Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Lee HS
    Ther Drug Monit, 1984;6(2):182-8.
    PMID: 6740737
    In a study with 113 Asian children in which phenobarbitone was used as the sole antiepileptic drug in 75 children, including Chinese, Malays, and Indians, the mean phenobarbitone dosage required to produce a plasma level of 15 micrograms/ml was 5.2 mg/kg/day. While the mean plasma level/dose ratio varied, the differences between the three ethnic groups were not statistically significant. Also of little difference were the ratios between the male and female groups. For those patients with poor seizure control, however, the mean plasma level/dose ratio was significantly lower than in those whose seizures were controlled. Using additional anticonvulsant drugs concurrently with phenobarbitone in 40 children raised the mean plasma level/dose ratios significantly in each ethnic group. Further, the greater age level in those given additional antiepileptic drugs might have contributed slightly to a higher mean plasma level/dose ratio.
  2. Tan CC, Lee HS, Balan S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Dec;59(5):591-7.
    PMID: 15889560
    All percutaneous tracheostomies performed in the general intensive care unit (ICU), Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, from July 1999 to June 2002 were studied. The tracheostomies were performed as an elective bedside technique in the ICU. A total of 352 percutaneous tracheostomies were performed. Eighty-eight percent of the tracheostomies were completed within 15 minutes. The most common complication was bleeding which occurred in 52 patients (14.7%). The rest of the complications encountered were:- transient hypoxia twelve (3.4%), inability/ difficulty to insert tracheostomy tube eight (2.3%), false passage four (1.1%), transient hypotension two (0.6%), pneumothorax two (0.6%), peristomal infection two (0.6%), subcutaneous emphysema one (0.3%), cuff rupture one (0.3%), oesophageal cannulation one (0.3%), and granuloma formation one (0.3%). Conversion to conventional tracheostomies were performed on 7 patients (2%). There was one unfortunate death related to percutaneous tracheostomy. In conclusion, percutaneous dilational tracheostomy can be used safely to manage the airway of critically ill patients.
  3. Lee HS, Singh JK, Ismail MA
    Sci Rep, 2017 02 03;7:41935.
    PMID: 28157233 DOI: 10.1038/srep41935
    A new technique was accepted to fill the porosity of Al coating applied by arc thermal spray process to enhance corrosion resistance performance in artificial ocean water. The porosity is the inherent property of arc thermal spray coating process. In this study, applied coating was treated with different concentrations of ammonium phosphate mono basic (NH4H2PO4: AP) solution thereafter dried at room temperature and kept in humidity chamber for 7d to deposit uniform film. The corrosion resistance of Al coating and treated samples have been evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic techniques with exposure periods in artificial ocean water. Electrochemical techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) indicated that phosphate ion would have been retarding corrosion of Al coating effectively. The formation of AHP (Ammonium Aluminum Hydrogen Phosphate Hydrate: NH4)3Al5H6(PO4)8.18H2O) on Al coating surface after treatment with AP is nano sized, crystalline and uniformly deposited but after exposure them in artificial ocean water, they form AHPH (Aluminum hydroxide phosphate hydrate Al3(PO4)2(OH)3(H2O)5) that is very protective, adherent, uniform and plate like morphology of corrosion products. The AHPH is sparingly soluble and adherent to surface and imparted improved corrosion resistance.
  4. Rozita Z, Lim MT, Lee HS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 04;74(2):145-150.
    PMID: 31079126
    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. It is a major factor for many other metabolic disorders. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of increase body mass index (BMI) and obesity and their associated demographic characteristics among adults in an urban area.

    METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted where data was extracted from the Health Status Screening Form (BSSK) at health clinics in Johor Bahru. Using the World Health Organization (WHO), criteria for obesity, BMI≥30.0 kg/m2 was specified as obese and combination of both BMI ranges for overweight (25.0-30.0kg/m2) and obesity (≥30.0kg/m2) as elevated BMI.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of elevated BMI and obesity was 54.6% and 20.1% respectively. Men had a higher prevalence of elevated BMI (57.4%) with odds of 1.28 higher (95%CI: 1.04-1.58). High prevalence of elevated BMI and obesity were seen among the Indians (elevated BMI - 60.2%, obesity - 19.4%) followed by Malays (elevated BMI -57.8%, obesity - 23.1%) and Chinese showed the lowest (elevated BMI - 39.0%, obesity - 8.8%). The odds of elevated BMI and obesity were lower among younger adults as compared to older adults (≥30 years old).

    CONCLUSION: Using WHO criteria, about one in two adults had elevated BMI while one in five were obese. Elevated BMI and obesity disparities were evident in age and ethnicity, but sex differences were encountered in elevated BMI group.

  5. Phoon WH, Lee HS, Ho SF, Ngui SJ
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1985 Sep;40(3):220-4.
    PMID: 2948100
    Cement is a common cause of dermatitis. Workers affected are usually those in cement factories and at building construction sites. Cement dermatitis among port-workers is not so commonly reported. This paper describes an outbreak of dermatitis among stevodores at a port handling cement. The cement was imported in bags, and because of breakage, there was much spillage. It was also hot and dusty inside the hatch of the ship, and some of the stevodores worked bare-bodied. Cases of dermatitis began to appear in January 1983 and reached a peak in April 1983, gradually subsiding over the next few months to August 1983. This coincided with the increased tonnage of cement handled at the port. A total of 33 stevodores were reported as having dermatitis over this period. Of the 15 cases examined, 13 had eczema, and in 19 the hands and wrists were affected. However, most of the cases had multiple site involvement, including the arms, legs and abdomen.
    Samples of cement showed the presence of water-soluble chromium, varying from 9.9 to 17.8pg/g. As the stevodores were reluctant to go for skin patch-testing, only four were tested, but two did not return for the reading of the results. The other two were found to have a positive reaction to dichromates. The outbreak of dermatitis was probably due to several factors which are discussed.
  6. Lee HS, Park JH, Singh JK, Ismail MA
    Materials (Basel), 2016 Sep 03;9(9).
    PMID: 28773875 DOI: 10.3390/ma9090753
    Waste water treatment reservoirs are contaminated with many hazardous chemicals and acids. Reservoirs typically comprise concrete and reinforcement steel bars, and the main elements responsible for their deterioration are hazardous chemicals, acids, and ozone. Currently, a variety of techniques are being used to protect reservoirs from exposure to these elements. The most widely used techniques are stainless steel plating and polymeric coating. In this study, a technique known as arc thermal spraying was used. It is a more convenient and economical method for protecting both concrete and reinforcement steel bar from deterioration in waste water treatment reservoirs. In this study, 316L stainless steel coating was applied to a concrete surface, and different electrochemical experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of coatings in different acidic pH solutions. The coating generated from the arc thermal spraying process significantly protected the concrete surface from corrosion in acidic pH solutions, owing to the formation of a double layer capacitance-a mixture of Cr3+ enriched with Cr₂O₃ and Cr-hydroxide in inner and Fe3+ oxide on the outer layer of the coating. The formation of this passive film is defective owing to the non-homogeneous 316L stainless steel coating surface. In the pH 5 solution, the growth of a passive film is adequate due to the presence of un-dissociated water molecules in the aqueous sulfuric acid solution. The coated surface is sealed with alkyl epoxide, which acts as a barrier against the penetration of acidic solutions. This coating exhibits higher impedance values among the three studied acidic pH solutions.
  7. Tan CH, Low BL, Ng LL, Khoo YM, Lee HS
    Ther Drug Monit, 1993 Apr;15(2):108-12.
    PMID: 8099240
    Nineteen acutely disturbed psychotic Asian patients were treated with a single intramuscular injection of 50 mg of zuclopenthixol acetate in Viscoleo. Patients were assessed clinically before and after treatment using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Serum zuclopenthixol and the inactive geometric isomer trans(E)-clopenthixol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after intramuscular injection. All patients improved, with the BPRS being significantly reduced (p < 0.001) at 72 h after injection. Adverse effects were generally few. The mean +/- SEM serum zuclopenthixol concentrations at 24, 48, and 72 h were 19.9 +/- 2.8, 31.5 +/- 4.5, and 17.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms/L, respectively. trans(E)-Clopenthixol concentrations ranged from negligible to 39.5 micrograms/L. This study confirms that a single intramuscular injection of 50 mg is adequate for managing severely disturbed psychotic patients for the first 3 days. The serum zuclopenthixol concentrations attained in the Asian patients were higher than those reported in Caucasian psychiatric patients. In some patients, a considerable amount of zuclopenthixol had been transformed to trans(E)-clopenthixol.
  8. Lee HS, Khoo YM, Chua BC, Ng AS, Tan SS, Chew SL
    Ther Drug Monit, 1995 Aug;17(4):336-41.
    PMID: 7482686
    The pharmacokinetics of propofol was studied in 11 Asian patients with fentanyl-isoflurane anaesthesia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Instead of the usual increments of morphine and a benzodiazepine, propofol (4 mg/kg/h) was initiated at the start of CPB and ceased at CPB separation. Whole blood propofol concentrations were determined during and postinfusion using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Data from four patients seemed to fit a two-compartment model, whereas those from seven patients were significantly (F test, p < 0.05) better fitted to a three-compartment model. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: The mean (SD) of the initial distribution phase t1/2 pi, intermediate distribution phase t1/2 alpha, and elimination phase t1/2 beta were 2.22 (1.04) min, 42.9 (16.4) min, and 370 (138) min, respectively. The mean clearance of 1.31 (0.50) L/min was lower than those reported from other studies, whereas the mean blood concentration of 2.2 (1.0) mg/L at the 1-h infusion period was higher. The mean calculated apparent Css was 3.9 (1.5) mg/L. The low clearance is likely to be due to hemodynamic changes during CPB and CABG, thereby affecting drug distribution and blood flow to the liver.
  9. An J, Nam J, Kim B, Lee HS, Kim BH, Chang IS
    Bioresour. Technol., 2015 Aug;190:175-81.
    PMID: 25941759 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.04.071
    The effect of two different anode-embedding orientations, lengthwise- and widthwise-embedded anodes was explored, on the performance of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) using a chessboard anode. The maximum current densities and power densities in SMFCs having lengthwise-embedded anodes (SLA1-SLA10) varied from 38.2mA/m(2) to 121mA/m(2) and from 5.5mW/m(2) to 20mW/m(2). In comparison, the maximum current densities and maximum power densities in SMFCs having anodes widthwise-embedded between 0cm to 8cm (SWA2-SWA5) increased from 82mA/m(2) to 140mA/m(2) and from 14.7mW/m(2) to 31.1mW/m(2) as the anode depth became deeper. Although there was a difference in the performance among SWA5-SWA10, it was considered negligible. Hence, it is concluded that it is important to embed anodes widthwise at the specific anode depths, in order to improve of SMFC performance. Chessboard anode used in this work could be a good option for the determination of optimal anode depths.
  10. Ishak S, Lee HS, Singh JK, Ariffin MAM, Lim NHAS, Yang HM
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Oct 17;12(20).
    PMID: 31627479 DOI: 10.3390/ma12203404
    This paper presents the experimental results on the behavior of fly ash geopolymer concrete incorporating bamboo ash on the desired temperature (200 °C to 800 °C). Different amounts of bamboo ash were investigated and fly ash geopolymer concrete was considered as the control sample. The geopolymer was synthesized with sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions. Ultrasonic pulse velocity, weight loss, and residual compressive strength were determined, and all samples were tested with two different cooling approaches i.e., an air-cooling (AC) and water-cooling (WC) regime. Results from these tests show that with the addition of 5% bamboo ash in fly ash, geopolymer exhibited a 5 MPa (53%) and 5.65 MPa (66%) improvement in residual strength, as well as 940 m/s (76%) and 727 m/s (53%) greater ultrasonic pulse velocity in AC and WC, respectively, at 800 °C when compared with control samples. Thus, bamboo ash can be one of the alternatives to geopolymer concrete when it faces exposure to high temperatures.
  11. Lee HS, Choe HB, Baek IY, Singh JK, Ismail MA
    Materials (Basel), 2017 Oct 04;10(10).
    PMID: 28976931 DOI: 10.3390/ma10101155
    An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) explodes in real-time and causes critical damage within a short period to not only electric devices, but also to national infrastructures. In terms of EMP shielding rooms, metal plate has been used due to its excellent shielding effectiveness (SE). However, it has difficulties in manufacturing, as the fabrication of welded parts of metal plates and the cost of construction are non-economical. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of the arc thermal metal spraying (ATMS) method as a new EMP shielding method to replace metal plate. The experimental parameters, metal types (Cu, Zn-Al), and coating thickness (100-700 μm) used for the ATMS method were considered. As an experiment, a SE test against an EMP in the range of 103 to 1010 Hz was conducted. Results showed that the ATMS coating with Zn-Al had similar shielding performance in comparison with metal plate. In conclusion, the ATMS method is judged to have a high possibility of actual application as a new EMP shielding material.
  12. Wijesinghe WA, Kim EA, Kang MC, Lee WW, Lee HS, Vairappan CS, et al.
    Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2014 Jan;37(1):110-7.
    PMID: 24317194 DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2013.11.006
    5β-Hydroxypalisadin B, a halogenated secondary metabolite isolated from red seaweed Laurencia snackeyi was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced zebrafish embryo. Preliminary studies suggested the effective concentrations of the compound as 0.25, 0.5, 1 μg/mL for further in vivo experiments. 5β-Hydroxypalisadin B, exhibited profound protective effect in the zebrafish embryo as confirmed by survival rate, heart beat rate, and yolk sac edema size. The compound acts as an effective agent against reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation induced by LPS and tail cut. Moreover, 5β-hydroxypalisadin B effectively inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in zebrafish embryo. All the tested protective effects of 5β-hydroxypalisadin B were comparable to the well-known anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone. According to the results obtained, 5β-hydroxypalisadin B isolated from red seaweed L. snackeyi could be considered as an effective anti-inflammatory agent which might be further developed as a functional ingredient.
  13. Condit R, Ashton PS, Baker P, Bunyavejchewin S, Gunatilleke S, Gunatilleke N, et al.
    Science, 2000 May 26;288(5470):1414-8.
    PMID: 10827950
    Fully mapped tree census plots of large area, 25 to 52 hectares, have now been completed at six different sites in tropical forests, including dry deciduous to wet evergreen forest on two continents. One of the main goals of these plots has been to evaluate spatial patterns in tropical tree populations. Here the degree of aggregation in the distribution of 1768 tree species is examined based on the average density of conspecific trees in circular neighborhoods around each tree. When all individuals larger than 1 centimeter in stem diameter were included, nearly every species was more aggregated than a random distribution. Considering only larger trees (>/= 10 centimeters in diameter), the pattern persisted, with most species being more aggregated than random. Rare species were more aggregated than common species. All six forests were very similar in all the particulars of these results.
  14. Shariff ZM, Lin KG, Sariman S, Siew CY, Yusof BN, Mun CY, et al.
    Ecol Food Nutr, 2016 Jul-Aug;55(4):378-89.
    PMID: 27231732 DOI: 10.1080/03670244.2016.1181065
    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.
  15. Chen YB, Lan YW, Chen LG, Huang TT, Choo KB, Cheng WT, et al.
    Cell Stress Chaperones, 2015 Nov;20(6):979-89.
    PMID: 26243699 DOI: 10.1007/s12192-015-0627-7
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a sustained blockage of the airways due to lung inflammation occurring with chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. Progression of emphysema may be slowed by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), which reduces apoptotic tissue depletion. Previously, authors of the present report demonstrated that cis-resveratrol (c-RSV)-induced heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) promoter-regulated VEGFA expression promoted neovascularization of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (HSP-VEGFA-MSC) in a mouse model of ischemic disease. Here, this same stem cell line was evaluated for its protective capacity to alleviate elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice. Results of this study showed that c-RSV-treatment of HSP-VEGFA-MSC exhibited synergy between HSP70 transcription activity and induced expression of anti-oxidant-related genes when challenged by cigarette smoke extracts. Eight weeks after jugular vein injection of HSP-VEGFA-MSC into mice with elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema followed by c-RSV treatment to induce transgene expression, significant improvement was observed in respiratory functions. Expression of VEGFA, endogenous nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf 2), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was significantly increased in the lung tissues of the c-RSV-treated mice. Histopathologic examination of treated mice revealed gradual but significant abatement of emphysema and restoration of airspace volume. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrates that c-RSV-regulated VEGFA expression in HSP-VEGFA-MSC significantly improved the therapeutic effects on the treatment of COPD in the mouse, possibly avoiding side effects associated with constitutive VEGFA expression.
  16. Mohd Shariff Z, Lin KG, Sariman S, Lee HS, Siew CY, Mohd Yusof BN, et al.
    Nutr Res Pract, 2015 Jun;9(3):278-87.
    PMID: 26060540 DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2015.9.3.278
    Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status.
  17. Tang WL, Lee HS, Vimonsatit V, Htut T, Singh JK, Wan Hassan WNF, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Jan 03;12(1).
    PMID: 30609786 DOI: 10.3390/ma12010130
    The carbonation rate of reinforced concrete is influenced by three parameters, namely temperature, relative humidity, and concentration of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in the surroundings. As knowledge of the service lifespan of reinforced concrete is crucial in terms of corrosion, the carbonation process is important to study, and high-performance durable reinforced concretes can be produced to prolong the effects of corrosion. To examine carbonation resistance, accelerated carbonation testing was conducted in accordance with the standards of BS 1881-210:2013. In this study, 10⁻30% of micro palm oil fuel ash (mPOFA) and 0.5⁻1.5% of nano-POFA (nPOFA) were incorporated into concrete mixtures to determine the optimum amount for achieving the highest carbonation resistance after 28 days water curing and accelerated CO₂ conditions up to 70 days of exposure. The effect of carbonation on concrete specimens with the inclusion of mPOFA and nPOFA was investigated. The carbonation depth was identified by phenolphthalein solution. The highest carbonation resistance of concrete was found after the inclusion of 10% mPOFA and 0.5% nPOFA, while the lowest carbonation resistance was found after the inclusion of 30% mPOFA and 1.5% nPOFA.
  18. Choi KS, Kye SJ, Kim JY, To TL, Nguyen DT, Lee YJ, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2014 Jan;46(1):271-7.
    PMID: 24061688 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-013-0475-3
    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry in Southeast Asia. In the present study, 12 field isolates of NDV were recovered from dead village chickens in Vietnam between 2007 and 2012, and were characterized. All the field isolates were classified as velogenic. Based on the sequence analysis of the F variable region, two distinct genetic groups (Vietnam genetic groups G1 and G2) were recognized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the 12 field isolates fell into the class II genotype VII cluster. Ten of the field isolates, classified as Vietnam genetic group G1, were closely related to VIIh viruses that had been isolated from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Cambodia since the mid-2000s, while the other two field isolates, of Vietnam genetic group G2, clustered with VIId viruses, which were predominantly circulating in China and Far East Asia. Our results indicate that genotype VII viruses, especially VIIh viruses, are predominantly responsible for the recent epizootic of the disease in Vietnam.
  19. Choi KS, Kye SJ, Kim JY, Damasco VR, Sorn S, Lee YJ, et al.
    Virus Genes, 2013 Oct;47(2):244-9.
    PMID: 23764918 DOI: 10.1007/s11262-013-0930-2
    Three isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were isolated from tracheal samples of dead village chickens in two provinces (Phnom Penh and Kampong Cham) in Cambodia during 2011-2012. All of these Cambodian NDV isolates were categorized as velogenic pathotype, based on in vivo pathogenicity tests and F cleavage site motif sequence ((112)RRRKRF(117)). The phylogenetic analysis and the evolutionary distances based on the sequences of the F gene revealed that all the three field isolates of NDV from Cambodia form a distinct cluster (VIIh) together with three Indonesian strains and were assigned to the genotype VII within the class II. Further phylogenetic analysis based on the hyper-variable region of the F gene revealed that some of NDV strains from Malaysia since the mid-2000s were also classified into the VIIh virus. This indicates that the VIIh NDVs are spreading through Southeast Asia. The present investigation, therefore, emphasizes the importance of further surveillance of NDV in neighboring countries as well as throughout Southeast Asia to contain further spreading of these VIIh viruses.
  20. Le VP, Nguyen T, Lee KN, Ko YJ, Lee HS, Nguyen VC, et al.
    Vet. Microbiol., 2010 Jul 29;144(1-2):58-66.
    PMID: 20097490 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.12.033
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major cause of endemic outbreaks in Vietnam in recent years. In this work, six serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV), collected from endemic outbreaks during January and February of 2009 in four different provinces in Vietnam, were genetically characterized for their complete genome sequences. Genetic analysis based on the complete viral genome sequence indicated that they were closely related to each other and shared 99.0-99.8% amino acid (aa) identity. Genetic and deduced aa analysis of the capsid coding gene VP1 showed that the six Vietnamese strains were all classified into the genotype IX from a total of 10 major genotypes worldwide, sharing 98.1-100% aa identity each other. They were most closely related to the type A strains recently isolated in Laos (A/LAO/36/2003, A/LAO/1/2006, A/LAO/6/2006, A/LAO/7/2006, and A/LAO/8/2006), Thailand (A/TAI/2/1997 and A/TAI/118/1987), and Malaysia (A/MAY/2/2002), sharing 88.3-95.5% nucleotide (nt) identities. In contrast, Vietnamese type A strains showed low nt identities with the two old type A FMDVs, isolated in 1960 in Thailand (a15thailand iso43) and in 1975 in the Philippines (aphilippines iso50), ranging from 77.3 to 80.9% nt identity. A multiple alignment based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the capsid VP1 coding gene of type A FMDV revealed three amino acid substitutions between Vietnamese strains and the strains of other Southeast Asian countries (Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines). Alanine was replaced by valine at residue 24, asparagine by arginine at residue 85, and serine by threonine at residue 196. Furthermore, type A FMDV strains recently isolated in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Malaysia all have one amino acid deletion at residue 140 of the capsid VP1 protein compared with the two old type A FMDV strains from Thailand and the Philippines as well as most other type A representatives worldwide. This article is the first to report on the comprehensive genetic characterization of type A FMDV circulating in Vietnam.
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