Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

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  1. Shi X, Wu X, Song T, Li X
    Nanoscale, 2016 Jul 22.
    PMID: 27444699
    The design of DNA nanotubes is a promising and hot research branch in structural DNA nanotechnology, which is rapidly developing as a versatile method for achieving subtle nanometer scale materials and molecular diagnostic/curative devices. Multifarious methods have been proposed to achieve varied DNA nanotubes, such as using square tiles and single-stranded tiles, but it is still a challenge to develop a bottom-up assembly way to build DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns using certain universal DNA nanostructures. This work addresses the challenge by assembling three types of spatial DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns from the so-called "basic bricks", i.e., hierarchical DNA sub-tiles. A high processing rate and throughput synthesis of DNA nanotubes are observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Experimental observations and data analysis suggests the stability and controllability of DNA nanotubes assembled by hierarchical DNA sub-tiles.
  2. Li X, Wang X, Song T, Lu W, Chen Z, Shi X
    J Anal Methods Chem, 2015;2015:675827.
    PMID: 26491602 DOI: 10.1155/2015/675827
    DNA strand displacement technique is widely used in DNA programming, DNA biosensors, and gene analysis. In DNA strand displacement, leaky reactions can cause DNA signals decay and detecting DNA signals fails. The mostly used method to avoid leakage is cleaning up after upstream leaky reactions, and it remains a challenge to develop reliable DNA strand displacement technique with low leakage. In this work, we address the challenge by experimentally evaluating the basic factors, including reaction time, ratio of reactants, and ion concentration to the leakage in DNA strand displacement. Specifically, fluorescent probes and a hairpin structure reporting DNA strand are designed to detect the output of DNA strand displacement, and thus can evaluate the leakage of DNA strand displacement reactions with different reaction time, ratios of reactants, and ion concentrations. From the obtained data, mathematical models for evaluating leakage are achieved by curve derivation. As a result, it is obtained that long time incubation, high concentration of fuel strand, and inappropriate amount of ion concentration can weaken leaky reactions. This contributes to a method to set proper reaction conditions to reduce leakage in DNA strand displacement.
  3. Harreld JH, Mohammed N, Goldsberry G, Li X, Li Y, Boop F, et al.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2015 May;36(5):993-9.
    PMID: 25614472 DOI: 10.3174/ajnr.A4221
    Postoperative intraspinal subdural collections in children after posterior fossa tumor resection may temporarily hinder metastasis detection by MR imaging or CSF analysis, potentially impacting therapy. We investigated the incidence, imaging and clinical features, predisposing factors, and time course of these collections after posterior fossa tumor resection.
  4. Yang C, Li X, Li Q, Zhang B, Li H, Lin J
    Neuroreport, 2017 Dec 06;28(17):1180-1185.
    PMID: 28953094 DOI: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000903
    Chicken embryos are used widely in the fields of developmental biology and neurobiology. The chicken embryo also serves as a model to analyze gene expression and function using in ovo electroporation. Plasmids may be injected into the spinal cord or tectum of the chicken central nervous system by microinjection for electroporation. Here, we developed a novel method that combines in ovo electroporation and neuronal culturing to study gene function in the chicken tectum during embryo development. Our method can be used to study in-vivo and in-vitro exogenous genes' function. In addition, live cell imaging microscopy, immunostaining, and transfection can be used with our method to study neuronal growth, development, neurite growth and retraction, and axonal pathfinding. Our result showed that axons were present in isolated neurons after culturing for 24 h, and cell debris was low after replacing the media at 48 h. Many GFP-expressing neurons were observed in the cultured cells after 48 h. We successfully cultured the neurons for 3 weeks. Together, this method combines in ovo electroporation and neuronal culturing advantages and is more convenient for the gene function analysis.
  5. Tan L, Wang M, Li X, Li H, Zhao J, Qu Y, et al.
    Bioresour. Technol., 2016 Jan;200:572-8.
    PMID: 26539970 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.10.079
    In this work, fractionation of empty fruit bunch (EFB) by bisulfite pretreatment was studied for the production of bioethanol and high value products to achieve biorefinery of EFB. EFB was fractionated to solid and liquor components by bisulfite process. The solid components were used for bioethanol production by quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The liquor components were then converted to furfural by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. Preliminary results showed that the concentration of furfural was highest at 18.8g/L with 0.75% sulfuric acid and reaction time of 25min. The conversion of xylose to furfural was 82.5%. Furthermore, we attempted to fractionate the liquor into hemicellulose sugars and lignin by different methods for producing potential chemicals, such as xylose, xylooligosaccharide, and lignosulfonate. Our research showed that the combination of bisulfite pretreatment and resin separation could effectively fractionate EFB components to produce bioethanol and other high value chemicals.
  6. Sookhak M, Akhundzada A, Sookhak A, Eslaminejad M, Gani A, Khurram Khan M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(1):e0115324.
    PMID: 25602616 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115324
    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols.
  7. Cheung CM, Li X, Cheng CY, Zheng Y, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, et al.
    Ophthalmology, 2014 Aug;121(8):1598-603.
    PMID: 24661862 DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.02.004
    To describe the prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a multiethnic Asian cohort of Chinese, Malay, and Indian persons.
  8. Lou Z, Xu Y, Xiang K, Su N, Qin L, Li X, et al.
    FEBS J., 2006 Oct;273(19):4538-47.
    PMID: 16972940
    The Nipah and Hendra viruses are highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses that recently emerged from flying foxes to cause serious disease outbreaks in humans and livestock in Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and Bangladesh. Their unique genetic constitution, high virulence and wide host range set them apart from other paramyxoviruses. These characteristics have led to their classification into the new genus Henpavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae and to their designation as Biosafety Level 4 pathogens. The fusion protein, an enveloped glycoprotein essential for viral entry, belongs to the family of class I fusion proteins and is characterized by the presence of two heptad repeat (HR) regions, HR1 and HR2. These two regions associate to form a fusion-active hairpin conformation that juxtaposes the viral and cellular membranes to facilitate membrane fusion and enable subsequent viral entry. The Hendra and Nipah virus fusion core proteins were crystallized and their structures determined to 2.2 A resolution. The Nipah and Hendra fusion core structures are six-helix bundles with three HR2 helices packed against the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of a central coiled coil formed by three parallel HR1 helices in an oblique antiparallel manner. Because of the high level of conservation in core regions, it is proposed that the Nipah and Hendra virus fusion cores can provide a model for membrane fusion in all paramyxoviruses. The relatively deep grooves on the surface of the central coiled coil represent a good target site for drug discovery strategies aimed at inhibiting viral entry by blocking hairpin formation.
  9. Yang Y, Li J, Yang S, Li X, Fang L, Zhong C, et al.
    BMC Evol. Biol., 2017 01 18;17(1):22.
    PMID: 28100168 DOI: 10.1186/s12862-016-0849-z
    BACKGROUND: A large-scale systematical investigation of the influence of Pleistocene climate oscillation on mangrove population dynamics could enrich our knowledge about the evolutionary history during times of historical climate change, which in turn may provide important information for their conservation.

    RESULTS: In this study, phylogeography of a mangrove tree Sonneratia alba was studied by sequencing three chloroplast fragments and seven nuclear genes. A low level of genetic diversity at the population level was detected across its range, especially at the range margins, which was mainly attributed to the steep sea-level drop and associated climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene glacial periods. Extremely small effective population size (Ne) was inferred in populations from both eastern and western Malay Peninsula (44 and 396, respectively), mirroring the fragility of mangrove plants and their paucity of robustness against future climate perturbations and human activity. Two major genetic lineages of high divergence were identified in the two mangrove biodiversity centres: the Indo-Malesia and Australasia regions. The estimated splitting time between these two lineages was 3.153 million year ago (MYA), suggesting a role for pre-Pleistocene events in shaping the major diversity patterns of mangrove species. Within the Indo-Malesia region, a subdivision was implicated between the South China Sea (SCS) and the remaining area with a divergence time of 1.874 MYA, corresponding to glacial vicariance when the emerged Sunda Shelf halted genetic exchange between the western and eastern coasts of the Malay Peninsula during Pleistocene sea-level drops. Notably, genetic admixture was observed in populations at the boundary regions, especially in the two populations near the Malacca Strait, indicating secondary contact between divergent lineages during interglacial periods. These interregional genetic exchanges provided ample opportunity for the re-use of standing genetic variation, which could facilitate mangrove establishment and adaptation in new habitats, especially in the context of global climate changes.

    CONCLUSION: Phylogeogrpahic analysis in this study reveal that Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations had profound influence on population differentiation of the mangrove tree S. alba. Our study highlights the fragility of mangrove plants and offers a guide for the conservation of coastal mangrove communities experiencing ongoing changes in sea-level.

  10. Fu X, Song X, Li X, Wong KK, Li J, Zhang F, et al.
    PMID: 28191021 DOI: 10.1155/2017/4365715
    Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine (TCMM) represents one of the medicinal resources for research and development of novel anticancer drugs. In this study, to investigate the presence of anticancer activity (AA) displayed by cold or hot nature of TCMM, we analyzed the association relationship and the distribution regularity of TCMMs with different nature (613 TCMMs originated from 1,091 species of marine organisms) via association rules mining and phylogenetic tree analysis. The screened association rules were collected from three taxonomy groups: (1) Bacteria superkingdom, Phaeophyceae class, Fucales order, Sargassaceae family, and Sargassum genus; (2) Viridiplantae kingdom, Streptophyta phylum, Malpighiales class, and Rhizophoraceae family; (3) Holothuroidea class, Aspidochirotida order, and Holothuria genus. Our analyses showed that TCMMs with closer taxonomic relationship were more likely to possess anticancer bioactivity. We found that the cluster pattern of marine organisms with reported AA tended to cluster with cold nature TCMMs. Moreover, TCMMs with salty-cold nature demonstrated properties for softening hard mass and removing stasis to treat cancers, and species within Metazoa or Viridiplantae kingdom of cold nature were more likely to contain AA properties. We propose that TCMMs from these marine groups may enable focused bioprospecting for discovery of novel anticancer drugs derived from marine bioresources.
  11. Adeeb F, Khan MU, Li X, Stack AG, Devlin J, Fraser AD
    Int J Inflam, 2017;2017:8608716.
    PMID: 28660088 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8608716
    Vitamin D plays a significant role in the immune system modulation and may confer a protective role in autoimmune diseases. We conducted a case-control study to compare 25(OH)D levels in patients with BD who were managed at a regional rheumatology programme in the midwest region of Ireland compared to matched controls. Healthy controls were selected from the Irish health system and matched in 1 : 5 ratio for age, sex, and the month of the year. 25(OH)D levels <20 nmol/L were classified as deficient while levels between 20 and 40 nmol/L were classified as insufficient. Differences between groups were assessed using Mann-Whitney test and associations between cases and controls were expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Nineteen patients with BD were compared with 95 controls matched by age, sex, and month of blood draw. 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher in patients in BD than in matched controls (median values: 45 nmol/L versus 22 nmol/L, p < 0.005) and tended to be lower in patients with active disease than in those without (median values: 35 nmol/L (IQR: 22.75-47.25 nm/L) versus 50 nmol/L (IQR: 35-67 nmol/L), p = 0.11). Compared to controls, patients with BD were significantly less likely to have 25(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency (OR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.03-0.28, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest a possible role for 25(OH)D in modifying the inflammatory response in BD and uncover a potential opportunity to assess whether correction of Vit D deficiency confers protective benefits.
  12. Li X, Xu A, Sheng H, Ting TH, Mao X, Huang X, et al.
    Pediatr Diabetes, 2018 03;19(2):251-258.
    PMID: 28791793 DOI: 10.1111/pedi.12560
    BACKGROUND: Sulfonylurea therapy can improve glycemic control and ameliorate neurodevelopmental outcomes in patients suffering from neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) with KCNJ11 or ABCC8 mutations. As genetic testing results are often delayed, it remains controversial whether sulfonylurea treatment should be attempted immediately at diagnosis or doctors should await genetic confirmation.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of sulfonylurea therapy in Chinese NDM patients during infancy before genetic testing results were available.

    METHODS: The medical records of NDM patients with their follow-up details were reviewed and molecular genetic analysis was performed. Sulfonylurea transfer regimens were applied in patients diagnosed after May 2010, and glycemic status and side effects were evaluated in each patient.

    RESULTS: There were 23 NDM patients from 22 unrelated families, 10 had KCNJ11 mutations, 3 harbored ABCC8 mutations, 1 had INS mutations, 4 had chromosome 6q24 abnormalities, 1 had a deletion at chromosome 1p36.23p36.12, and 4 had no genetic abnormality identified. Sixteen NDM infants were treated with glyburide at an average age of 49 days (range 14-120 days) before genetic confirmation. A total of 11 of 16 (69%) were able to successfully switch to glyburide with a more stable glucose profile. The responsive glyburide dose was 0.51 ± 0.16 mg/kg/d (0.3-0.8 mg/kg/d), while the maintenance dose was 0.30 ± 0.07 mg/kg/d (0.2-0.4 mg/kg/d). No serious adverse events were reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genetic diagnosis is recommended in all patients with NDM. However, if genetic testing results are delayed, sulfonylurea therapy should be considered before such results are received, even in infants with newly diagnosed NDM.

  13. Yajima I, Zou C, Li X, Nakano C, Omata Y, Kumasaka MY
    Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 2015;70(2):105-9.
    PMID: 25994340 DOI: 10.1265/jjh.70.105
    Heavy-metal pollution occurs in various environments, including water, air and soil, and has serious effects on human health. Since heavy-metal pollution in drinking water causes various diseases including skin cancer, it has become a global problem worldwide. However, there is limited information on the mechanism of development of heavy-metal-mediated disease. We performed both fieldwork and experimental studies to elucidate the levels of heavy-metal pollution and mechanisms of development of heavy-metal-related disease and to develop a novel remediation system. Our fieldwork in Bangladesh, Vietnam and Malaysia demonstrated that drinking well water in these countries was polluted with high concentrations of several heavy metals including arsenic, barium, iron and manganese. Our experimental studies based on the data from our fieldwork demonstrated that these heavy metals caused skin cancer and hearing loss. Further experimental studies resulted in the development of a novel remediation system with which toxic heavy metals were absorbed from polluted drinking water. Implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies is important for prediction, prevention and therapy of heavy-metal-mediated diseases.
  14. Tan L, Sun W, Li X, Zhao J, Qu Y, Choo YM, et al.
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Jun;10(6):915-25.
    PMID: 25866127 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400733
    Bisulfite pretreatment is a proven effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm for bioethanol production. In this study, we set out to determine the changes that occur in the structure and properties of EFB materials and fractions of hemicellulose and lignin during the bisulfite pretreatment process. The results showed that the crystallinity of cellulose in EFB increased after bisulfite pretreatment, whereas the EFB surface was damaged to various degrees. The orderly structure of EFB, which was maintained by hydrogen bonds, was destroyed by bisulfite pretreatment. Bisulfite pretreatment also hydrolyzed the glycosidic bonds of the xylan backbone of hemicellulose, thereby decreasing the molecular weight and shortening the xylan chains. The lignin fractions obtained from EFB and pretreated EFB were typically G-S lignin, and with low content of H units. Meanwhile, de-etherification occurred at the β-O-4 linkage, which was accompanied by polymerization and demethoxylation as a result of bisulfite pretreatment. The adsorption ability of cellulase differed for the various lignin fractions, and the water-soluble lignin fractions had higher adsorption capacity on cellulase than the milled wood lignin. In general, the changes in the structure and properties of EFB provided insight into the benefits of bisulfite pretreatment.
  15. Yang C, Li X, Wang C, Fu S, Li H, Guo Z, et al.
    J. Mol. Histol., 2016 Dec;47(6):541-554.
    PMID: 27650519
    N-cadherin is a calcium-sensitive cell adhesion molecule that plays an important role in the formation of the neural circuit and the development of the nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the function of N-cadherin in cell-cell connection in vitro with HEK293T cells, and in commissural axon projections in the developing chicken spinal cord using in ovo electroporation. Cell-cell connections increased with N-cadherin overexpression in HEK293T cells, while cell contacts disappeared after co-transfection with an N-cadherin-shRNA plasmid. The knockdown of N-cadherin caused the accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus, supporting the notion that N-cadherin regulates β-catenin signaling in vitro. Furthermore, N-cadherin misexpression perturbed commissural axon projections in the spinal cord. The overexpression of N-cadherin reduced the number of axons that projected alongside the contralateral margin of the floor plate, and formed intermediate longitudinal commissural axons. In contrast, the knockdown of N-cadherin perturbed commissural axon projections significantly, affecting the projections alongside the contralateral margin of the floor plate, but did not affect intermediate longitudinal commissural axons. Taken together, these findings suggest that N-cadherin regulates commissural axon projections in the developing chicken spinal cord.
  16. Guan L, Zhu S, Han Y, Yang C, Liu Y, Qiao L, et al.
    Biotechnol. Lett., 2018 Mar;40(3):501-508.
    PMID: 29249062 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-017-2491-2
    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of CTNNB1 gene knockout by CRISPR-Cas9 technology on cell adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    RESULTS: CTNNB1 gene of HEK 293T cells was knocked out by CRISPR-Cas9. This was confirmed by sequencing and western blotting. Methylthiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide assays indicated that deletion of β-catenin significantly weakened adhesion ability and inhibited proliferation rate (P 

  17. Yang C, Li X, Li Q, Li H, Qiao L, Guo Z, et al.
    J. Mol. Neurosci., 2018 Feb;64(2):287-299.
    PMID: 29285739 DOI: 10.1007/s12031-017-1019-5
    During nervous system development, neurons project axons over long distances to reach the appropriate targets for correct neural circuit formation. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted protein and plays a key role in regulating vertebrate embryogenesis, especially in central nervous system (CNS) patterning, including neuronal migration and axonal projection in the brain and spinal cord. In the developing ventral midbrain, Shh is sufficient to specify a striped pattern of cell fates. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the Shh regulation of the neural precursor cell fate during the optic tectum development. Here, we aimed at studying how Shh might regulate chicken optic tectum patterning. In the present study, in ovo electroporation methods were employed to achieve the overexpression of Shh in the optic tectum during chicken embryo development. Besides, the study combined in ovo electroporation and neuron isolation culturing to study the function of Shh in vivo and in vitro. The fluorescent immunohistochemistry methods were used to check the related indicators. The results showed that Shh overexpression caused 87.8% of cells to be distributed to the stratum griseum central (SGC) layer, while only 39.3% of the GFP-transfected cells resided in the SGC layer in the control group. Shh overexpression also reduced the axon length in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Shh regulates the neural precursor cell fate during chicken optic tectum development. Shh overexpression impairs neuronal migration and may affect the fate determination of transfected neurons.
  18. Liu X, Zhang R, Shi H, Li X, Li Y, Taha A, et al.
    Mol Med Rep, 2018 May;17(5):7227-7237.
    PMID: 29568864 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2018.8791
    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in skin, resulting in photoaging. Natural botanicals have gained considerable attention due to their beneficial protection against the harmful effects of UV irradiation. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of curcumin (Cur) to protect human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) against ultraviolet A (UVA)‑induced photoaging. HDFs were treated with 0‑10 µM Cur for 2 h and subsequently exposed to various intensities of UVA irradiation. The cell viability and apoptotic rate of HDFs were investigated by MTT and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The effect of UVA and Cur on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde levels, which are an indicator of ROS, and the levels/activity of antioxidative defense proteins, including glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were evaluated using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and commercial assay kits. Furthermore, western blotting was performed to determine the levels of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the apoptotic pathway, inflammation and the collagen synthesis pathway. The results demonstrated that Cur reduced the accumulation of ROS and restored the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes, indicating that Cur minimized the damage induced by UVA irradiation in HDFs. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that Cur may attenuate UVA‑induced ER stress, inflammation and apoptotic signaling by downregulating the protein expression of glucose‑regulated protein 78, C/EBP‑homologous protein, nuclear factor‑κB and cleaved caspase‑3, while upregulating the expression of Bcl‑2. Additionally, it was demonstrated that Cur may regulate collagen metabolism by decreasing the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑1 and MMP‑3, and may promote the repair of cells damaged as a result of UVA irradiation through increasing the protein expression of transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β) and Smad2/3, and decreasing the expression of the TGF‑β inhibitor, Smad7. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate the potential benefits of Cur for the protection of HDFs against UVA‑induced photoaging and highlight the potential for the application of Cur in skin photoprotection.
  19. Yang C, Li S, Li X, Li H, Li Y, Zhang C, et al.
    J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2019 May;23(5):3549-3562.
    PMID: 30834718 DOI: 10.1111/jcmm.14254
    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a vertebrate homologue of the secreted Drosophila protein hedgehog and is expressed by the notochord and floor plate in the developing spinal cord. Sonic hedgehog provides signals relevant for positional information, cell proliferation and possibly cell survival, depending on the time and location of expression. Although the role of SHH in providing positional information in the neural tube has been experimentally proven, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, in ovo electroporation was employed in the chicken spinal cord during chicken embryo development. Electroporation was conducted at stage 17 (E2.5), after electroporation the embryos were continued incubating to stage 28 (E6) for sampling, tissue fixation with 4% paraformaldehyde and frozen sectioning. Sonic hedgehog and related protein expressions were detected by in situ hybridization and fluorescence immunohistochemistry and the results were analysed after microphotography. Our results indicate that the ectopic expression of SHH leads to ventralization in the spinal cord during chicken embryonic development by inducing abnormalities in the structure of the motor column and motor neuron integration. In addition, ectopic SHH expression inhibits the expression of dorsal transcription factors and commissural axon projections. The correct location of SHH expression is vital to the formation of the motor column. Ectopic expression of SHH in the spinal cord not only affects the positioning of motor neurons, but also induces abnormalities in the structure of the motor column. It leads to ventralization in the spinal cord, resulting in the formation of more ventral neurons forming during neuronal formation.
  20. Wu Q, Miao G, Li X, Liu W, Ikhwanuddin M, Ma H
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2018 Dec;45(6):1913-1918.
    PMID: 30203240 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-018-4339-9
    The blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) is a valuable marine fishery resource in Indo-West Pacific Ocean. So far, rare genetic resource of this species is available. In this report, the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) approach was employed to mine the genomic information and identify molecular markers in P. pelagicus. A total of 0.82 Gbp clean data were generated from the genome of individual "X2A". De novo assembly produced 85,796 contigs with an average length of 339 bp. A total of 45,464 putative SNPs and 17,983 microsatellite loci were identified from the genomes of ten individuals. Furthermore, 31 pairs of primers were successfully designed, with 16 of them exhibiting polymorphism in a wild population. For these polymorphic loci, the expected and observed alleles per locus ranged from 1.064 to 7.314 and from 2 to 11, respectively. The expected and observed heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.0615 to 0.819 and from 0.0626 to 1.000, respectively. Nine loci showed high informative with polymorphism information content (PIC) > 0.5. Five loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the samples analyzed. No linkage disequilibrium was found among the 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci. This study provided massive genetic resource and polymorphic molecular markers that should be helpful for studies on conservation genetics, population dynamics and genetic diversity of P. pelagicus and related crab species.
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