METHODS: Delivery records in Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Terengganu from 1st. January 2016 until 31st. December 2016 were reviewed and analysed.
RESULTS: Out of the 15,837 deliveries, eight cases of MAP were identified. Six out of eight patients had previous caesarean scar with concomitant placenta praevia, the other two patients had previous caesarean scar with history of placenta praevia in previous pregnancies. Seven out of eight cases were suspected to have MAP based on risk factors. Correct diagnosis was made by ultrasound in five patients, all with histologically confirmed moderate/severe degree of abnormal placentation. The other two cases of 'unlikely MAP', demonstrated segmental MAP intra-operatively with histologically confirmed milder degree of abnormal placentation. Total intraoperative blood loss ranged from 0.8 to 20 litres. Prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon occlusion was associated with significantly less blood loss.
CONCLUSION: Antenatal diagnosis is essential in outlining the best management strategy in patients with MAP. Ultrasound may not be accurate in ruling out lower degree of MAP. Apart from having a scarred uterus with concomitant placenta praevia, history of having placenta praevia in previous pregnancy is also a risk factor for MAP. Prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon occlusion is associated with significantly less blood loss and should be considered in cases suspected with MAP.
METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched systematically from inception until January 2020. Our primary outcomes included laryngeal exposure as measured by Cormack-Lehane Grade 1 or 2 (CLG 1/2), CLG 3 or 4 (CLG 3/4), and first attempt success at intubation. Secondary outcomes were intubation time, use of airway adjuncts, ancillary maneuvers and complications during ETI.
RESULTS: Seven studies met our inclusion criteria, of which 4 were RCTs and 3 were cohort studies. The meta-analysis was conducted by pooling the effect estimates for all 4 included RCTs (n=632). There were no differences found between ramping and sniffing positions for odds of CLG 1/2, CLG 3/4, first attempt success at intubation, intubation time, use of ancillary airway maneuvers and use of airway adjuncts, with evidence of high heterogeneity across studies. However, the ramping position in surgical patients is associated with increased likelihood of CLG 1/2 (OR=2.05, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.32, p=0.004) and lower likelihood of CLG 3/4 (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.79, p=0.004), moderate quality of evidence.
CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the ramping position may benefit surgical patients undergoing ETI by improving laryngeal exposure. Large-scale well-designed multicentre RCTs should be carried out to further elucidate the benefits of the ramping position in the surgical and intensive care unit patients.
METHODS: A randomized, single blinded, prospective, multicenter trial at 9 high-volume tertiary-care referral centers in the Asia-Pacific region was performed. Patients with an intact papilla and conventional anatomy who did not have malignancy in the head of the pancreas or ampulla and were undergoing ERCP were recruited. ERCP was performed by using a standardized cannulation algorithm, and patients were randomized to either a 0.025-inch or 0.035-inch guidewire. The primary outcomes of the study were successful wire-guided cannulation and the incidence of PEP. Overall successful cannulation and ERCP adverse events also were studied.
RESULTS: A total of 710 patients were enrolled in the study. The primary wire-guided biliary cannulation rate was similar in 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch wire groups (80.7% vs 80.3%; P = .90). The rate of PEP between the 0.025-inch and the 0.035-inch wire groups did not differ significantly (7.8% vs 9.3%; P = .51). No differences were noted in secondary outcomes.
CONCLUSION: Similar rates of successful cannulation and PEP were demonstrated in the use of 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch guidewires. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01408264.).