others and they retained HA titers at 0 after challenge. The next in order were extracts of O. esculentum, H. salicornicum and S. fruticosa which kept HA titers at 4, 8 and 16 respectively. The extracts of H. recurvum, P. antidotale, S. icolados and A. aspera were found less effective than above mentioned plant extracts and they kept the HA titers at 32, 64, 128 and 256 respectively. These results led us to conclude that the medicinal plants of Cholistan region are a rich source of antiviral agent(s) against AIV H9N2 and could be a source of cost effective alternate therapeutics.
  14. Sulaiman MR, Mohd Padzil A, Shaari K, Khalid S, Shaik Mossadeq WM, Mohamad AS, et al.
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2010;2010:937642.
    PMID: 21274262 DOI: 10.1155/2010/937642
    Melicope ptelefolia is a medicinal herb commonly used in Malaysia to treat fever, pain, wounds, and itches. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract (MPEE) using animal models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the extract was assessed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot-plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. Oral administration of MPEE produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects when tested in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and on the second phase of the formalin-induced paw licking test, respectively. It was also demonstrated that MPEE had no effect on the response latency time to the heat stimulus in the thermal model of the hot-plate test. In addition, the antinociception produced by MPEE was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, oral administration of MPEE did not produce any effect in motor performance of the rota-rod test and in acute toxicity study no abnormal behaviors as well as mortality were observed up to a dose level of the extract of 5 g/kg. These results indicated that MPEE at all doses investigated which did not produce any sedative and toxic effects exerted pronounce antinociceptive activity that acts peripherally in experimental animals.
  15. Khalid S, Shaik Mossadeq WM, Israf DA, Hashim P, Rejab S, Shaberi AM, et al.
    Med Princ Pract, 2010;19(4):255-9.
    PMID: 20516700 DOI: 10.1159/000312710
    To study the effects of Tamarindus indica L. aqueous fruit extract on the antinociceptive activities in rodent models.
  16. Perimal EK, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Khalid MH, Ming OH, Khalid S, et al.
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 2011 Mar;108(3):155-62.
    PMID: 20955360 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00635.x
    This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of zerumbone in chemical behavioural models of nociception in mice. Zerumbone given through intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced dose-related antinociception when assessed on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test in mice. In addition, the i.p. administration of zerumbone exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic pain induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of capsaicin and bradykinin. Likewise, zerumbone given by i.p. route reduced the nociception produced by i.pl. injection of glutamate and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The antinociception caused by zerumbone in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. pre-treatment of mice with l-arginine (nitric oxide precursor) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor). However, the antinociception of zerumbone was enhanced by methylene blue (non-specific gyanylyl cyclase inhibitor). Together, these results indicate that zerumbone produces pronounced antinociception against chemical models of nociception in mice. It also strongly suggests that the l-arginine-nitric oxide-cGMP-PKC-K(+) ATP channel pathways, the TRPV1 and kinin B2 receptors play an important role in the zerumbone-induced antinociception.
  17. Ong HM, Mohamad AS, Makhtar N', Khalid MH, Khalid S, Perimal EK, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Jan 7;133(1):227-33.
    PMID: 20920570 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.09.030
    Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. is a medicinal herbaceous plant that is commonly used by the Malay community in Malaysia to relieve pain often associated with mouth ulcers, toothache, sore throat, and stomach ache.
  18. Mohamad AS, Akhtar MN, Zakaria ZA, Perimal EK, Khalid S, Mohd PA, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2010 Nov 25;647(1-3):103-9.
    PMID: 20826146 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.08.030
    The present study examined the potential antinociceptive activity of flavokawin B (6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone), a synthetic chalcone using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models in mice. It was demonstrated that flavokawin B (FKB; 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) administered via both oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition in the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid, with the i.p. route producing antinociception of approximately 7-fold more potent than the p.o. route. It was also demonstrated that FKB produced significant inhibition in the two phases of the formalin-induced paw licking test. In addition, the same treatment of flavokawin B (FKB) exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociceptive induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin. Likewise, this compound also induced a significant increase in the response latency period to thermal stimuli in the hot plate test and its antinociceptive effect was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative action. Moreover, the antinociception effect of the FKB in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot plate test was not affected by pretreatment of non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. The present results indicate that FKB produced pronounced antinociception effect against both chemical and thermal models of pain in mice that exhibited both peripheral and central analgesic activity.
  19. Sadiq MB, Syed-Hussain SS, Ramanoon SZ, Saharee AA, Ahmad NI, Mohd Zin N, et al.
    Prev Vet Med, 2018 Aug 01;156:76-83.
    PMID: 29891148 DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.04.013
    The increasing public health problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been linked to the extensive antimicrobial use (AMU) in food animals. We conducted a survey among ruminant farmers in Selangor, Malaysia to assess their level of awareness on AMR, attitudes towards AMU, and determinants that influence their practices. The survey was developed in English and Malay, validated, and administered to ruminant farmers in Selangor. A total of 84 farmers (response rate of 55%) completed the structured questionnaire. They appeared to be little aware of AMR and the impact on animals and public health. Indications of inappropriate AMU include their misconception on conditions requiring antibiotic therapy and easy accessibility to antibiotics. More than 70% (60/84) of the respondents believed that all sick animals need to be given antimicrobials. Half of the farmers especially those involved in the production of small and large ruminants; namely mixed ruminant farmers (MRF) (63%, 31/49) indicated that antimicrobials do not have any side effects in animals. Sixty-four percent (54/84) of the farmers have stored antimicrobials in their farms of which the practice was more common (P = 0.02) among the MRF compared to the single ruminant farmers (SRF). Although most of the farmers felt good farm biosecurity will help reduce AMU, they were indifferent regarding using antimicrobials only when prescribed by a veterinarian and non-storage of antimicrobials for later uses. Farmers with larger herd size (>100 animals/herd) and few years of farming experience agreed more to the suggestions about their role and that of veterinarians respectively in reducing the drivers of AMR. These areas might need to be considered by advisors to inform ruminant farmers on AMR and to encourage them for prudent AMU in food-producing animals.
Related Terms
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links