Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Sia KJ, Ashok GD, Ahmad FM, Kong CK
    Hong Kong Med J, 2013 Dec;19(6):542-4.
    PMID: 24310662 DOI: 10.12809/hkmj133668
    We describe a rare case of aorto-oesophageal fistula and aortic pseudoaneurysm in a middle-aged man, who presented with chest pain and haematemesis 1 week after swallowing a fish bone. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomographic angiography findings were consistent with oesophageal perforation, proximal descending aortic pseudoaneurysm, and aorto-oesophageal fistula. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair was performed. The patient died from severe mediastinal sepsis. Early surgical intervention and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy are crucial in preventing life-threatening mediastinal infection.
  2. Sia KJ, Tang IP, Kong CK, Nasriah A
    J Laryngol Otol, 2012 May;126(5):529-31.
    PMID: 22361094 DOI: 10.1017/S0022215112000175
    To discuss the pathophysiology of atlanto-axial subluxation as a rare complication of tonsillectomy, and to discuss the important radiological findings for diagnosis and treatment planning.
  3. Sia KJ, Tang IP, Kong CK, Tan TY
    J Laryngol Otol, 2012 Aug;126(8):847-50.
    PMID: 22804860 DOI: 10.1017/S0022215112001272
    To describe three rare cases of nasolacrimal relapse of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and to discuss the route of tumour spread from nasopharynx to lacrimal system as well as the relevant computed tomography findings.
  4. Sia KJ, Kong CK, Tan TY, Tang IP
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):281-3.
    PMID: 25934961
    CASE REPORT: Five cases of Kimura's disease had been treated in our centre from year 2003 to 2010. All cases were presented with head and neck mass with cervical lymphadenopathy. Surgical excision was performed for all cases. Definite diagnosis was made by histopathological examination of the resected specimens. One out of five cases developed tumour recurrence four years after resection.

    CONCLUSION: Surgical excision is our choice of treatment because the outcome is immediate and definite tissue diagnosis is feasible after resection. Oral corticosteroid could be considered as an option in advanced disease. However, tumour recurrence is common after cessation of steroid therapy.
  5. Kong CK, Roslani AC, Law CW, Law SC, Arumugam K
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2010;11(4):969-74.
    PMID: 21133609
    OBJECTIVE: Research over the past several decades has indicated that low socioeconomic class has a direct effect on health outcomes. In Malaysia, class distribution may differ with the region. The objective of this study was to compare the presentation and survival of colorectal cancer patients in two dissimilar cities, Kuala Lumpur and Kuching, Sarawak.

    METHODS: All patients diagnosed with a malignancy of the colon or rectum in Sarawak General Hospital and University of Malaya Medical Center from 1st Jan 2000-31st Dec 2006 were recruited. Data on presentation, socio-economic class and survival were obtained. The survival duration was categorized into more than three years or three years and less. Testing for significance was performed using the chi-square test, with p values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: A total of 565 patients in UMMC and 642 patients in SGH had a new diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma. Patients in Kuching had a longer duration of symptoms and more advanced stage at presentation, but this was not statistically significant. Lower socio-economic class was a significant factor for late and more advanced stage at diagnosis, as well as poorer three and five year survival rates. However, survival was lower for patients in Kuching compared to Kuala Lumpur, even after matching for socio-economic class.

    CONCLUSION: There is near-zero awareness of colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia. These findings support reaching out to communities of lower socioeconomic backgrounds to improve the colorectal cancer survival rates.
  6. Phyu WK, Ong KC, Kong CK, Alizan AK, Ramanujam TM, Wong KT
    Sci Rep, 2017 03 21;7:45069.
    PMID: 28322333 DOI: 10.1038/srep45069
    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a self-limiting paediatric infectious disease commonly caused by Enterovirus A71 (Genus: Enterovirus, Family: Picornaviridae). Typical lesions in and around the hands, feet, oral cavity and other places may rarely be complicated by acute flaccid paralysis and acute encephalomyelitis. Although virus is readily cultured from skin vesicles and oral secretions, the cellular target/s of Enterovirus A71 in human skin and oral mucosa are unknown. In Enterovirus A71-infected human skin and oral mucosa organotypic cultures derived from the prepuce and lip biopsies, focal viral antigens and viral RNA were localized to cytoplasm of epidermal and mucosal squamous cells as early as 2 days post-infection. Viral antigens/RNA were associated with cytoplasmic vacuolation and cellular necrosis. Infected primary prepuce epidermal keratinocyte cultures showed cytopathic effects with concomitant detection of viral antigens from 2 days post-infection. Supernatant and/or tissue homogenates from prepuce skin organotypic cultures and primary prepuce keratinocyte cultures showed viral titres consistent with active viral replication. Our data strongly support Enterovirus A71 squamous epitheliotropism in the human epidermis and oral mucosa, and suggest that these organs are important primary and/or secondary viral replication sites that contribute significantly to oral and cutaneous viral shedding resulting in person-to-person transmission, and viraemia, which could lead to neuroinvasion.
  7. Kuppusamy G, Kong CK, Segaran GC, Tarmalingam E, Herriman M, Ismail MF, et al.
    Biology (Basel), 2020 Sep 05;9(9).
    PMID: 32899563 DOI: 10.3390/biology9090274
    Black soldier fly (BSF) larva is an attractive animal feed replacer due to its noticeable nutritional content. However, the conventional rearing method often resulted in BSF with undesirably high heavy metal residues that are harmful to animals. In this work, putrefied Sesbania grandiflora (S. Grandiflora) leaves were employed as feed to rear BSF larvae. The resultant BSF prepupae were found to contain 43.5% protein and 16.7% fat, reflecting a comparable protein content and a 2-fold reduction in crude fat than those reared using conventional kitchen waste. Moreover, high quantities of arginine (25.4 g/kg dry matter basis (DM)), carnitine (32.9 g/kg DM), and short-chain fatty acids, including lauric (40.00%), palmitic (19.20%), and oleic (12.10%) acids, have also been noticed in the BSF prepupae. Furthermore, the BSF larvae have been recorded with 0.185 mg/kg chromium, 0.380 mg/kg selenium, and mercury below the detection limit, which is far lower than those reared using conventional kitchen and agricultural wastes (≈1.7 mg/kg chromium, 1.2 mg/kg selenium, and 0.2 mg/kg mercury). Overall, the study shows that the nutritional quality of BSF prepupae is extensively improved when using S. Grandiflora as their feed. The resultant BSF prepupae may serve as an alternative feed for animal rearing.
  8. Kong CK, Low LE, Siew WS, Yap WH, Khaw KY, Ming LC, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2020;11:552453.
    PMID: 33679383 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020.552453
    Snowdrop is an iconic early spring flowering plant of the genus Galanthus (Amaryllidaceae). Galanthus species (Galanthus spp.) are economically important plants as ornaments. Galanthus spp has gained significance scientific and commercial interest due to the discovery of Galanthamine as symptomatic treatment drug for Alzhiermer disease. This review aims to discuss the bioactivities of Galanthus spp including anticholinesterase, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer potential of the extracts and chemical constituents of Galanthus spp. This review highlights that Galanthus spp. as the exciting sources for drug discovery and nutraceutical development.
  9. Yap WH, Cheah TY, Yong LC, Chowdhury SR, Ng MH, Kwan Z, et al.
    J Biosci, 2021;46.
    PMID: 34475316
    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by thickening and disorganization of the skin's protective barrier. Although current models replicate some aspects of the disease, development of therapeutic strategies have been hindered by absence of more relevant models. This study aimed to develop and characterize an in vitro psoriatic human skin equivalent (HSE) using human keratinocytes HaCat cell line grown on fibroblasts-derived matrices (FDM). The constructed HSEs were treated with cytokines (IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL22) to allow controlled induction of psoriasis-associated features. Histological stainings showed that FDMHSE composed of a fully differentiated epidermis and fibroblast-populated dermis comparable to native skin and rat tail collagen-HSE. Hyperproliferation (CK16 and Ki67) and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) expression were significantly enhanced in the cytokine-induced FDM- and rat tail collagen HSEs compared to non-treated HSE counterparts. The characteristics were in line with those observed in psoriasis punch biopsies. Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has shown to suppress these effects, where HSE models treated with both ATRA and cytokines exhibit histological characteristics, hyperproliferation and differentiation markers expression like non-treated control HSEs. Cytokine-induced FDM-HSE, constructed entirely from human cell lines, provides an excellent opportunity for psoriasis research and testing new therapeutics.
  10. Siew WS, Tang YQ, Kong CK, Goh BH, Zacchigna S, Dua K, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Aug 05;22(16).
    PMID: 34445123 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22168422
    Atherosclerosis represents one of the major causes of death globally. The high mortality rates and limitations of current therapeutic modalities have urged researchers to explore potential alternative therapies. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is commonly deployed for investigating the genetic aspects of Atherosclerosis. Besides, advances in CRISPR/Cas system has led to extensive options for researchers to study the pathogenesis of this disease. The recent discovery of Cas9 variants, such as dCas9, Cas9n, and xCas9 have been established for various applications, including single base editing, regulation of gene expression, live-cell imaging, epigenetic modification, and genome landscaping. Meanwhile, other Cas proteins, such as Cas12 and Cas13, are gaining popularity for their applications in nucleic acid detection and single-base DNA/RNA modifications. To date, many studies have utilized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate disease models of atherosclerosis and identify potential molecular targets that are associated with atherosclerosis. These studies provided proof-of-concept evidence which have established the feasibility of implementing the CRISPR/Cas system in correcting disease-causing alleles. The CRISPR/Cas system holds great potential to be developed as a targeted treatment for patients who are suffering from atherosclerosis. This review highlights the advances in CRISPR/Cas systems and their applications in establishing pathogenetic and therapeutic role of specific genes in atherosclerosis.
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