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  1. Lee YH, Pang SW, Tan KO
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2016 Apr 22;473(1):224-229.
    PMID: 27003254 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.03.083
    PNMA2, a member of the Paraneoplastic Ma Family (PNMA), was identified through expression cloning by using anti-sera from patients with paraneoplastic disorder. Tissue expression studies showed that PNMA2 was predominantly expressed in normal human brain; however, the protein was shown to exhibit abnormal expression profile as it was found to be expressed in a number of tumour tissues obtained from paraneopalstic patients. The abnormal expression profile of PNMA2 suggests that it might play an important role in tumorigenesis; however, apart from protein expression and immunological studies, the physiological role of PNMA2 remains unclear. In order to determine potential role of PNMA2 in tumorigenesis, and its functional relationship with PNMA family members, MOAP-1 (PNMA4) and PNMA1, expression constructs encoding the respective proteins were generated for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Our investigations showed that over-expressed MOAP-1 and PNMA1 promoted apoptosis and chemo-sensitization in MCF-7 cells as evidenced by condensed nuclei and Annexin-V positive MCF-7 cells; however, the effects mediated by these proteins were significantly inhibited or abolished when co-expressed with PNMA2 in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation study showed that PNMA1 and MOAP-1 failed to associate with each other but readily formed respective heterodimer with PNMA2, suggesting that PNMA2 functions as antagonist of MOAP-1 and PNMA1 through heterodimeric interaction.
  2. Tan LL, Musa A, Lee YH
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(10):9344-60.
    PMID: 22163699 DOI: 10.3390/s111009344
    The use of the enzyme alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) for the determination of ammonium ion (NH(4)(+)) usually requires the addition of pyruvate substrate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) simultaneously to effect the reaction. This addition of reagents is inconvenient when an enzyme biosensor based on AlaDH is used. To resolve the problem, a novel reagentless amperometric biosensor using a stacked methacrylic membrane system coated onto a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE) for NH(4)(+) ion determination is described. A mixture of pyruvate and NADH was immobilized in low molecular weight poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) membrane, which was then deposited over a photocured pHEMA membrane (photoHEMA) containing alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) enzyme. Due to the enzymatic reaction of AlaDH and the pyruvate substrate, NH(4)(+) was consumed in the process and thus the signal from the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at an applied potential of +0.55 V was proportional to the NH(4)(+) ion concentration under optimal conditions. The stacked methacrylate membranes responded rapidly and linearly to changes in NH(4)(+) ion concentrations between 10-100 mM, with a detection limit of 0.18 mM NH(4)(+) ion. The reproducibility of the amperometrical NH(4)(+) biosensor yielded low relative standard deviations between 1.4-4.9%. The stacked membrane biosensor has been successfully applied to the determination of NH(4)(+) ion in spiked river water samples without pretreatment. A good correlation was found between the analytical results for NH(4)(+) obtained from the biosensor and the Nessler spectrophotometric method.
  3. Lee YH, Hussain ZA, Choong FP
    PMID: 2125616
    The in-vitro activity of cefotaxime and cefoperazone were compared using clinically isolated Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cefotaxime was found on a weight to weight basis, to be much more active than cefoperazone. All the three species studied show the presence of cefoperazone-resistant population which were sensitive to cefotaxime. The possible mechanisms of resistance to these antibiotics were discussed.
  4. Mazlan SZ, Lee YH, Hanifah SA
    Sensors (Basel), 2017 Dec 09;17(12).
    PMID: 29232842 DOI: 10.3390/s17122859
    Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM (R² = 0.979) and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.
  5. Sharina AH, Lee YH, Musa A
    Sensors (Basel), 2008 Oct 16;8(10):6407-6416.
    PMID: 27873876
    The role of incorporation of gold nanoparticles (50-130 nm in diameter) into a series of photocurable methacrylic-acrylic based biosensor membranes containing tyrosinase on the response for phenol detection was investigated. Membranes with different hydrophilicities were prepared from 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate via direct photocuring. A range of gold nanoparticles concentrations from 0.01 to 0.5 % (w/w) was incorporated into these membranes during the photocuring process. The addition of gold nanoparticles to the biosensor membrane led to improvement in the response time by a reduction of approximately 5 folds to give response times of 5-10 s. The linear response range of the phenol biosensor was also extended from 24 to 90 mM of phenol. The hydrophilicities of the membrane matrices demonstrated strong influence on the biosensor response and appeared to control the effect of the gold nanoparticles. For less hydrophilic methacrylic-acrylic membranes, the addition of gold nanoparticles led to a poorer sensitivity and detection limit of the biosensor towards phenol. Therefore, for the application of gold nanoparticles in the enhancement of a phenol biosensor response, the nanoparticles should be immobilized in a hydrophilic matrix rather than a hydrophobic material.
  6. Lim KB, Jeevan NH, Jaya P, Othman MI, Lee YH
    Forensic Sci. Int., 2001 Jun 1;119(1):109-12.
    PMID: 11348801
    Allele frequencies for the nine STRs genetic loci included in the AmpFlSTR Profiler kit were obtained from samples of unrelated individuals comprising 139-156 Malays, 149-153 Chinese and 132-135 Indians, residing in Malaysia.
  7. Lee YH, Pang SW, Poh CL, Tan KO
    J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol., 2016 Sep;142(9):1967-77.
    PMID: 27424190 DOI: 10.1007/s00432-016-2205-5
    PURPOSE: Members of paraneoplastic Ma (PNMA) family have been identified as onconeuronal antigens, which aberrant expressions in cancer cells of patients with paraneoplastic disorder (PND) are closely linked to manifestation of auto-immunity, neuro-degeneration, and cancer. The purpose of present study was to determine the role of PNMA5 and its functional relationship to MOAP-1 (PNMA4) in human cancer cells.

    METHODS: PNMA5 mutants were generated through deletion or site-directed mutagenesis and transiently expressed in human cancer cell lines to investigate their role in apoptosis, subcellular localization, and potential interaction with MOAP-1 through apoptosis assays, fluorescence microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitation studies, respectively.

    RESULTS: Over-expressed human PNMA5 exhibited nuclear localization pattern in both MCF-7 and HeLa cells. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that C-terminus of PNMA5 is responsible for nuclear localization, while the amino acid residues (391KRRR) within the C-terminus of PNMA5 are required for nuclear targeting. Deletion mapping and co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that PNMA5 interacts with MOAP-1 and N-terminal domain of PNMA5 is required for interaction with MOAP-1. Furthermore, co-expression of PNMA5 and MOAP-1 in MCF-7 cells significantly enhanced chemo-sensitivity of MCF-7 to Etoposide treatment, indicating that PNMA5 and MOAP-1 interact synergistically to promote apoptotic signaling in MCF-7 cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that PNMA5 promotes apoptosis signaling in HeLa and MCF-7 cells and interacts synergistically with MOAP-1 through its N-terminal domain to promote apoptosis and chemo-sensitivity in human cancer cells. The C-terminal domain of PNMA5 is required for nuclear localization; however, both N-and C-terminal domains of PNMA5 appear to be required for pro-apoptotic function.

  8. Lee YH, Tan CS, Mohammad S, Tahir MM, Shek PN
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:951216.
    PMID: 24688448 DOI: 10.1155/2014/951216
    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed.
  9. Lee YH, Johan A, Wong KK, Edwards N, Sullivan C
    Sleep Med., 2009 Feb;10(2):226-32.
    PMID: 18387341 DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2008.01.005
    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is becoming more prevalent world wide. Bariatric surgery is one treatment option for patients with severe or morbid obesity. There have been few comprehensive studies examining prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the multiracial Singaporean bariatric surgery population.
    METHODS: We performed full polysomnography on 176 consecutive patients undergoing assessment for bariatric surgery. Questionnaires regarding snoring, the presence of witnessed apneas and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were administered. Anthropometric and demographic measurements include age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI) and neck circumference.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of OSA was 72%, and 49% of the 176 patients had an AHI >= 15. There was a male predominance of OSA (X(2) = 29.7; p<0.001). OSA subjects had larger neck circumference (43.9 +/- 4.5 vs. 39.4 cm +/- 3.3; p<0.001) and higher BMI (43.1 +/- 7.6 vs. 39.1 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2); p<0.001). The neck circumference (OR = 1.37; p<0.001), presence of snoring (OR = 8.25; p<0.001) and an ESS >10 (OR = 3.24; p = 0.03) were significant independent predictors of an AHI >= 15. A neck circumference of 43 cm had an 80% sensitivity and 83% specificity for predicting an AHI >= 15.
    CONCLUSIONS: OSA is common amongst Singaporeans undergoing evaluation for bariatric surgery, with a high prevalence of moderate and severe disease. An increased neck circumference is a strong independent predictor for an AHI >= 15, with a neck circumference of greater than 43 cm being a sensitive and specific predictor. Race was not found to be a risk factor.
  10. Liew PS, Lertanantawong B, Lee SY, Manickam R, Lee YH, Surareungchai W
    Talanta, 2015 Jul 1;139:167-73.
    PMID: 25882423 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2015.02.054
    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera, a diarrheal disease. Cholera is widespread in poor, under-developed or disaster-hit countries that have poor water sanitation. Hence, a rapid detection method for V. cholerae in the field under these resource-limited settings is required. In this paper, we describe the development of an electrochemical genosensor assay using lyophilized gold nanoparticles/latex microsphere (AuNPs-PSA) reporter label. The reporter label mixture was prepared by lyophilization of AuNPs-PSA-avidin conjugate with different types of stabilizers. The best stabilizer was 5% sorbitol, which was able to preserve the dried conjugate for up to 30 days. Three methods of DNA hybridization were compared and the one-step sandwich hybridization method was chosen as it was fastest and highly specific. The performance of the assay using the lyophilized reagents was comparable to the wet form for detection of 1aM to 1fM of linear target DNA. The assay was highly specific for V. cholerae, with a detection limit of 1fM of PCR products. The ability of the sensor is to detect LAMP products as low as 50ngµl(-1). The novel lyophilized AuNPs-PSA-avidin reporter label with electrochemical genosensor detection could facilitate the rapid on-site detection of V. cholerae.
  11. Ariffin EY, Lee YH, Futra D, Tan LL, Karim NHA, Ibrahim NNN, et al.
    Anal Bioanal Chem, 2018 Mar;410(9):2363-2375.
    PMID: 29504083 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-0893-1
    A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor for ultrasensitive and selective quantitation of Escherichia coli DNA based on aminated hollow silica spheres (HSiSs) has been successfully developed. The HSiSs were synthesized with facile sonication and heating techniques. The HSiSs have an inner and an outer surface for DNA immobilization sites after they have been functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. From field emission scanning electron microscopy images, the presence of pores was confirmed in the functionalized HSiSs. Furthermore, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis indicated that the HSiSs have four times more surface area than silica spheres that have no pores. These aminated HSiSs were deposited onto a screen-printed carbon paste electrode containing a layer of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form a AuNP/HSiS hybrid sensor membrane matrix. Aminated DNA probes were grafted onto the AuNP/HSiS-modified screen-printed electrode via imine covalent bonds with use of glutaraldehyde cross-linker. The DNA hybridization reaction was studied by differential pulse voltammetry using an anthraquinone redox intercalator as the electroactive DNA hybridization label. The DNA biosensor demonstrated a linear response over a wide target sequence concentration range of 1.0×10-12-1.0×10-2 μM, with a low detection limit of 8.17×10-14 μM (R2 = 0.99). The improved performance of the DNA biosensor appeared to be due to the hollow structure and rough surface morphology of the hollow silica particles, which greatly increased the total binding surface area for high DNA loading capacity. The HSiSs also facilitated molecule diffusion through the silica hollow structure, and substantially improved the overall DNA hybridization assay. Graphical abstract Step-by-step DNA biosensor fabrication based on aminated hollow silica spheres.
  12. Loh KS, Lee YH, Musa A, Salmah AA, Zamri I
    Sensors (Basel), 2008 Sep 18;8(9):5775-5791.
    PMID: 27873839
    Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe₃O₄ were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM) and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The use of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method.
  13. Ng IS, Song CP, Ooi CW, Tey BT, Lee YH, Chang YK
    Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2019 May 09;134:458-468.
    PMID: 31078593 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.05.054
    Nanofiber membrane chromatography integrates liquid membrane chromatography and nanofiber filtration into a single-step purification process. Nanofiber membrane can be functionalised with affinity ligands for promoting binding specificity of membrane. Dye molecules are a good affinity ligand for nanofiber membrane due to their low cost and high binding affinity. In this study, a dye-affinity nanofiber membrane (P-Chitosan-Dye membrane) was prepared by using polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membrane modified with chitosan molecules and immobilized with dye molecules. Reactive Orange 4, commercially known as Procion Orange MX2R, was found to be the best dye ligand for membrane chromatography. The binding capacity of P-Chitosan-Dye membrane for lysozyme was investigated under different operating conditions in batch mode. Furthermore, desorption of lysozyme using the P-Chitosan-Dye membrane was evaluated systematically. The recovery percentage of lysozyme was found to be ~100%. The optimal conditions obtained from batch-mode study were adopted to develop a purification process to separate lysozyme from chicken egg white. The process was operated continuously using the membrane chromatography and the characteristic of the breakthrough curve was evaluated. At a lower flow rate (i.e., 0.1 mL/min), the total recovery of lysozyme and purification factor of lysozyme were 98.59% and 56.89 folds, respectively.
  14. Wan Khalid WEF, Mat Arip MN, Jasmani L, Lee YH
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Jun 18;19(12).
    PMID: 31216625 DOI: 10.3390/s19122726
    A new cellulose nanocrystal-reduced graphene oxide (CNC-rGO) nanocomposite was successfully used for mediatorless electrochemical sensing of methyl paraben (MP). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies confirmed the formation of the CNC-rGO nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies of the nanocomposite showed quasi-reversible redox behavior. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed for the sensor optimization. Under optimized conditions, the sensor demonstrated a linear calibration curve in the range of 2 × 10-4-9 × 10-4 M with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 × 10-4 M. The MP sensor showed good reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of about 8.20%. The sensor also exhibited good stability and repeatability toward MP determinations. Analysis of MP in cream samples showed recovery percentages between 83% and 106%. Advantages of this sensor are the possibility for the determination of higher concentrations of MP when compared with most other reported sensors for MP. The CNC-rGO nanocomposite-based sensor also depicted good reproducibility and reusability compared to the rGO-based sensor. Furthermore, the CNC-rGO nanocomposite sensor showed good selectivity toward MP with little interference from easily oxidizable species such as ascorbic acid.
  15. Sahudin MA, Su'ait MS, Tan LL, Lee YH, Abd Karim NH
    Anal Bioanal Chem, 2019 Aug 07.
    PMID: 31392436 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-019-02025-4
    Biogenic amines have attracted interest among researchers because of their importance as biomarkers in determining the quality of food freshness in the food industry. A rapid and simple technique that is able to detect biogenic amines is needed. In this work, a new optical sensing material for one of the biogenic amines, histamine, based on a new zinc(II) salphen complex was developed. The binding of zinc(II) complexes without an electron-withdrawing group (complex 1) and with electron-withdrawing groups (F, complex 2; Cl, complex 3) to histamine resulted in enhancement of fluorescence. All complexes exhibited high affinity for histamine [binding constant of (7.14 ± 0.80) × 104, (3.33 ± 0.03) × 105, and (2.35 ± 0.14) × 105 M-1, respectively]. Complex 2 was chosen as the sensing material for further development of an optical sensor for biogenic amines in the following step since it displayed enhanced optical properties in comparison with complexes 1 and 3. The optical sensor for biogenic amines used silica microparticles as the immobilisation support and histamine as the analyte. The optical sensor had a limit of detection for histamine of 4.4 × 10-12 M, with a linear working range between 1.0 × 10-11 and 1.0 × 10-6 M (R2 = 0.9844). The sensor showed good reproducibility, with a low relative standard deviation (5.5 %). In addition, the sensor exhibited good selectivity towards histamine and cadaverine over other amines, such as 1,2-phenylenediamine, triethylamine, and trimethylamine. Recovery and real sample studies suggested that complex 2 could be a promising biogenic amine optical sensing material that can be applied in the food industry, especially in controlling the safety of food for it to remain fresh and healthy for consumption.
  16. Chen YH, Lee HJ, Lee MT, Wu YT, Lee YH, Hwang LL, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2018 11 06;115(45):E10720-E10729.
    PMID: 30348772 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807991115
    Adequate pain management remains an unmet medical need. We previously revealed an opioid-independent analgesic mechanism mediated by orexin 1 receptor (OX1R)-initiated 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) signaling in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). Here, we found that low-frequency median nerve stimulation (MNS) through acupuncture needles at the PC6 (Neiguan) acupoint (MNS-PC6) induced an antinociceptive effect that engaged this mechanism. In mice, MNS-PC6 reduced acute thermal nociceptive responses and neuropathy-induced mechanical allodynia, increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive hypothalamic orexin neurons, and led to higher orexin A and lower GABA levels in the vlPAG. Such responses were not seen in mice with PC6 needle insertion only or electrical stimulation of the lateral deltoid, a nonmedian nerve-innervated location. Directly stimulating the surgically exposed median nerve also increased vlPAG orexin A levels. MNS-PC6-induced antinociception (MNS-PC6-IA) was prevented by proximal block of the median nerve with lidocaine as well as by systemic or intravlPAG injection of an antagonist of OX1Rs or cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) but not by opioid receptor antagonists. Systemic blockade of OX1Rs or CB1Rs also restored vlPAG GABA levels after MNS-PC6. A cannabinoid (2-AG)-dependent mechanism was also implicated by the observations that MNS-PC6-IA was prevented by intravlPAG inhibition of 2-AG synthesis and was attenuated in Cnr1-/- mice. These findings suggest that PC6-targeting low-frequency MNS activates hypothalamic orexin neurons, releasing orexins to induce analgesia through a CB1R-dependent cascade mediated by OX1R-initiated 2-AG retrograde disinhibition in the vlPAG. The opioid-independent characteristic of MNS-PC6-induced analgesia may provide a strategy for pain management in opioid-tolerant patients.
  17. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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