Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 98 in total

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  1. Ibrahim, N.A., Mustafa, S., Ismail, A.
    MyJurnal
    This study evaluated and compared the antioxidant capacity between freshly prepared and lactic fermented Malaysian herbal teas. Herbal teas are rich in antioxidants. Fermentation has been known to be the oldest and cost effective method with the ability to preserve or improve food nutritional qualities. Information on the antioxidant capacity of lactic fermented food or beverage is still lacking. Hence, the objective of this study is to determine the changes in the antioxidant properties of Malaysian herbal teas after being subjected to lactic fermentation. Commercially available local herbal teas were used for this study. Herbal teas such as “Allspice”, “Scaphium”, “Gora” and “Cinnamon” were purchased from the local store in Malaysia and were subjected to 24-hour lactic fermentation. Lactic fermented herbal teas were analyzed for their total phenolic, total flavonoid and antioxidant properties via DPPH, FRAP, and β-carotene linoleate bleaching assay. All lactic fermented herbal teas exhibited higher phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties compared to the freshly-prepared herbal teas with majority showing significant changes (p < 0.05) in FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assay. Lactic fermented herbal teas also showed an increase in antioxidant capacity in DPPH assay, however non-significant changes were observed.
  2. Ransangan J, Mustafa S
    J. Aquat. Anim. Health, 2009 Sep;21(3):150-5.
    PMID: 20043399 DOI: 10.1577/H09-002.1
    The grow out of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer in marine net-cages is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. Production of this species is greatly affected by the occurrence of vibriosis, which causes heavy mortality. Generally, young fish are more susceptible; they exhibit anorexia and skin darkening, followed by heavy mortality. The acutely affected older fish may also exhibit bloody lesions around the anus and the base of the fins. Twenty-one bacterial isolates obtained from internal organs (kidney, heart, spleen and liver) of the affected specimens were subjected to phenotypic characterization, testing for antibiotic susceptibility, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. The sequencing result showed that all of the bacterial isolates belonged to Vibrio harveyi. The phenotypic characterization, however, identified 4 of the bacterial isolates as V. harveyi, 16 as V. parahaemolyticus, and 1 as V. alginolyticus. These findings suggest that biochemical features alone cannot be reliably used to identify bacterial pathogens, including V. harveyi, in aquaculture. Antibiotic susceptibility assays showed that some antibiotics, including oxytetracycline, nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid were effective against V. harveyi. Considering the side effects of these antibiotics, however, their use is not recommended in the aquaculture of Asian seabass.
  3. Amat Sairin, M., Abd Aziz, S., Tan, C.P., Mustafa, S., Abd Gani, S.S., Rokhani, F.Z.
    MyJurnal
    Lard adulteration in processed foods is a major public concern as it involves religion and
    health. Most lard discriminating works require huge lab-based equipment and complex sample
    preparation. The objective of the present work was to assess the feasibility of dielectric
    spectroscopy as a method for classification of fats from different animal sources, in particular,
    lard. The dielectric spectra of each animal fat were measured in the radio frequency of 100
    Hz – 100 kHz at 45°C to 55°C. The fatty acid composition of each fat was studied by using
    data from gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) to explain the dielectric behaviour
    of each fat. The principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN)
    were used to classify different animal fats based on their dielectric spectra. It was found that
    lard showed the highest dielectric constant spectra among other animal fats, and was mainly
    affected by the composition of C16 and C18 fatty acids. PCA classification plot showed clear
    performance in classifying different animal fats. Finally, ANN classification showed different
    animal fats were classified into their respective groups effectively at high accuracy of 85%.
    Dielectric spectroscopy, in combination with quantitative analysis, was concluded to provide
    rapid method to discriminate lard from other animal fats.
  4. Roslan, N. I. M., Marikkar, J. M. N., Manaf, Y. N., Mustafa, S., Miskandar, M. S.
    MyJurnal
    The effect of transesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat - canola oil (EF35/ CaO65) blend by Mucor miehei lipase (1%, w/w oil) in a solvent-free system was investigated at different time intervals of 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. Compositional changes of the samples withdrawn at specified time intervals while the reaction in progress were analysed by chromatography, whereas the polymorphic forms and thermal properties were analysed by using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. There were increases in the amounts of monounsaturated and triunsaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular groups with concurrent reductions of the proportions of desaturated TAG molecular groups during different time intervals. This changing TAG composition led to changes in crystallisation behaviour and thermal properties of the samples, reducing some enthalpy values. All samples withdrawn at different time intervals displayed both β' and β type crystal polymorphs even though engkabang fat itself was predominantly β‐type. In terms of melting, solidification and polymorphic properties, the sample withdrawn at 6 h time interval was found to display the closest similarity to lard (LD).
  5. Manaf, Y. N., Marikkar, J. M. N., Mustafa, S., Van Bockstaele, Nusantoro, B. P.
    MyJurnal
    Tropical fats such as palm oil (PO) from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm), cocoa (Theobroma cacao
    L.) butter (CB), avocado (Persea americana) oil (Avo), palm stearin (PS), and Mee (Madhuca
    longifolia) fat (MF) are useful raw materials for the formulation of bakery shortenings. Blending
    these fats at differing ratios such as binary [MF:PS (99:1)], ternary [Avo:PS:CB (84:7:9)], and
    quaternary [PO:PS:SBO:CB (38:5:52:5)] would lead to fat mixtures as replacement for lard
    (LD). In the present work, the influence of these three fat blends and LD on cookie dough
    textural properties and cookie quality was investigated. The results showed that the hardness of
    cookies was correlated to the hardness of dough, which was influenced by the solid fat content
    (SFC). The degree of unsaturation of triacylglycerol molecules also seemed to influence these
    parameters. Nevertheless, the cookies of all different types of shortenings did not show any
    significant differences with regard to their width and thickness. This could be probably due
    to the fact that cookies made from formulated plant-based shortenings and LD expanded
    uniformly during baking.
  6. Hasanudin K, Hashim P, Mustafa S
    Molecules, 2012 Aug 13;17(8):9697-715.
    PMID: 22890173 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17089697
    Corn silk (Stigma maydis) is an important herb used traditionally by the Chinese, and Native Americans to treat many diseases. It is also used as traditional medicine in many parts of the world such as Turkey, United States and France. Its potential antioxidant and healthcare applications as diuretic agent, in hyperglycemia reduction, as anti-depressant and anti-fatigue use have been claimed in several reports. Other uses of corn silk include teas and supplements to treat urinary related problems. The potential use is very much related to its properties and mechanism of action of its plant's bioactive constituents such as flavonoids and terpenoids. As such, this review will cover the research findings on the potential applications of corn silk in healthcare which include its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. In addition, the botanical description and its toxicological studies are also included.
  7. Mehrnoush A, Mustafa S, Yazid AM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(3):2939-50.
    PMID: 22489134 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13032939
    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.
  8. Mehrnoush A, Mustafa S, Yazid AM
    Molecules, 2011 Dec 08;16(12):10202-13.
    PMID: 22158589 DOI: 10.3390/molecules161210202
    A 'Heat treatment aqueous two phase system' was employed for the first time to purify serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper) leaves. In this study, introduction of heat treatment procedure in serine protease purification was investigated. In addition, the effects of different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000, 6000 and 8000) at concentrations of 8, 16 and 21% (w/w) as well as salts (Na-citrate, MgSO₄ and K₂HPO₄) at concentrations of 12, 15, 18% (w/w) on serine protease partition behavior were studied. Optimum conditions for serine protease purification were achieved in the PEG-rich phase with composition of 16% PEG6000-15% MgSO₄. Also, thermal treatment of kesinai leaves at 55 °C for 15 min resulted in higher purity and recovery yield compared to the non-heat treatment sample. Furthermore, this study investigated the effects of various concentrations of NaCl addition (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/w) and different pH (4, 7 and 9) on the optimization of the system to obtain high yields of the enzyme. The recovery of serine protease was significantly enhanced in the presence of 4% (w/w) of NaCl at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor was increased 14.4 fold and achieved a high yield of 96.7%.
  9. Yahaya N, Din SW, Ghazali MZ, Mustafa S
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Sep;52(9):e173-6.
    PMID: 21947158
    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare form of thyroid cancer that is known to be associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis. This association is supported by the presence of elevated titres of both antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies in up to 95 percent of patients with PTL. Most patients with PTL present with a rapidly enlarging neck mass and compressive symptoms. The majority of thyroid cancer patients have normal levels of thyroid hormones; they are rarely hyperthyroid, with no obvious clinical features of thyrotoxicosis. We describe a patient who presented with minimal clinical features of thyrotoxicosis despite having markedly elevated serum free thyroxine and suppressed serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.
  10. Amid M, Abdul Manap MY, Mustafa S
    PMID: 23770734 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.05.009
    As a novel method of purification, an aqueous organic phase system (AOPS) was employed to purify pectinase from mango waste. The effect of different parameters, such as the alcohol concentration (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol), the salt type and concentration (ammonium sulfate, potassium phosphate and sodium citrate), the feed stock crude load, the aqueous phase pH and NaCl concentration, were investigated in the recovery of pectinase from mango peel. The partition coefficient (K), selectivity (S), purification factor (PF) and yield (Y, %) were investigated in this study as important parameters for the evaluation of enzyme recovery. The desirable partition efficiency for pectinase purification was achieved in an AOPS of 19% (w/w) ethanol and 22% (w/w) potassium phosphate in the presence of 5% (w/w) NaCl at pH 7.0. Based on the system, the purification factor of pectinase was enhanced 11.7, with a high yield of 97.1%.
  11. Lee SY, Mustafa S, Ching YW, Shafee N
    Mol. Biol. (Mosk.), 2017 3 3;51(1):104-110.
    PMID: 28251972 DOI: 10.7868/S0026898417010116
    Both zinc and the α-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) play important roles in the remodelling of mammary gland tissues. In the present study, we examined the level and the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α in mammary cells upon zinc treatment. In MCF-7 mammary adenocarcinoma and MCF-10A mammary epithelial cell lines, the toxicity levels of zinc differ. Interestingly, both cell lines overexpress HIF-1α following zinc treatment. As it was evident from an up-regulation of its specific target gene CA9 that encodes carbonic anhydrase IX, the stabilized HIF-1α translocated to the nucleus and was transcriptionally active. Hence, we conclude that zinc causes normoxic accumulation of transcriptionally active HIF-1α by interfering with its post-translational regulation.
  12. Tasrip, N.A., Khairil Mokhtar, N. F., Hanapi, U.K., Abdul Manaf, Y. N., Ali, M.E., Cheah, Y.K., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Isothermal amplification is a technique that can amplify target DNA sequences at a single incubation temperature. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an extension of the isothermal DNA amplification technique that combines rapidity, simplicity, high specificity and sensitivity. Due to its overwhelming characteristics, LAMP has been explored for its feasibility in detecting various subjects, and recently in meat-based food products for DNA-based meat species authentication. It has been developed to target various meat species such as porcine, chicken, horse, and ostrich with sensitivity as low as 0.1 pg/μL. Further improvement with the use of magnetic beads, electrochemiluminescence and special dye such as calcein and crystal violet had increased the sensitivity of the LAMP assay. Other important characteristics were specific target gene primers as well as a shorter incubation time, warranting a good prospect for rapid testing authentication.
  13. Musawi MS, Jafar MS, Al-Gailani BT, Ahmed NM, Suhaimi FM, Suardi N
    Photomed Laser Surg, 2016 May;34(5):211-4.
    PMID: 26966989 DOI: 10.1089/pho.2015.4043
    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of low-level laser (LLL) doses on human red blood cell volume. The effects of exposure to a diode pump solid state (DPSS) (λ = 405 nm) laser were observed.

    BACKGROUND DATA: The response of human blood to LLL irradiation gives important information about the mechanism of interaction of laser light with living organisms. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-containing tubes, and each sample was divided into two equal aliquots, one to serve as control and the other for irradiation. The aliquot was subjected to laser irradiation for 20, 30, 40, or 50 min at a fixed power density of 0.03 W/cm(2). Mean cell volume (MCV) and red blood cell (RBC) counts were measured immediately after irradiation using a computerized hemtoanalyzer.

    RESULTS: Significant decrease in RBC volume (p 

  14. Al Musawi MS, Jaafar MS, Al-Gailani B, Ahmed NM, Suhaimi FM, Bakhsh M
    Lasers Med Sci, 2016 Jun 1.
    PMID: 27250712
    This study is designed to investigate in vitro low-level laser (LLL) effects on rheological parameter, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), of human blood. The interaction mechanism between LLL radiation and blood is unclear. Therefore, research addresses the effects of LLL irradiation on human blood and this is essential to understanding how laser radiation interacts with biological cells and tissues. The blood samples were collected through venipuncture into EDTA-containing tubes as an anticoagulant. Each sample was divided into two equal aliquots to be used as a non-irradiated sample (control) and an irradiated sample. The aliquot was subjected to doses of 36, 54, 72 and 90 J/cm(2) with wavelengths of 405, 589 and 780 nm, with a radiation source at a fixed power density of 30 mW/cm(2). The ESR and red blood cell count and volume are measured after laser irradiation and compared with the non-irradiated samples. The maximum reduction in ESR is observed with radiation dose 72 J/cm(2) delivered with a 405-nm wavelength laser beam. Moreover, no hemolysis is observed under these irradiation conditions. In a separate protocol, ESR of separated RBCs re-suspended in irradiated plasma (7.6 ± 2.3 mm/h) is found to be significantly lower (by 51 %) than their counterpart re-suspended in non-irradiated plasma (15.0 ± 3.7 mm/h). These results indicate that ESR reduction is mainly due to the effects of LLL on the plasma composition that ultimately affect whole blood ESR.
  15. Al Musawi MS, Jaafar MS, Al-Gailani B, Ahmed NM, Suhaimi FM, Suardi N
    Lasers Med Sci, 2017 Feb;32(2):405-411.
    PMID: 28044209 DOI: 10.1007/s10103-016-2134-1
    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) has various effects on cultured human lymphocytes in vitro, but little is known about such effects in whole blood. This study investigated whether LLLI affected lymphocyte count in human whole blood in vitro. A total number of 130 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy adult patients through venipuncture into tubes containing EDTA. Each sample was divided into two equal aliquots to be used as a non-irradiated control sample and an irradiated sample. The irradiated aliquot was subjected to laser wavelengths of 405, 589, and 780 nm with different fluences of 36, 54, 72, and 90 J/cm(2), at a fixed irradiance of 30 mW/cm(2). A paired student t test was used to compare between non-irradiated and irradiated samples. The lymphocyte counts were measured using a computerized hematology analyzer and showed a significant (P 
  16. Al Musawi MS, Jaafar MS, Al-Gailani B, Ahmed NM, Suhaimi FM
    Lasers Med Sci, 2017 Dec;32(9):2089-2095.
    PMID: 28967036 DOI: 10.1007/s10103-017-2340-5
    The study of the effects of low-level laser (LLL) radiation on blood is important for elucidating the mechanisms behind the interaction of LLL radiation and biologic tissues. Different therapy methods that involve blood irradiation have been developed and used for clinical purposes with beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different irradiation protocols using a diode-pumped solid-state LLL (λ = 405 nm) on samples of human blood by measuring the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Human blood samples were obtained through venipuncture into tubes containing EDTA as an anticoagulant. Every sample was divided into two equal aliquots to be used as an irradiated sample and a non-irradiated control sample. The irradiated aliquot was subjected to a laser beam with a wavelength of 405 nm and an energy density of 72 J/cm2. The radiation source had a fixed irradiance of 30 mW/cm2. The ESR change was observed for three different experimental protocols: irradiated whole blood, irradiated red blood cells (RBCs) samples re-suspended in non-irradiated blood plasma, and non-irradiated RBCs re-suspended in irradiated blood plasma. The ESR values were measured after laser irradiation and compared with the non-irradiated control samples. Irradiated blood plasma in which non-radiated RBCs were re-suspended was found to result in the largest ESR decrease for healthy human RBCs, 51%, when compared with RBCs re-suspended in non-irradiated blood plasma. The decrease in ESR induced by LLL irradiation of the plasma alone was likely related to changes in the plasma composition and an increase in the erythrocyte zeta potential upon re-suspension of the RBCs in the irradiated blood plasma.
  17. Mustafa S, Bahar A, Aziz ZA, Suratman S
    J. Environ. Manage., 2016 Jan 01;165:159-166.
    PMID: 26433356 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.09.026
    Analytical study of the influence of both the pumping well discharge rate and pumping time on contaminant transport and attenuation is significant for hydrological and environmental science applications. This article provides an analytical solution for investigating the influence of both pumping time and travelling time together for one-dimensional contaminant transport in riverbank filtration systems by using the Green's function approach. The basic aim of the model is to understand how the pumping time and pumping rate, which control the travelling time, can affect the contaminant concentration in riverbank filtration systems. Results of analytical solutions are compared with the results obtained using a MODFLOW numerical model. Graphically, it is found that both analytical and numerical solutions have almost the same behaviour. Additionally, the graphs indicate that any increase in the pumping rate or simulation pumping time should increase the contamination in groundwater. The results from the proposed analytical model are well matched with the data collected from a riverbank filtration site in France. After this validation, the model is then applied to the first pilot project of a riverbank filtration system conducted in Malaysia. Sensitivity analysis results highlight the importance of degradation rates of contaminants on groundwater quality, for which higher utilization rates lead to the faster consumption of pollutants.
  18. Mehrnoush A, Mustafa S, Sarker MZ, Yazid AM
    Molecules, 2011 Nov 03;16(11):9245-60.
    PMID: 22051935 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16119245
    Response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper) leaves. The effect of independent variables, namely temperature (42.5,47.5, X₁), mixing time (2-6 min, X₂), buffer content (0-80 mL, X₃) and buffer pH (4.5-10.5, X₄) on specific activity, storage stability, temperature and oxidizing agent stability of serine protease from kesinai leaves was investigated. The study demonstrated that use of the optimum temperature, mixing time, buffer content and buffer pH conditions protected serine protease during extraction, as demonstrated by low activity loss. It was found that the interaction effect of mixing time and buffer content improved the serine protease stability, and the buffer pH had the most significant effect on the specific activity of the enzyme. The most desirable conditions of 2.5 °C temperature, 4 min mixing time, 40 mL buffer at pH 7.5 was established for serine protease extraction from kesinai leaves.
  19. Mehrnoush A, Mustafa S, Sarker MZ, Yazid AM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(3):3636-49.
    PMID: 22489172 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13033636
    Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000-12,000 g·mol(-1)), tie line length (-3.42-35.27%), NaCl (-2.5-11.5%) and pH (4.5-10.5) on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2) purification factor (14.37) and yield (97.3%) of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol(-1) of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing.
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