• 1 Barwon Health, University Hospital Geelong, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia.
  • 2 School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, Selangor 47500, Malaysia.
  • 3 Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia.
PMID: 31547629 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16193561


Diabetes complications, medication adherence, and psychosocial well-being have been associated with quality of life (QOL) among several Western and Asian populations with diabetes, however, there is little evidence substantiating these relationships among Malaysia's unique and diverse population. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a Malaysian public primary care clinic among 150 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Structured and validated questionnaires were used to investigate the associations between demographic, clinical, and psychological factors with QOL of the study participants. Approximately three-quarters of patients had a good-excellent QOL. Diabetes-related variables that were significantly associated with poor QOL scores included insulin containing treatment regimens, poor glycemic control, inactive lifestyle, retinopathy, neuropathy, abnormal psychosocial well-being, higher diabetes complication severity, and nonadherence (p < 0.05). The main predictors of a good-excellent QOL were HbA1c ≤ 6.5% (aOR = 20.78, 95% CI = 2.5175.9, p = 0.005), normal anxiety levels (aOR = 5.73, 95% CI = 1.8-18.5, p = 0.004), medication adherence (aOR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.3-8.7, p = 0.012), and an aDCSI score of one and two as compared to those greater than or equal to four (aOR = 7.78, 95% CI = 1.5-39.2, p = 0.013 and aOR = 8.23, 95% CI = 2.1-32.8, p = 0.003), respectively. Medication adherence has also been found to be an effect modifier of relationships between HbA1c, depression, anxiety, disease severity, and QOL. These predictors of QOL are important factors to consider when managing patients with T2DM.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.