Displaying all 18 publications

  1. Muhammad NA, Omar K, Shah SA, Muthupalaniappen L, Arshad F
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2008;17(4):597-602.
    PMID: 19114396
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is escalating. Parents’ recognition of overweight or obesity in their own children is very important for a successful intervention in these children. This study examined parental perception of their children’s weight status, and its association with their knowledge on nutrition and obesity.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of parents with children aged 9 to 12 years, in a primary school of Kuala Lumpur. Parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire which contains parental perception of their child weight status as well as knowledge on nutrition and obesity. The parents’ perception of the children’s weight status was then compared with the actual measured weight status.
    RESULTS: There were 204 parents who participated in the study. Parents were found to underestimate their child weight status and 38.2% were inaccurate in their perception. The mean score of knowledge on nutrition and obesity was 78.5±14.4; and this did not associate with the accuracy of their perception on the child weight status. Parents showed inadequate knowledge in food pyramid and preparation of low fat meals.
    CONCLUSION: The Malaysian Health Campaigns had resulted in overall good knowledge on nutrition and obesity in the parents except in few domains. However, this was insufficient to make the parents recognize the growing overweight and obesity problem in their children.
    Key Words: overweight, obesity, children, parental perception, knowledge
  2. Rashid SA, Halim AS, Muhammad NA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:69-70.
    PMID: 19024988
    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is angiogenic and effective in down-regulating excess collagen production. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin E (Tocotrienol Rich Fraction) in altering the level of bFGF, a cytokine involved in the scar formation process. In this model, normal human fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of vitamin E at different time frames. The levels of bFGF were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA). This study demonstrated that Tocotrienol Rich Fraction (TRF) stimulated bFGF production by fibroblast and postulate that vitamin E may decrease aberrant scar formation.
  3. Muhammad NA, Shamsuddin K, Sulaiman Z, Amin RM, Omar K
    J Relig Health, 2017 Dec;56(6):1916-1929.
    PMID: 26809242 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-016-0185-z
    One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.
  4. Muhammad NA, Shamsuddin K, Mohd Amin R, Omar K, Thurasamy R
    BMC Public Health, 2017 02 02;17(1):157.
    PMID: 28152993 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3949-1
    BACKGROUND: From the Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective, sexual intention is determined by a permissive attitude, perception of social norms and perceived self-efficacy in performing sexual activity. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Youth Sexual Intention Questionnaire (YSI-Q), which was designed to measure sexual intention among youths in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 25 items were developed based on literature reviews encompassing four main constructs: sexual intention, attitude, social norms and self-efficacy. The YSI-Q then underwent a validation process that included content and face validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), reliability analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). This study was conducted on unmarried youths aged 18 to 22 years who were studying in colleges around Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: EFA supported the four factor structure, but five items were removed due to incorrect placement or low factor loading (<0.60). Internal reliability using Cronbach's alpha ranged between 0.89 and 0.94. The CFA further confirmed the construct, convergent and discriminant validity of the YSI-Q with χ 2 = 392.43, df = 164, p 

  5. Jusoh Z, Tohid H, Omar K, Muhammad NA, Ahmad S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):84-95.
    PMID: 29599638 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.10
    Background: The quality of life (QoL) describes the multidimensional self-perceived well-being of a person, which is an important diabetes outcome. This study aimed to measure the QoL scores among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as well as their clinical and sociodemographic predictors.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 180 randomly sampled patients at a primary care clinic on the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire containing the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life-18 (ADDQoL-18) was used.

    Results: Most of the respondents (96.7%) were Malay, with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 54.0 (14.0) years old. The majority of them were females (60.0%), married (81.1%) and from low-income families (63.3%), who attained a secondary education or lower (75.6%). Only 49.4% of them were employed. The mean (standard deviation, SD) ADDQoL-18 average weighted impact score was -4.58 (2.21) and all 18 domains were negatively affected, particularly the living condition, family life and working life. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the age (adjusted B = 0.05,P= 0.004) and insulin use (adjusted B = -0.84,P= 0.011) were QoL predictors.

    Conclusion: T2DM negatively impacts the patient's QoL in all aspects of their life. The QoL improvement with age suggests that the older patients had accepted and adapted to their illness. The need to improve the QoL among insulin users was also highlighted.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Malaysia
  6. Muhammad NA, Shamsuddin K, Omar K, Shah SA, Mohd Amin R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Sep-Oct;21(5):51-9.
    PMID: 25977634 MyJurnal
    Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population.
  7. Singh DK, Manaf ZA, Yusoff NA, Muhammad NA, Phan MF, Shahar S
    Clin Interv Aging, 2014;9:1415-23.
    PMID: 25187701 DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S64997
    The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions.
  8. Tohid H, Ishak N, Muhammad NA, Ahmad FN, Aziz AA, Omar K
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):35-47.
    PMID: 22973136 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined.
    METHODS: Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed.
    RESULTS: The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation.
    CONCLUSION: Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking.
    KEYWORDS: adolescent; health campaigns; qualitative research; tobacco cessation; tobacco smoking
  9. Omar K, Hasim S, Muhammad NA, Jaffar A, Hashim SM, Siraj HH
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2010 Dec;111(3):220-3.
    PMID: 20800837 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.06.023
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcomes and risk factors of adolescent pregnancies in 2 major hospitals in Malaysia.
    METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of pregnant girls aged 10 through 19 years. The controls were women aged 20 through 35 years who did not become pregnant in their adolescence. Cases and controls were matched for parity and place of delivery. Data were collected from questionnaires and the hospitals' medical records.
    RESULTS: The study included 102 cases and 102 controls. There were significant associations between adolescent pregnancy and low education level, low socioeconomic status, being raised by a single parent, not engaging in extracurricular school activities, engaging in unsupervised activities with peers after school, and substance abuse (P<0.05 for all); being anemic, being unsure of the expected delivery date, and having few antenatal visits and a late delivery booking; and low Apgar scores and perinatal complications.
    CONCLUSION: Adolescent pregnancies are high-risk pregnancies. Better sexual health strategies are required to address the associated complications.
  10. Su XV, Muhammad NA, Tan PS, Tan KTM, Tohid H, Omar K
    Teenage pregnancy carries serious impacts on adolescent health. This study aimed to examine the effects of pregnancy on adolescents and to explore how they cope with the problems they faced during the pregnancy. It involved 26 adolescents residing in a government shelter home in Kuala Lumpur. A self-administered questionnaire containing a mixture of open- and closed-ended questions was used. Among physical (sleeping problem and self-care problem), psychological (emotional difficulties and low self-efficacy) and social (stigma and discrimination, financial difficulty, friendship problem and school dropout) problems, emotional difficulties were the most common problems, whereas stigma and discrimination was the least common. Young adolescents aged less than 16 years old were significantly associated with poor self-care (p=0.01). To cope with their problems, the adolescents generally used avoidance, withdrawal, and social support, particularly from parents and peers. Doctors were the least popular among all. In conclusion, holistic and individualised care is needed. Strategies to reduce emotional problem experienced by pregnant adolescents should be implemented. The available healthcare services for teenage pregnancy should also be promoted.
  11. Azmi S, Goh A, Muhammad NA, Tohid H, Rashid MRA
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2018 May;15:42-49.
    PMID: 29474177 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2017.06.002
    BACKGROUND: Anemia is common among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and an independent risk factor for renal disease progression. Health economic evidence is important in Malaysia and yet cost and quality-of-life (QOL) data are scarce.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate prevalence, factors associated with anemia, and cost and QOL among T2DM patients with CKD. Here, we present the estimated 1-year cost and QOL related to anemia in this group.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was performed at 20 government clinics. Treatment cost was calculated on the basis of resource utilization ascertained through data extracted from medical records and patient recall. QOL was elicited using the short form 36 health survey version 2 questionnaire. Propensity score matching was performed and costs and QOL were analyzed by anemia status and CKD stage.

    RESULTS: Data for 816 patients were obtained. The propensity score matching enabled a comparison of 257 patients with and without anemia. Annual treatment costs were significantly higher for patients with anemia (Ringgit Malaysia [RM] 4219 [US $983] vs. RM2705 [US $630]; P = 0.01). QOL scores were lower for patients with anemia but not statistically significant (physical component summary score: 44.8 vs. 46.2; P = 0.052; mental component summary score: 51.3 vs. 51.7; P = 0.562). Costs were higher and QOL lower among CKD stage 5 patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to examine anemia in this group of patients. Costs were significantly higher among anemic patients compared with nonanemic patients; patients with higher CKD stage 5 fared less well than did those in lower stages. This information suggests the need to increase detection, prevention, and early treatment of anemia when managing T2DM patients, particularly those with CKD.
  12. Abdullah NA, Wan Mahiyuddin WR, Muhammad NA, Ali ZM, Ibrahim L, Ibrahim Tamim NS, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(8):4591-4.
    PMID: 24083707
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.
  13. Shamsuddin K, Fadzil F, Ismail WS, Shah SA, Omar K, Muhammad NA, et al.
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2013 Aug;6(4):318-23.
    PMID: 23810140 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2013.01.014
    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common.
  14. Idris I, Tohid H, Muhammad NA, A Rashid MR, Mohd Ahad A, Ali N, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2018 Dec 22;8(12):e025125.
    PMID: 30580276 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025125
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at primary care settings and its associated factors.
    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study involved 808 adult patients with T2DM and CKD who were recruited via systematic sampling from 20 public primary care clinics in Peninsular Malaysia. Their sociodemographic, clinical and biomedical profiles were collected through interviews, examination of medical records and blood testing.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of anaemia was 31.7% (256/808). The anaemia was mainly mild (61.5%) and normocytic normochromic (58.7%). About 88.7% of the patients with anaemia were not known to have anaemia prior to the study. Among 36 patients with documented history of anaemia, 80.6% were still anaemic, and only a half received iron therapy. Multivariate regression analysis showed that women (adjusted odd ratio (AOR): 1.57, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.21, p=0.009) and those with older age (AOR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.06, p<0.001), CKD stage 3a (AOR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.25 to 4.87, p=0.009), CKD stage 3b (AOR: 4.36; 95% CI: 2.14 to 8.85, p<0.001), CKD stage 4 (AOR: 10.12; 95% CI: 4.36 to 23.47, p<0.001), CKD stage 5 (AOR: 10.80; 95% CI: 3.32 to 35.11, p<0.001) and foot complication (AOR 3.12, 95% CI: 1.51 to 6.46, p=0.002) were more likely to have anaemia. Having higher body mass index (AOR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.99, p=0.012) and higher diastolic blood pressure (AOR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99, p<0.001) were associated with lower odds to have anaemia.
    CONCLUSION: Anaemia among patients with T2DM and CKD in primary care was common, and the majority was unrecognised. Inadequate treatment of anaemia was also prevalent. Therefore, screening of anaemia should be incorporated into the routine assessment of diabetic complications particularly for those with significant associated factors. It is hoped that such strategy could lead to early treatment and hence improve their overall care.
  15. Mahmud MAF, Abdul Mutalip MH, Lodz NA, Muhammad EN, Yoep N, Hashim MH, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 May 15;9(5):e026101.
    PMID: 31097485 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026101
    INTRODUCTION: Dengue is among the most important mosquito-borne diseases, with more than half of the world's population at risk of infection in dengue endemic countries. Environmental management, which includes any activities that involve environmental modification, environmental manipulation and changes to human behaviour have been used to mitigate the risk of dengue transmission. In this protocol, we will integrate the data from various sources to assess the overall effect of environmental management on the incidence of dengue and other entomological indices.

    METHODS AND ANALYSES: We will conduct a systematic review of intervention that assess the effect of environmental management on the incidence of dengue and/or entomological indices. We will include any studies that include intervention through environmental management for dengue control, involving environmental modification, environmental manipulation and changes to human behaviour. A comprehensive search will be performed in electronic databases PUBMED, CENTRAL, SCOPUS, Web of Science and relevant research websites such as PROPSERO, WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify studies that meet our inclusion criteria. A systematic approach to searching, screening, reviewing and data extraction will be applied based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis. Titles, abstract, keywords for eligibility will be examined independently by researchers. The quality of the included studies will be assessed using quality assessment tool for studies with diverse design and Cochrane risk of bias tool. The characteristics of the selected articles will be described based on the study design, types of intervention and outcomes of the study in various countries. These include the types of environmental management intervention methods and the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing dengue cases or incidence and impact on entomological indices.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We will register this systematic review with the National Medical Research Register, Ministry of Health Malaysia. This protocol also had been registered with the PROSPERO. No ethical approval is necessary, as there will be no collection of primary data. The results will be disseminated though a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation.


  16. Lawan A, Jesse FFA, Idris UH, Odhah MN, Arsalan M, Muhammad NA, et al.
    Microb. Pathog., 2018 Apr;117:175-183.
    PMID: 29471137 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.02.039
    Innumerable Escherichia coli of animal origin are identified, which are of economic significance, likewise, cattle, sheep and goats are the carrier of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, which are less pathogenic, and can spread to people by way of direct contact and through the contamination of foodstuff or portable drinking water, causing serious illness. The immunization of ruminants has been carried out for ages and is largely acknowledged as the most economical and maintainable process of monitoring E. coli infection in ruminants. Yet, only a limited number of E. coli vaccines are obtainable. Mucosal surfaces are the most important ingress for E. coli and thus mucosal immune responses function as the primary means of fortification. Largely contemporary vaccination processes are done by parenteral administration and merely limited number of E. coli vaccines are inoculated via mucosal itinerary, due to its decreased efficacy. Nevertheless, aiming at maximal mucosal partitions to stimulate defensive immunity at both mucosal compartments and systemic site epitomises a prodigious task. Enormous determinations are involved in order to improve on novel mucosal E. coli vaccines candidate by choosing apposite antigens with potent immunogenicity, manipulating novel mucosal itineraries of inoculation and choosing immune-inducing adjuvants. The target of E. coli mucosal vaccines is to stimulate a comprehensive, effective and defensive immunity by specifically counteracting the antibodies at mucosal linings and by the stimulation of cellular immunity. Furthermore, effective E. coli mucosal vaccine would make vaccination measures stress-free and appropriate for large number of inoculation. On account of contemporary advancement in proteomics, metagenomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics research, a comprehensive appraisal of the immeasurable genes and proteins that were divulged by a bacterium is now in easy reach. Moreover, there exist marvellous prospects in this bourgeoning technologies in comprehending the host bacteria affiliation. Accordingly, the flourishing knowledge could massively guarantee to the progression of immunogenic vaccines against E. coli infections in both humans and animals. This review highlight and expounds on the current prominence of mucosal and systemic immunogenic vaccines for the prevention of E. coli infections in ruminants.
  17. Hambali IU, Bhutto KR, Jesse FFA, Lawan A, Odhah MN, Wahid AH, et al.
    Microb. Pathog., 2018 Nov;124:101-105.
    PMID: 30114463 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.08.017
    Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the udder that occurs as a result of the release of leucocytes into the udder in a response to bacterial invasion. The major causes of mastitis are an array of gram positive and negative bacteria, however, algae, virus, fungi, mechanical or thermal injury to the gland have also been identified as possible causes. Mastitis vaccines are yet to be developed using Malaysian local isolate of bacteria. The objective of the present experimental trial was to develop a monovalent vaccine against mastitis using S. aureus of Malaysian isolate and to evaluate the clinical responses such as temperature, respiratory rates and heart rates in vaccinated cows. S. aureus is a major causative bacteria in clinical and subclinical types of mastitis in cows. Four concentrations of the bacterin (106, 107, 108 and 109 cfu/ml of the local isolate of S. aureus) were prepared using Aluminium potassium sulfate adjuvant. Thirty cows were grouped into four treatment groups (B, C, D and E) with a fifth group as control (A). These groups were vaccinated intramuscularly(IM) with the prepared monovalent vaccine and its influence on the vital signs were intermittently measured. The mean of rectal temperature was significantly different (p˂ 0.05) at 0hr Post Vaccination [1]" in groups D and E (39.5 ± 0.15 °C and 39.4 ± 0.15 °C respectively) and at 3 h PV in groups C, D and E (39.8 ± 0.14 °C, 39.9 ± 0.14 °C and 40.3 ± 0.14 °C respectively) compared to the control group. This indicated a sharp increased rectal temperatures between 0hr and 3 h PV in groups C, D and E which later declined at 24 h PV. The mean of rectal temperature of group E was significantly different (p˂ 0.05) at weeks 1 and 2 PV (39.87 ± 0.19 °C and 39.80 ± 0.18 °C respectively) compared to the control group. The mean of heart rate was significantly different (p˂ 0.05) at week 1 PV in groups D and E (83.0 ± 3.8 beats/minute and 80.0 ± 3.8 °C respectively) compared to control. A trending decrease was however observed in heart rates of group E from weeks through 4 PV and in group D from weeks 1 through 3 PV. The mean of respiratory rates was significantly different (p˂ 0.05) at week 3 PV in group B and D (31.0 ± 1.2 breaths/minute and 28.0 ± 1.2 breaths/minute) compared to control. In conclusion, this study highlights responses of these vital signs due to vaccination against S. aureus causing mastitis in cows. To the best of our knowledge the findings of this study adds value to the shallow literature on vital signs alterations in cows vaccinated against mastitis as elevated levels of temperature and heart rates of group D and E indicated obvious response.
  18. Hambali IU, Abdullah FFJB, Bhutto KR, Mohd Azmi ML, Wahid AH, Zakaria Z, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2019 May;51(4):781-789.
    PMID: 30449009 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1755-8
    Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland due to microbial infiltration causing a reduced mammary function. This study aims at developing a vaccine using Malaysian local isolate of Staphylococcus aureus and evaluating serum amyloid A, Interleukin-10, IgM and IgG responses periodically. Four bacterin concentrations (106, 107, 108 and 109 cfu/ml of the local isolate of S. aureus) were adjuvanted with aluminium potassium sulphate. Thirty cows grouped into 4 treatment groups (G-) were vaccinated (2 ml) intramuscularly, with a fifth G-A as control. The mean concentration (MC) of serum amyloid A (SAA) was significantly different (sig-d) (p ˂ 0.05) in G-D at 0 h post vaccination (PV), 3 h PV, 24 h PV, weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 PV (6-, 15-, 5-, 12-, 11-, 4- and 11-fold increased (FI) respectively). The MC of serum amyloid A was also sig-d in G-E at 0 h PV, weeks 1, 2 and 4 PV (3, 8, 5 and 8 FI respectively). The MC of IL-10 was sig-d in G-D and C at 3 h PV and week 2 PV (5 and 2 FI respectively). The IgM MC was sig-d in G-B and C at 3 h PV (5 and 6 FI respectively), at 24 h PV (5 and 9 FI respectively), at week 3 PV(2 and 2 FI respectively) and week 4 PV (3 and 4 FI respectively). The MC of IgG was sig-d in G-E at 0 h, 3 h and week 3 PV(5, 6 and 2 FI respectively) and in G-D at weeks 1-4 (3, 3, 3 and 5 FI respectively). In conclusion, elevated levels of SAA, IgG and IL-10 in G-D(108) informed our choice of best dosage which can be used to evoke immunity in cows.
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