Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Anita, AR., Noor Hassim, I.
    Fogging activity has become one of the important methods in tackling dengue outbreaks nowadays. Despite this, it is an occupation that has known hazards namely noise and pesticides which can affect the body organs. Based on this knowledge, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the association between hearing impairment and serum cholinesterase level among foggers from five randomly selected Health District Offices in Selangor. A total of 200 workers comprising of 100 workers exposed to fogging activity and another 100 workers not exposed were randomly selected for this study. Data was obtained through self administered questionnaire, audiometric testing and serum cholinesterase level measurement. The overall prevalence of hearing impairment was 16% with foggers having significant higher prevalence (24%) compared to the non foggers (8%) (χ2=9.52, p=0.002). Measurement of serum cholinesterase showed that exposed workers had lower level compared to the non exposed group. Similarly, those who have hearing impairment had also lower serum cholinesterase level although it was not statistically different. Among all studied factors, age and duration of exposure to fogging activities were statistically different with hearing impairment (p
  2. Emilia, Z.A., Noor Hassim, I.
    Background: A cross-sectional study on work-related stressors among nurses in a public teaching hospital had also attempted to explore functions of coping strategies in determining stress.
    Materials and Methods: A structured bilingual questionnaire (English-Malay) on symptoms and sources of stress, and coping style measure was disseminated to medical and surgical nurses working in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Socio demographic information and stress management methods were inquired. Frequency in workplace stressors were assessed using Nursing Stress Scale. Stress symptoms and home-life stressors were evaluated using Personal Stress Inventory. Measurement of coping strategies was performed using Coping Orientation for Problems Experienced questionnaire.
    Results: A total of 181 questionnaires were disseminated and 151 (83.4%) were satisfactorily completed by nurses. It was found that the prevalence of work-related stress among medical and surgical nurses was 49.3% (N=74/150). Analysis of dichotomized outcome (between Stress and No stress group) illustrated high workload (t-value=4.122; p
  3. Mohd Zukri, I., Noor Hassim, I.
    Introduction: The effect of stress among correctional officers at the workplace can contribute to various health problems and this also affect their work performance and motivation.
    Methodology: Study was done at a prison located at the rural district in Kedah. The study was conducted by using randomized stratified sampling method. A total of 418 self administrated questionnaires were distributed. These questionnaires included socio demographic factor, family and marriage factor, Personal Stress Inventory (using Stress Symptom Scale with 52 items), work related stressors (Job Stress Survey) and Brief COPE (Coping Orientation for Problems Experienced with 28 items).
    Result: Response rate was 90.9%. Stress prevalence for correctional officers was 45.8%. Socio demographic factors which have significant relation with stress status were marital status, promotion factor, age, monthly salary, duration of service and number of children (p< 0.05). Family and marriage factor which have significant relation with stress status among married officer were pressure from relatives, clean up house, sexual frustration, conflict with spouse, conflict with children, conflict due to household work and no babysitter (p< 0.05).
    Discussion: The study showed that work related stressors that have influence with stress were excessive workload, working after work hours, not enough staff, disgraced words from fellow workers, competition in carrier development and excessive work stress (p< 0.05). Multiple linear regression model was done in this study and revealed factors that explained 52% of variation in stress score distributions were behavioural disengagement, no babysitter, denial, conflict with children, replace other worker’s duty, not enough time with family, competition in carrier development, venting of emotion, positive reframing and emotional support. Coping strategies that have significant effect in reducing stress symptoms are positive reframing and emotional support.
    Conclusion: Stress management programs should be implemented and emphasizing on specific stressors and coping mechanism are important to reduce the risk of occupational stress among correctional officers.
  4. Jamsiah, M., Rosnah, S., Noor Hassim, I.
    Background : Study of stress among adults in rural community is seldom been conducted and this study aims to see the prevelence of the stress among this group of population.
    Methodology : A cross sectional study was conducted to measure the prevalence of stress among the rural people in Hulu Langat District, Selangor using O`Donnell Personal Stress Inventory and coping mechanism practiced by them.
    Result : A total of 265 respondents through universal sampling participated in this study. The stress prevalence identified was 16.2%. The factors which have significant association with stress were age, education level, marital status, working women, duration of working per day and body mass index. Diseases such as diabetis mellitus and hypertension showed no association with stress. Preferred coping mechanism used by respondents included emotional support, instrumental support, behavior modification and denial.
    Conclusion : Stress among the rural population is high in Malaysia. Measures has to be taken to reduce the stress as it can effect the general health of the people.
  5. Swee, W.F., Anza, E., Noor Hassim, I.
    Medicine & Health, 2007;2(1):93-98.
    A cross sectional study on work stress prevalence was carried out among 185 executives and managers in the head quarter of an international tobacco company. The aim of the study was to identify work stress prevalence in this company and work stressors that were associated with stress experienced by the workers. A questionnaire based on the Personal Stress Inventory by O'Donell (1984) was used. Data collected from participants included sociodemography factors, symptoms of stress and work stressors related to organizational policy, organizational structure, organizational process, and work environment. The study showed that the prevalence of stress among executives was 68.1% and managers were 67.9%. There was no significant difference in the level of stress between the executives and the managers in the company. The sociodemographic factors that were significantly associated with stress were salary, number of children and personal factors. The significant stressors in the workplace were lack of job recognition, over focusing on quality of work, heavy workload and long working hours.
  6. Rosnah, I., Azmi, M.T., Noor Hassim, I., Idris, M.A.
    Malays J Nutr, 2017;23(3):437-448.
    Introduction: Individual differences pertaining to cognitive and affective processes toward job stress stimuli may influence food choice and intake, leading to overeating and obesity. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between job stress and abdominal obesity with anger as a personality trait and overeating as moderators among male workers in Malaysia.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 492 male employees from 33 private companies in various states in Malaysia. The companies and workers were approached by convenience sampling. Workers who fulfilled the study inclusion criteria completed validated questionnaires assessing job stress, anger as a personality trait and overeating, using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory-Exhaustion, Spielberger Trait Anger Scale and Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-Uncontrolled, respectively. Weight, height and abdominal circumference were taken for each participant. Moderation effect analyses were conducted based on standard multiple regression.

    Results: For two-way interaction, a significant curvilinear regression equation was found to predict overeating based on job stress as a predictor and anger as a moderator (β=0.93, SE=0.46, t=2.03, p=0.043). High anger was associated with higher overeating behaviour on exposure to high job stress level (F (7, 484) = 9.36, p
  7. Nurul, A.H., Shamsul Bahri, M.T., Noor Hassim, I.
    A cross sectional study was carried out to determine the relationship between dust exposure and pulmonary function in male steel workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. The investigation included spirometric testing and detailed personal interviews using a structured questionnaire adopted from British Medical Research Council (BRMC) Questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms commonly reported by the male workers were morning phlegm (33.1%), shortness of breath (31.9%), chest tightness (30.4%), and morning cough (17.8%). Age and duration of employment were among the factors associated with respiratory symptoms (p
  8. Agus Salim MB, Noor Hassim I, Jefferelli SB
    Stress is on one of the important hazards faced by nursing staff. Although various intervention methods to reduce stress have been developed, its effectiveness among Malaysian nurses has yet to be established. This study involved 185 health nursing staff working at health districts Kemaman and Dungun in Terengganu. Health nursing staff from Kemaman (n=94) was selected as intervention group whereas those from Dungun (n=91) were chosen as controls. Members of the intervention group were given stress awareness education. They were taught how to reduce stress by relaxation methods. Teaching was conducted through lectures, practical training and providing a stress guidebook. A stress reliever card and letter reminding respondents to practice stress reduction methods were sent every two weeks. The total intervention period was 6 weeks. The control did not receive any education on stress reduction or encouragement to practice any stress reduction techniques throughout this period. The effectiveness of the intervention programme was measured by comparing changes in stress symptoms scores. Stress symptoms were measured using a modified Personal Stress Inventory questionnaire. The study found significant reduction of stress symptoms (42.66 ± 20.36 to 35.51 ± 22.60) in the intervention group after intervention compared to before intervention. However there was no significant difference in change of mean score of stress symptoms between both groups. Further studies need to be conducted to establish an intervention programme, which is suitable and effective in reducing stress among health nursing staff.
  9. Premalatha GD, Noor Hassim I
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Jun;54(2):247-56.
    PMID: 10972037
    A total of 323 workers from 5 different occupational groups in the telecommunication industry were studied in this cross sectional study, which sought to determine the prevalence of Work Related Upper Limb Disorders (WRULD) in 5 occupational groups; operators using the Video Display Terminals, switchboard operators, clerks, data entry processors and the supervisors. WRULD was also studied with regard to factors such as sex, race, height, age, stress and the discomfort perceived due to the work station design. The possibility of WRULD was determined from a self-administered questionnaire and confirmed by history and physical examination. Psychological stress and the discomfort due to the workstation were measured from the questionnaire. The overall prevalence was found to be 31.2% and the prevalence among the various occupations differed with it being the highest in the switchboard operators and data processors and the lowest in the supervisors. The older workers and the female workers were found to have higher prevalences of WRULD. It was also found that a higher stress score and a higher score of discomfort perceived at the work station were associated with higher prevalences of WRULD.
  10. Noor Hassim I, Rampal KG
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):78-85.
    PMID: 8057996
    A cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of hearing loss and hearing impairment was conducted on 286 male subjects from a rural area. The sample was chosen by using a simple random sampling method. Prevalence of symptoms of tinnitus, ear disease, ear drum perforation and infection of external auditory meatus was 19.0 per cent, 6.7 per cent, 3.5 per cent and 0.4 per cent respectively. Air conduction audiometry tests showed the prevalences of hearing impairment of the left, right and both ears (aged 15-30 years) were 5.9%, 8.8% and 0% respectively. The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age. The higher frequencies (> 4KHz) appeared to be more affected than the lower frequencies.
  11. Arma N, Rosnah I, Noor Hassim I
    Med J Malaysia, 2017 12;72(6):350-355.
    PMID: 29308772 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: The General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ) is a validated and reliable screening tool to measure the level of physical activity in adults. However, it has never been translated and validated in Malaysian population. This study aimed to translate the GPPAQ into Malay language and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Malay-translated GPPAQ among shipyard workers.

    METHODS: The original English version of GPPAQ was translated forward and backward into Malay version by experts. The final version of the Malay-translated GPPAQ was then tested for validity and reliability. A cross-sectional study design was performed and systematic random sampling was used to select respondents. Construct validity and internal consistency of the Malay-translated version were tested using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha respectively.

    RESULTS: Sixty-two male shipyard workers participated in this study. The GPPAQ showed good factor loading values for all items (0.608-0.834). The exploratory principal component factor analysis delineates all seven items into two factors with variance of 41.65%. The Cronbach's alpha value was good with 0.81, 0.84 and 0.76 for total scale, factor 1 and factor 2 respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The Malay-translated version of GPPAQ has high psychometric properties. Therefore, it is a valid instrument to assess physical activity among Malaysian working population, particularly in male shipyard workers.

  12. Rosnah I, Noor Hassim I, Shafizah AS
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Oct;68(5):424-34.
    PMID: 24632873 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire was first constructed to measure eating behavior in an English population in the United States. It has been validated and translated for various populations in different languages. The aim of this article is to describe a systematic process for translating the questionnaire from English to Malay language.

    METHODOLOGY: The report of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcome Research (ISPOR) Task Force was used as the basis for the systematic translation process. The process began with preparation; followed by forward translation (2 independent translators), reconciliation, back translation (2 independent translators), back translation review, harmonization, cognitive debriefing, review of cognitive debriefing results and finalization, proofreading; and ended with the final report. Four independent Malay translators who fluent in English and reside in Malaysia were involved in the process. A team of health care researchers had assisted the review of the new translated questionnaires.

    RESULTS: Majority of the TFEQ-R21 items were experiencing, conceptually and semantically equivalence between original English and translated English. However, certain phrase such as "feels like bottomless pit" was difficult to translate by forward translators. Cognitive debriefing was a very helpful process to ensure the TFEQ-R21 Malay version was appropriate in term of wording and culturally accepted. A total of four redundant comments in regards to response scale wording, word confusion and wording arrangement.

    CONCLUSION: The systematic translation process is a way to reduce the linguistic discrepancies between the English and Malay language in order to promote equivalence and culturally adapted TFEQ-R21 questionnaire.
  13. Norsayani MY, Noor Hassim I
    J Occup Health, 2003 May;45(3):172-8.
    PMID: 14646293
    Medical students face the threat of needle stick injury with the consequent risk of acquiring blood-borne infection by pathogens such as HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C while performing their clinical activities in the hospitals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 417 final year medical students from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), University Malaya (UM) and Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). The aims of the study were to determine the incidence of cases and episodes of needle stick injury among them in the past year. This study was also done to find out the factors that might be associated with the occurrence of this problem. The factors were sociodemographic factors, duration of exposure, level of knowledge of blood-borne diseases and Universal Precaution, perception of risk of blood-borne diseases and level of practice of Universal Precaution. The incidence of needle stick injury among medical students was 14.1% (59 cases). The total number of episodes of needle stick injury was 87 and the incidence of episodes among respondents was high i.e. 20.9%. The highest incidence of episodes of needle stick injury occurred in Obstetric & Gynaecology postings, followed by Medicine and Surgery. For clinical procedures, venepuncture had the highest incidence followed by setting up drips and giving parenteral injections. The results showed the students who had needle stick injury (cases) had lower scores in the practice of Universal Precautions than non-cases (p<0.05). There was a significant association between the level of practice of Universal Precautions and the number of episodes of needle stick injury, i.e. the higher the score for the practice of Universal Precautions, the lower the number of episodes (beta=-2.03 x 10(-2), p<0.05). This study showed that medical students are at risk of needle stick injury and blood-borne infections during their clinical activities while performing procedures on patients especially for those who were poor at practising Universal Precautions. Therefore some preventive measures should be taken by the management of the universities and medical students to avoid the occurrence of these problems.
  14. Nor Saleha IT, Noor Hassim I
    Ind Health, 2006 Oct;44(4):584-91.
    PMID: 17085919
    Noise is one of the hazards faced by workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among industries in Negeri Sembilan with the objective to assess their compliance to Hearing Conservation Programme (HCP). The other objectives of this study were to determine the factors influencing it and to show the industries' compliance to each element of the programme. It was also to identify the association between compliance to HCP and the prevalence of hearing impairment and standard threshold shift. Data for this study were collected using questionnaires sent by mail and also the results of the latest audiometric tests. A total of 167 industries were analysed for this study. It was found that 41.3% of these industries fully complied to the programme. It was also found that the industries preferred to provide hearing protection device (92.8%) and least complied to noise control (61.1%). There were significant associations (p<0.05) between compliance and number of employees, status of ownership and the presence of officer in charge of hearing conservation programme. Having at least 150 employees actually raised the compliance to HCP in two folds (beta = 0.717, OR = 2.048, C.I 95% = 1.063 to 3.944). The prevalences of hearing impairment and standard threshold shift were 23.9% and 5.2% respectively. There was no significant association between the prevalence for hearing impairment and compliance to HCP. The prevalence for standard threshold shift was inversely related to compliance. This study showed that compliance percentage need to be improved as an effort to prevent the hearing problems among workers exposed to noise.
  15. Rosnah I, Mohd Zali MN, Noor Hassim I, Azmi MT
    Med J Malaysia, 2015 Jun;70(3):169-76.
    PMID: 26248780 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: This study aims for construct validation using two approaches, i.e., exploratory factor analysis and Rasch Model.
    METHODS: A cross sectional of 313 male workers from multiple worksites had completed self-administered Malay translated version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- R21. Data quality was assessed by misfit person criteria, dimensionality, summary statistic, item measure and rating (partial credit) scale followed by exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency reliability assessment.
    RESULTS: The dual approaches of construct validation analysis were complement to each other. Rasch analysis supported the theoretical constructs of three eating behaviour dimensions among respondents. In contrary to exploratory factor analysis, it did show presence of a newfound factor (∝=0.04) came up from the separation of the cognitive restrain and uncontrolled eating however, the correlation between the two respective sub-factors were fair (r=0.39) and weak (r= -0.08). Both analyses had detected three problematic items but those items were psychometrically fit for used for current study setting. The data had adequate psychometric properties. Cronbach's alpha for cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating were 0.66, 0.79 and 0.87 respectively. Rating scale quality was conformed to standard criteria.
    CONCLUSION: Malay version TFEQ-R21 with promising psychometric properties and valid measures for eating behaviour dimensions among male workers aged between 20 to 60 years old is now available. Further development should focus on the items in relation to Malaysian cultural adaptation before its use for daily practice in future setting.
  16. Tavakoli Z, Montazeri A, Farshad AA, Lotfi Z, Noor Hassim I
    Glob J Health Sci, 2016 May 18;9(1):57870.
    PMID: 27530574 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v9n1p120
    Physicians are at risk of having high levels of stress which affect their performance. Finding the stressors and the coping skills to manage stress could be used to develop program to decrease stressful situation. No study has been done on Physicians' stress and coping in Iran. The main objective of this study is to find out the main stressors and coping strategies among Iranian Physicians working in hospital in Tehran-Iran.
  17. Zaleha MI, Noor Hassim I, Azmi MT, Hasni MJ, Rosnah I, Abdul-Hamid H, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2023 Nov;78(6):787-792.
    PMID: 38031222
    INTRODUCTION: In Malaysia, studies on self-reported bone fractures are scarce. Due to the fact that bone fractures may serve as an indicator of osteoporosis in the community, this study aimed to identify the factors associated with their occurrence among adults in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological data for selfreported bone fractures were obtained through direct interviews using a validated questionnaire from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study.

    RESULTS: Of 15,378 respondents, 6.63% (n=1019) reported bone fractures, with a higher proportion of men (65.8%, n=671) than women (34.2%, n=348). Higher odds of selfreporting bone fractures were seen in males (aOR, 2.12; 95%CI: 1.69, 2.65), those with a history of injury (aOR 5.01; 95%CI: 3.10, 6.32) and those who were obese (aOR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), highly active (aOR 1.25; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.53), smokers (aOR 1.35; 95%CI: 1.11, 1.65) and alcohol consumers (aOR 1.67; 95%CI: 1.20,2.32).

    CONCLUSION: Adopting a healthier lifestyle that includes a balanced diet and moderate physical activity is critical for weight loss, increased muscle and bone mass and better stability, which reduces the likelihood of fractures following a fall.

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