Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 110 in total

  1. Ibrahim, N.A., Mustafa, S., Ismail, A.
    This study evaluated and compared the antioxidant capacity between freshly prepared and lactic fermented Malaysian herbal teas. Herbal teas are rich in antioxidants. Fermentation has been known to be the oldest and cost effective method with the ability to preserve or improve food nutritional qualities. Information on the antioxidant capacity of lactic fermented food or beverage is still lacking. Hence, the objective of this study is to determine the changes in the antioxidant properties of Malaysian herbal teas after being subjected to lactic fermentation. Commercially available local herbal teas were used for this study. Herbal teas such as “Allspice”, “Scaphium”, “Gora” and “Cinnamon” were purchased from the local store in Malaysia and were subjected to 24-hour lactic fermentation. Lactic fermented herbal teas were analyzed for their total phenolic, total flavonoid and antioxidant properties via DPPH, FRAP, and β-carotene linoleate bleaching assay. All lactic fermented herbal teas exhibited higher phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties compared to the freshly-prepared herbal teas with majority showing significant changes (p < 0.05) in FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assay. Lactic fermented herbal teas also showed an increase in antioxidant capacity in DPPH assay, however non-significant changes were observed.
  2. Ransangan J, Mustafa S
    J Aquat Anim Health, 2009 Sep;21(3):150-5.
    PMID: 20043399 DOI: 10.1577/H09-002.1
    The grow out of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer in marine net-cages is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. Production of this species is greatly affected by the occurrence of vibriosis, which causes heavy mortality. Generally, young fish are more susceptible; they exhibit anorexia and skin darkening, followed by heavy mortality. The acutely affected older fish may also exhibit bloody lesions around the anus and the base of the fins. Twenty-one bacterial isolates obtained from internal organs (kidney, heart, spleen and liver) of the affected specimens were subjected to phenotypic characterization, testing for antibiotic susceptibility, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. The sequencing result showed that all of the bacterial isolates belonged to Vibrio harveyi. The phenotypic characterization, however, identified 4 of the bacterial isolates as V. harveyi, 16 as V. parahaemolyticus, and 1 as V. alginolyticus. These findings suggest that biochemical features alone cannot be reliably used to identify bacterial pathogens, including V. harveyi, in aquaculture. Antibiotic susceptibility assays showed that some antibiotics, including oxytetracycline, nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid were effective against V. harveyi. Considering the side effects of these antibiotics, however, their use is not recommended in the aquaculture of Asian seabass.
  3. Amat Sairin, M., Abd Aziz, S., Tan, C.P., Mustafa, S., Abd Gani, S.S., Rokhani, F.Z.
    Lard adulteration in processed foods is a major public concern as it involves religion and
    health. Most lard discriminating works require huge lab-based equipment and complex sample
    preparation. The objective of the present work was to assess the feasibility of dielectric
    spectroscopy as a method for classification of fats from different animal sources, in particular,
    lard. The dielectric spectra of each animal fat were measured in the radio frequency of 100
    Hz – 100 kHz at 45°C to 55°C. The fatty acid composition of each fat was studied by using
    data from gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) to explain the dielectric behaviour
    of each fat. The principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN)
    were used to classify different animal fats based on their dielectric spectra. It was found that
    lard showed the highest dielectric constant spectra among other animal fats, and was mainly
    affected by the composition of C16 and C18 fatty acids. PCA classification plot showed clear
    performance in classifying different animal fats. Finally, ANN classification showed different
    animal fats were classified into their respective groups effectively at high accuracy of 85%.
    Dielectric spectroscopy, in combination with quantitative analysis, was concluded to provide
    rapid method to discriminate lard from other animal fats.
  4. Roslan, N. I. M., Marikkar, J. M. N., Manaf, Y. N., Mustafa, S., Miskandar, M. S.
    The effect of transesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat - canola oil (EF35/ CaO65) blend by Mucor miehei lipase (1%, w/w oil) in a solvent-free system was investigated at different time intervals of 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. Compositional changes of the samples withdrawn at specified time intervals while the reaction in progress were analysed by chromatography, whereas the polymorphic forms and thermal properties were analysed by using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. There were increases in the amounts of monounsaturated and triunsaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular groups with concurrent reductions of the proportions of desaturated TAG molecular groups during different time intervals. This changing TAG composition led to changes in crystallisation behaviour and thermal properties of the samples, reducing some enthalpy values. All samples withdrawn at different time intervals displayed both β' and β type crystal polymorphs even though engkabang fat itself was predominantly β‐type. In terms of melting, solidification and polymorphic properties, the sample withdrawn at 6 h time interval was found to display the closest similarity to lard (LD).
  5. Manaf, Y. N., Marikkar, J. M. N., Mustafa, S., Van Bockstaele, Nusantoro, B. P.
    Tropical fats such as palm oil (PO) from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm), cocoa (Theobroma cacao
    L.) butter (CB), avocado (Persea americana) oil (Avo), palm stearin (PS), and Mee (Madhuca
    longifolia) fat (MF) are useful raw materials for the formulation of bakery shortenings. Blending
    these fats at differing ratios such as binary [MF:PS (99:1)], ternary [Avo:PS:CB (84:7:9)], and
    quaternary [PO:PS:SBO:CB (38:5:52:5)] would lead to fat mixtures as replacement for lard
    (LD). In the present work, the influence of these three fat blends and LD on cookie dough
    textural properties and cookie quality was investigated. The results showed that the hardness of
    cookies was correlated to the hardness of dough, which was influenced by the solid fat content
    (SFC). The degree of unsaturation of triacylglycerol molecules also seemed to influence these
    parameters. Nevertheless, the cookies of all different types of shortenings did not show any
    significant differences with regard to their width and thickness. This could be probably due
    to the fact that cookies made from formulated plant-based shortenings and LD expanded
    uniformly during baking.
  6. Amid M, Abdul Manap MY, Mustafa S
    PMID: 23770734 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.05.009
    As a novel method of purification, an aqueous organic phase system (AOPS) was employed to purify pectinase from mango waste. The effect of different parameters, such as the alcohol concentration (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol), the salt type and concentration (ammonium sulfate, potassium phosphate and sodium citrate), the feed stock crude load, the aqueous phase pH and NaCl concentration, were investigated in the recovery of pectinase from mango peel. The partition coefficient (K), selectivity (S), purification factor (PF) and yield (Y, %) were investigated in this study as important parameters for the evaluation of enzyme recovery. The desirable partition efficiency for pectinase purification was achieved in an AOPS of 19% (w/w) ethanol and 22% (w/w) potassium phosphate in the presence of 5% (w/w) NaCl at pH 7.0. Based on the system, the purification factor of pectinase was enhanced 11.7, with a high yield of 97.1%.
  7. Hasanudin K, Hashim P, Mustafa S
    Molecules, 2012 Aug 13;17(8):9697-715.
    PMID: 22890173 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17089697
    Corn silk (Stigma maydis) is an important herb used traditionally by the Chinese, and Native Americans to treat many diseases. It is also used as traditional medicine in many parts of the world such as Turkey, United States and France. Its potential antioxidant and healthcare applications as diuretic agent, in hyperglycemia reduction, as anti-depressant and anti-fatigue use have been claimed in several reports. Other uses of corn silk include teas and supplements to treat urinary related problems. The potential use is very much related to its properties and mechanism of action of its plant's bioactive constituents such as flavonoids and terpenoids. As such, this review will cover the research findings on the potential applications of corn silk in healthcare which include its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. In addition, the botanical description and its toxicological studies are also included.
  8. Mehrnoush A, Mustafa S, Yazid AM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(3):2939-50.
    PMID: 22489134 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13032939
    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.
  9. Yahaya N, Din SW, Ghazali MZ, Mustafa S
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Sep;52(9):e173-6.
    PMID: 21947158
    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare form of thyroid cancer that is known to be associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis. This association is supported by the presence of elevated titres of both antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies in up to 95 percent of patients with PTL. Most patients with PTL present with a rapidly enlarging neck mass and compressive symptoms. The majority of thyroid cancer patients have normal levels of thyroid hormones; they are rarely hyperthyroid, with no obvious clinical features of thyrotoxicosis. We describe a patient who presented with minimal clinical features of thyrotoxicosis despite having markedly elevated serum free thyroxine and suppressed serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.
  10. Mehrnoush A, Mustafa S, Yazid AM
    Molecules, 2011 Dec 08;16(12):10202-13.
    PMID: 22158589 DOI: 10.3390/molecules161210202
    A 'Heat treatment aqueous two phase system' was employed for the first time to purify serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper) leaves. In this study, introduction of heat treatment procedure in serine protease purification was investigated. In addition, the effects of different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000, 6000 and 8000) at concentrations of 8, 16 and 21% (w/w) as well as salts (Na-citrate, MgSO₄ and K₂HPO₄) at concentrations of 12, 15, 18% (w/w) on serine protease partition behavior were studied. Optimum conditions for serine protease purification were achieved in the PEG-rich phase with composition of 16% PEG6000-15% MgSO₄. Also, thermal treatment of kesinai leaves at 55 °C for 15 min resulted in higher purity and recovery yield compared to the non-heat treatment sample. Furthermore, this study investigated the effects of various concentrations of NaCl addition (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/w) and different pH (4, 7 and 9) on the optimization of the system to obtain high yields of the enzyme. The recovery of serine protease was significantly enhanced in the presence of 4% (w/w) of NaCl at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor was increased 14.4 fold and achieved a high yield of 96.7%.
  11. Lee SY, Mustafa S, Ching YW, Shafee N
    Mol. Biol. (Mosk.), 2017 3 3;51(1):104-110.
    PMID: 28251972 DOI: 10.7868/S0026898417010116
    Both zinc and the α-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) play important roles in the remodelling of mammary gland tissues. In the present study, we examined the level and the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α in mammary cells upon zinc treatment. In MCF-7 mammary adenocarcinoma and MCF-10A mammary epithelial cell lines, the toxicity levels of zinc differ. Interestingly, both cell lines overexpress HIF-1α following zinc treatment. As it was evident from an up-regulation of its specific target gene CA9 that encodes carbonic anhydrase IX, the stabilized HIF-1α translocated to the nucleus and was transcriptionally active. Hence, we conclude that zinc causes normoxic accumulation of transcriptionally active HIF-1α by interfering with its post-translational regulation.
  12. Tasrip, N.A., Khairil Mokhtar, N. F., Hanapi, U.K., Abdul Manaf, Y. N., Ali, M.E., Cheah, Y.K., et al.
    Isothermal amplification is a technique that can amplify target DNA sequences at a single incubation temperature. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an extension of the isothermal DNA amplification technique that combines rapidity, simplicity, high specificity and sensitivity. Due to its overwhelming characteristics, LAMP has been explored for its feasibility in detecting various subjects, and recently in meat-based food products for DNA-based meat species authentication. It has been developed to target various meat species such as porcine, chicken, horse, and ostrich with sensitivity as low as 0.1 pg/μL. Further improvement with the use of magnetic beads, electrochemiluminescence and special dye such as calcein and crystal violet had increased the sensitivity of the LAMP assay. Other important characteristics were specific target gene primers as well as a shorter incubation time, warranting a good prospect for rapid testing authentication.
  13. Al Musawi MS, Jaafar MS, Al-Gailani B, Ahmed NM, Suhaimi FM, Bakhsh M
    Lasers Med Sci, 2016 Jun 1.
    PMID: 27250712
    This study is designed to investigate in vitro low-level laser (LLL) effects on rheological parameter, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), of human blood. The interaction mechanism between LLL radiation and blood is unclear. Therefore, research addresses the effects of LLL irradiation on human blood and this is essential to understanding how laser radiation interacts with biological cells and tissues. The blood samples were collected through venipuncture into EDTA-containing tubes as an anticoagulant. Each sample was divided into two equal aliquots to be used as a non-irradiated sample (control) and an irradiated sample. The aliquot was subjected to doses of 36, 54, 72 and 90 J/cm(2) with wavelengths of 405, 589 and 780 nm, with a radiation source at a fixed power density of 30 mW/cm(2). The ESR and red blood cell count and volume are measured after laser irradiation and compared with the non-irradiated samples. The maximum reduction in ESR is observed with radiation dose 72 J/cm(2) delivered with a 405-nm wavelength laser beam. Moreover, no hemolysis is observed under these irradiation conditions. In a separate protocol, ESR of separated RBCs re-suspended in irradiated plasma (7.6 ± 2.3 mm/h) is found to be significantly lower (by 51 %) than their counterpart re-suspended in non-irradiated plasma (15.0 ± 3.7 mm/h). These results indicate that ESR reduction is mainly due to the effects of LLL on the plasma composition that ultimately affect whole blood ESR.
  14. Musawi MS, Jafar MS, Al-Gailani BT, Ahmed NM, Suhaimi FM, Suardi N
    Photomed Laser Surg, 2016 May;34(5):211-4.
    PMID: 26966989 DOI: 10.1089/pho.2015.4043
    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of low-level laser (LLL) doses on human red blood cell volume. The effects of exposure to a diode pump solid state (DPSS) (λ = 405 nm) laser were observed.

    BACKGROUND DATA: The response of human blood to LLL irradiation gives important information about the mechanism of interaction of laser light with living organisms. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-containing tubes, and each sample was divided into two equal aliquots, one to serve as control and the other for irradiation. The aliquot was subjected to laser irradiation for 20, 30, 40, or 50 min at a fixed power density of 0.03 W/cm(2). Mean cell volume (MCV) and red blood cell (RBC) counts were measured immediately after irradiation using a computerized hemtoanalyzer.

    RESULTS: Significant decrease in RBC volume (p 

  15. Al Musawi MS, Jaafar MS, Al-Gailani B, Ahmed NM, Suhaimi FM, Suardi N
    Lasers Med Sci, 2017 Feb;32(2):405-411.
    PMID: 28044209 DOI: 10.1007/s10103-016-2134-1
    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) has various effects on cultured human lymphocytes in vitro, but little is known about such effects in whole blood. This study investigated whether LLLI affected lymphocyte count in human whole blood in vitro. A total number of 130 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy adult patients through venipuncture into tubes containing EDTA. Each sample was divided into two equal aliquots to be used as a non-irradiated control sample and an irradiated sample. The irradiated aliquot was subjected to laser wavelengths of 405, 589, and 780 nm with different fluences of 36, 54, 72, and 90 J/cm(2), at a fixed irradiance of 30 mW/cm(2). A paired student t test was used to compare between non-irradiated and irradiated samples. The lymphocyte counts were measured using a computerized hematology analyzer and showed a significant (P 
  16. Al Musawi MS, Jaafar MS, Al-Gailani B, Ahmed NM, Suhaimi FM
    Lasers Med Sci, 2017 Dec;32(9):2089-2095.
    PMID: 28967036 DOI: 10.1007/s10103-017-2340-5
    The study of the effects of low-level laser (LLL) radiation on blood is important for elucidating the mechanisms behind the interaction of LLL radiation and biologic tissues. Different therapy methods that involve blood irradiation have been developed and used for clinical purposes with beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different irradiation protocols using a diode-pumped solid-state LLL (λ = 405 nm) on samples of human blood by measuring the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Human blood samples were obtained through venipuncture into tubes containing EDTA as an anticoagulant. Every sample was divided into two equal aliquots to be used as an irradiated sample and a non-irradiated control sample. The irradiated aliquot was subjected to a laser beam with a wavelength of 405 nm and an energy density of 72 J/cm2. The radiation source had a fixed irradiance of 30 mW/cm2. The ESR change was observed for three different experimental protocols: irradiated whole blood, irradiated red blood cells (RBCs) samples re-suspended in non-irradiated blood plasma, and non-irradiated RBCs re-suspended in irradiated blood plasma. The ESR values were measured after laser irradiation and compared with the non-irradiated control samples. Irradiated blood plasma in which non-radiated RBCs were re-suspended was found to result in the largest ESR decrease for healthy human RBCs, 51%, when compared with RBCs re-suspended in non-irradiated blood plasma. The decrease in ESR induced by LLL irradiation of the plasma alone was likely related to changes in the plasma composition and an increase in the erythrocyte zeta potential upon re-suspension of the RBCs in the irradiated blood plasma.
  17. Gannasin SP, Adzahan NM, Mustafa S, Muhammad K
    Food Chem, 2016 Apr 1;196:903-9.
    PMID: 26593571 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.09.081
    Hydrocolloids were extracted from seed mucilage and the pulp fractions from red tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) mesocarp, and characterisation of their techno-functional properties and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities was performed. The seed mucilage hydrocolloids that were extracted, using either 1% citric acid (THC) or water (THW), had a good foaming capacity (32-36%), whereas the pulp hydrocolloids that were extracted, using 72% ethanol (THE) or 20mM HEPES buffer (THH), had no foaming capacity. The pulp hydrocolloid, however, possessed high oil-holding and water-holding capacities in the range of 3.3-3.6 g oil/g dry sample and 25-27 g water/g dry sample, respectively. This enabled the pulp hydrocolloid to entrap more bile acids (35-38% at a hydrocolloid concentration of 2%) in its gelatinous network in comparison to commercial oat fibre and other hydrocolloids studied. The exceptional emulsifying properties (80-96%) of both hydrocolloids suggest their potential applications as food emulsifiers and bile acid binders.
  18. Hassan Z, Mustafa S, Rahim RA, Isa NM
    In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim., 2016 Mar;52(3):337-348.
    PMID: 26659392 DOI: 10.1007/s11626-015-9978-8
    Development of tumour that is resistant to chemotherapeutics and synthetic drugs, coupled with their life-threatening side effects and the adverse effects of surgery and hormone therapies, led to increased research on probiotics' anticancer potentials. The current study investigated the potential of live, heat-killed cells (HKC) and the cytoplasmic fractions (CF) of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus hominis as anti-breast cancer agents. MCF-7 cell line was treated with 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL each of live, HKC and CF of the bacteria; and cytotoxicity was evaluated for 24, 48 and 72 h using MTT assay. The morphological features of the treated cells were examined by fluorescence microscopy. The stage of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were quantified by flow cytometry. The bacterial effect on non-malignant breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A, was assessed using MTT assay for 24, 48 and 72 h. All the three forms of the bacteria caused a significant decrease in MCF-7 (up to 33.29%) cell proliferation in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Morphological features of apoptosis like cell death, cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing were observed. Flow cytometry analyses suggested that about 34.60% of treated MCF-7 was undergoing apoptosis. A strong anti-proliferative activity was efficiently induced through sub-G1 accumulation (up to 83.17%) in treated MCF-7 and decreased number in the G0/G1 phase (74.39%). MCF-10A cells treated with both bacteria showed no significant difference with the untreated (>90% viability). These bacteria can be used as good alternative nutraceutical with promising therapeutic indexes for breast cancer because of their non-cytotoxic effects to normal cells.
  19. Kamalian N, Mirhosseini H, Mustafa S, Manap MY
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Oct 13;111:700-6.
    PMID: 25037405 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.05.014
    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different coating materials (i.e. Na-alginate and chitosan) on the viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). This study reports the viability of encapsulated B. pseudocatenulatum G4 coated using different alginate (2-4 g/100mL) and chitosan (0.2-0.8 g/100mL) concentrations. The results indicated that the highest concentration of alginate (4.4142 g/100mL) along with 0.5578 g/100mL chitosan resulted in the highest viability of B. pseudocatenulatum G4. The release behavior of the encapsulated probiotics in SGF (pH 1.5) in 2h followed by 4h in SIF (pH 7.4) was also assessed. The resistance rate of alginate-chitosan capsule in SGF was higher than SIF. The alginate-chitosan encapsulated cells had also more resistance than alginate capsules. The current study revealed that alginate encapsulated B. Pseudocatenulatum G4 exhibited longer survival than its free cells (control).
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