METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Malaysian men aged ≥ 18 years attending two major outpatient clinics in Johor Bahru and Segamat in Johor, Malaysia, between 1 January 2016 and 31 March 2016. Subjects were chosen via simple random sampling and 400 patients were recruited. The study instrument was a survey form that consisted of three sections: sociodemographic and comorbid profile, validated English and Malay versions of the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function, and the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of self-reported ED was 81.5%. The prevalence of ED according to severity was as follows: mild (17.0%), mild to moderate (23.8%), moderate (11.3%) and severe (29.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was associated with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 4.023, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.633-9.913), Indian as compared to Malay ethnicity (OR 3.252, 95% CI 1.280-8.262), secondary as compared to tertiary education (OR 2.171, 95% CI 1.203-3.919), single as compared to married status (OR 6.119, 95% CI 2.542-14.734) and stress (OR 4.259, 95% CI 1.793-10.114).
CONCLUSION: ED has significant prevalence and severity among adult male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Increasing age, Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, singlehood and stress were significant predictors of ED.
METHODS: This study was a single centre, retrospective casecontrol study. We recruited 42 patients diagnosed with cardiac tamponade of various aetiologies confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography and 100 controls between January 2011 and December 2015. The ECG criteria of cardiac tamponade we adopted was as follows: 1) Low QRS voltage in a) the limb leads alone, b) in the precordial leads alone or, c) in all leads, 2) PR segment depression, 3) Electrical alternans, and 4) Sinus tachycardia.
RESULTS: Malignancy was the most common causes of cardiac tamponade, the two groups were of similar proportion of gender and ethnicity. We calculated the sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of each ECG criteria. Among the ECG abnormalities, we noted the SN of 'low voltage in all chest leads' (69%), 'low voltage in all limb leads' (67%) and 'sinus tachycardia' (69%) were higher as compared to 'PR depression' (12%) and 'electrical alternan' (5%). On the other hand, 'low voltage in all chest leads' (98%), 'low voltage in all leads' (99%), 'PR depression' (100%) and 'electrical alternans' (100%) has highest SP.
CONCLUSION: Our study reaffirmed the findings of previous studies that electrocardiography cannot be used as a screening tool for diagnosing cardiac tamponade due to its low sensitivity. However, with clinical correlation, electrocardiography is a valuable adjuvant test to 'rule in' cardiac tamponade because of its high specificity.