Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 218 in total

  1. Chia YC
    Malays Fam Physician, 2008;3(1):2-6.
    PMID: 25606104 MyJurnal
    Poor patient adherence to medication is one of the major factors contributing to poor disease control, in particular in asymptomatic chronic diseases like hypertension and dyslipidaemia. The physical and economic burden on patients and the health care system as a result of non-adherence is great. It is estimated that poor adherence to hypertension medication accounts for as many as 7.1 million preventable deaths annually. Hence recognising and identifying non-adherence is the first step to addressing this problem. Medication adherence can be measured in various ways including self-report to electronic monitoring. In order to be more successful in managing non-adherence, attention must be paid to barriers to adherence, namely the interplay of patient factors, the health care providers themselves and the health care system itself. Taking these into account will probably have the greatest impact on improving medication adherence. Consequently strategies to help overcome these barriers are of paramount importance. Some of these strategies will include education of patients, improving communication between patients and health care providers, improving dose scheduling, providing drugs with less adverse effects, and improving accessibility to health care. Poor mediation adherence continues to be a huge challenge. While the patient is ultimately responsible for the taking of medication, good communication, involving the patient in decision making about their care and simplifying drug regimens go a long way in improving it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence
  2. Ho SC, Chong HY, Chaiyakunapruk N, Tangiisuran B, Jacob SA
    J Affect Disord, 2016 Mar 15;193:1-10.
    PMID: 26748881 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.12.029
    Medication non-adherence is one of the major challenges in treating patients with depression. This systematic review aims to determine the clinical and economic outcomes of non-adherence in depression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence
  3. Islahudin F, Lee FY, Tengku Abd Kadir TNI, Abdullah MZ, Makmor-Bakry M
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2021 10;17(10):1831-1840.
    PMID: 33589374 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.02.002
    BACKGROUND: An adherence model is required to optimise medication management among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, as current assessment methods overestimate the true adherence of CKD patients with complex regimens. An approach to assess adherence to individual medications is required to assist pharmacists in addressing non-adherence.

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an adherence prediction model for CKD patients.

    METHODS: This multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 tertiary hospitals in Malaysia using simple random sampling of CKD patients with ≥1 medication (sample size = 1012). A questionnaire-based collection of patient characteristics, adherence (defined as ≥80% consumption of each medication for the past one month), and knowledge of each medication (dose, frequency, indication, and administration) was performed. Continuous data were converted to categorical data, based on the median values, and then stratified and analysed. An adherence prediction model was developed through multiple logistic regression in the development group (n = 677) and validated on the remaining one-third of the sample (n = 335). Beta-coefficient values were then used to determine adherence scores (ranging from 0 to 7) based on the predictors identified, with lower scores indicating poorer medication adherence.

    RESULTS: Most of the 1012 patients had poor medication adherence (n = 715, 70.6%) and half had good medication knowledge (n = 506, 50%). Multiple logistic regression analysis determined 4 significant predictors of adherence: ≤7 medications (constructed score = 2, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  4. Collister D, Mbuagbaw L, Guyatt G, Devereaux PJ, Tennankore KK, Reis G, et al.
    Contemp Clin Trials, 2021 08;107:106466.
    PMID: 34098039 DOI: 10.1016/j.cct.2021.106466
    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To examine how measuring adherence at 3 weeks by self-report and pill counts compares to measurements at 7 weeks in a pre-randomization run-in period.

    METHODS: Study within a trial of an international parallel group randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compares spironolactone to placebo. Adults receiving dialysis enter an 8-week active run-in period with spironolactone. Adherence was assessed by both self-report and pill counts in a subgroup of participants at both 3 weeks and 7 weeks.

    RESULTS: 332 participants entered the run-in period of which 166 had complete data. By self-report, 146/166 (94.0%) and 153/166 (92.2%) had at least 80% adherence at 3 and 7 weeks respectively (kappa = 0.27 (95% C.I. 0.16 to 0.38). By pill counts, the mean (SD) adherence was 96.5% (16.1%) and 92.4% (18.2%) at 3 and 7 weeks respectively (r = 0.32) with a mean (SD) difference of 3.1% (17.8%) and a 95% limit of agreement from -31.7% to +37.9%. The proportion of adherent participants by self-report and pill counts at 3 weeks agreed in 87.4% of participants (McNemar's p-value 0.58, kappa 0.11, p = 0.02) and at 7 weeks agreed in 92.2% (McNemar's p-value 0.82, kappa 0.47, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  5. Thanimalai S, Shafie AA, Ahmad HM, Sinnadurai J
    Value Health, 2014 Nov;17(7):A487.
    PMID: 27201439 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.1428
    Objectives: Systematic anticoagulation management clinic is now recommended to manage warfarinized atrial fibrillation (AF) patient. In Malaysia, the service is recently introduced as pharmacist managed Warfarin Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (WMTAC). The objective of the present study was to assess the cost effectiveness of anticoagulation clinic in comparison with usual medical in Kuala Lumpur Hospital.
    Methods: A Markov model built using the provider perspective and 20 year time horizon was used to assess the cost effectiveness. The base case analysis assumed a cohort of patients with AF 57 years of age with comorbid illnesses. Data sources include a 6 month retrospective cohort analysis of the effectiveness of the clinics, the cost of drugs, cost of personnel and space of the clinics, cost of monitoring and cost of adverse events were obtained from the local source and publications. The transition probabilities of these clinics outcomes were obtained from a literature search. Future costs were discounted by 3% to convert to present values. All costs were in Ringgit Malaysia (RM) based on year 2012.
    Results: The results of a 20-year period model showed that UMC was dominated by the WMTAC in the same time period. The mean cost of the WMTAC was RM 5864 whereas the UMC cost was RM 6550. The sensitivity analysis showed that clinic treatment costs and effectiveness influenced the cost-effectiveness. If the cost of WMTAC was increased by 50% of the current cost, the WMTAC would not be a dominant intervention. WMTAC was also cost effective for a willingness to pay of RM32000.
    Conclusions: The anticoagulation management service appears to cost less and provide greater effectiveness than usual care. In conclusion, the Markov model suggests that from the provider perspective the anticoagulation clinic is a more cost effective option than the usual medical clinic in Kuala Lumpur Hospital.
    Study site: Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  6. Chow EP, Hassali A
    Value Health, 2014 Nov;17(7):A746.
    PMID: 27202698 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.171
    To evaluate the impact of home medication review programme (HMR) towards Type 2 Diabetes patients from public primary centre in Penang, Malaysia.

    A prospective randomised control study was conducted at Primary Clinic in Bukit Minyak, Penang. Eligible Type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c > 6.5% and taking ≥ 3 medications who stayed at their own house were recruited and randomly allocated into control and intervention group by coin tossing. Control group patients received usual care from the clinic whereas intervention group patients received additional 2 visits at their home by pharmacist. During both visits, education on quality use of medications and life-style modifications were performed.Blood pressure monitoring, point of care for sugar and total cholesterol levels were conducted in each visit. Patients adherence and knowledge were assessed using validated questionnaire. Pill count was conducted and excessive medications were collected to calculate the costing component. Primary outcomes were medication adherence and level of knowledge. Secondary outcomes included HbA1c, FBS and total cholesterol changes as well as patients’ satisfactions towards HMR and direct cost saving from the programme.

    A total of 150 patients were recruited and randomly assigned in two groups (n=75 each group). Fifty patients in the intervention group completed the study. After 2 home visits there were significant improvements in the adherence score for the intervention group (mean score=6.90,SD=0.94) compared to the control group (mean score=4.05, SD=1.51). There was a significant improvement in knowledge score after HMR programme, intervention group (mean score=10.04, SD=1.75) and the control group (mean score=5.45, SD=1.89). A direct cost analysis of the medication wasted reveals that HMR can help to save RM 2805.50 (USD 855.34) throughout the eight months period.

    Pharmacist-led HMR have improved patients’ adherence and knowledge as well as helping the policy makers to save money on excessive medication wastage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  7. Md Redzuan A, Lee MS, Mohamed Shah N
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:263-70.
    PMID: 24600208 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S56467
    PURPOSE: Asthma affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide. Poor adherence to prescribed preventive medications, especially among children with asthma, leads to increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to assess the adherence and persistence levels of asthmatic children at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), a tertiary care teaching hospital, and to determine the factors that influence adherence to prescribed preventive medications.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were asthmatic patients aged 18 years and younger with at least one prescription for a preventive medication refilled between January and December 2011. Refill records from the pharmacy dispensing database were used to determine the medication possession ratio (MPR) and continuous measure of gaps (CMG), measures of adherence and persistence levels, respectively.
    RESULTS: The sample consisted of 218 children with asthma from the General and Respiratory pediatric clinics at UKMMC. The overall adherence level was 38% (n=83; MPR ≥80%), and the persistence level was 27.5% (n=60; CMG ≤20%). We found a significant association between the adherence and persistence levels (r=0.483, P<0.01). The presence of comorbidities significantly predicted the adherence (odds ratio [OR] =16.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.76-33.84, P<0.01) and persistence level (OR =2.63, 95% CI: 0.13-52.79, P<0.01). Other factors, including age, sex, ethnicity, duration of asthma diagnosis, and number of prescribed preventive medications did not significantly affect adherence or persistence (P>0.05).
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the adherence level among children with asthma at UKMMC was low. The presence of comorbidities was found to influence adherence towards preventive medications in asthmatic children.
    KEYWORDS: asthma; medication possession ratio; non adherence; pediatric patients; persistence
    Study site: General and Respiratory pediatric clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  8. Nazir SU, Hassali MA, Saleem F, Bashir S, Aljadhey H
    Value Health, 2015 Nov;18(7):A613.
    PMID: 26533439 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2015.09.2128
    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a serious health problem. Medication adherence is a key determinant of therapeutic success in patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to assess medication adherence and its potential association with diabetes related knowledge in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Methods: This study was carried out at the outpatient clinics of a public sector teaching hospital in Sargodha, Pakistan. Besides demographic and disease-related questions, previously validated questionnaires, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and Michigan diabetes knowledge test was used to assess the medication adherence and diabetes related knowledge, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients while Spearman rank correlation was employed to measure the association between medication adherence and knowledge.
    Results: Three hundred and ninety two patients were interviewed. Out of 392 patients, 245 (62.5%) of the patients had average knowledge about diabetes while 282 (71.9 %) were categorized as poor adherent. Only 13 patients (3.3 %) were considered as good adherent in the study. The correlation coefficient between total scores of knowledge and total medication adherence score was 0.036 (p< 0.05), indicating a weak correlation between knowledge scores and adherence level.
    Conclusions: Knowledge of diabetes mellitus among these patients was average; however, adherence to drug therapy was also poor. Patients’ knowledge about diabetes had positive association with medication adherence. Improving diabetes knowledge of people can result in better adherence, which may result in better control of diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  9. Lim PC, Lim K, Embee ZC, Hassali MA, Thiagarajan A, Khan TM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 Mar;29(2):595-601.
    PMID: 27087103
    Involvement of pharmacists in improving medication adherence among diabetic patients is recognized globally. In Malaysian healthcare system, pharmacists are also operating health services i.e. Diabetes Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (DMTAC). This study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of patients managed by pharmacists (DMTAC), in a Malaysian hospital setting. This was an open labelled randomised study. Type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c ≥8% were recruited and arbitrarily divided into the intervention group (usual care plus DMTAC) and the non-intervention group (usual care only). Those enrolled in the intervention group were scheduled for follow-up for eight consecutive visits. Improvements in lab results were compared longitudinally (pre and post analysis) between the groups. Data analysis was done using PASW 18® version. A total of 76 patients were enrolled, with 39 patients in the intervention group and 37 patients in the non-intervention group. Mean HbA1c (-0.90% vs. -0.08%, p=0.011) and fasting blood glucose levels (-3.45 mmol.l vs. +0.79 mmol/l, p=0.002) reduced significantly between the intervention group vs. non-intervention group. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also significantly reduced in the intervention group (TC -0.34 mmol/l, p=0.018) (LDL -0.45 mmol/l, p=0.001). In conclusion, pharmacists managed DMTAC significantly improved glycaemic control and lipid profile of diabetic patients.
    Study site: Outpatient Clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  10. Tan BK, Tan SB, Chen LC, Chang KM, Chua SS, Balashanker S, et al.
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2017;11:1027-1034.
    PMID: 28652712 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S132894
    PURPOSE: Poor adherence to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) could compromise the control of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and contributes to poorer survival. Little is known about how medication-related issues affect CML patients' adherence to TKI therapy in Malaysia. This qualitative study aimed to explore these issues.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individual face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted at the hematology outpatient clinics of two medical centers in Malaysia from August 2015 to January 2016. CML patients aged ≥18 years who were prescribed a TKI were invited to participate in the study. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed.

    RESULTS: Four themes were identified from 18 interviews: 1) concerns about adverse reactions to TKIs, 2) personal beliefs regarding the use of TKIs, 3) mismanagement of TKIs in daily lives, and 4) financial burden in accessing treatment. Participants skipped their TKIs due to ineffective emesis control measures and perceived wastage of medication from vomiting. Participants also modified their TKI therapy due to fear of potential harm from long-term use, and stopped taking their TKIs based on belief in curative claims of traditional medicines and misconception about therapeutic effects of TKIs. Difficulty in integrating the dosing requirements of TKIs into daily lives led to unintentional skipping of doses, as well as the risk of toxicities from inappropriate dosing intervals or food interactions. Furthermore, financial constraints also resulted in delayed initiation of TKIs, missed clinic appointments, and treatment interruptions.

    CONCLUSION: Malaysian CML patients encountered a range of medication-related issues leading to a complex pattern of nonadherence to TKI therapy. Further studies should investigate whether regular contact with patients to improve understanding of treatment rationale, to elicit and address patients' concerns about adverse reactions, and to empower patients with skills to self-manage their medications might promote better adherence to TKIs and improve CML patients' outcome.

    Study site: hematology outpatient clinics of Ampang Hospital (AH) and University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  11. Ganasegeran K, Rashid A
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2017;11:1975-1985.
    PMID: 29263654 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S151053
    Background: Although evidence-based practice has shown the benefits of prescribed cardioprotective drugs in post-myocardial infarction (MI) survivors, adherence rates remain suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with medication nonadherence among post-MI survivors in Malaysia.
    Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from February to September 2016 among 242 post-MI survivors aged 24-96 years at the cardiology outpatient clinic in a Malaysian cardiac specialist center. The study utilized an interviewer-administered questionnaire that consisted of items adapted and modified from the validated Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire, sociodemographics, health factors, perceived barriers, and novel psychological attributes, which employed the modified Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale and the Verbal Denial in Myocardial Infarction questionnaire.
    Results: The prevalence of medication nonadherence was 74%. In the multivariable model, denial of illness (AOR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.8; P=0.032), preference to traditional medicine (AOR 8.7, 95% CI 1.1-31.7; P=0.044), lack of information about illness (AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.6; P=0.045), fear of side effects (AOR 6.4, 95% CI 2.5-16.6; P<0.001), and complex regimen (AOR 5.2, 95% CI 1.9-14.2; P=0.001) were statistically significant variables associated with medication nonadherence.
    Conclusion: The relatively higher medication-nonadherence rate in this study was associated with patient-, provider-, and therapy-related factors and the novel psychological attribute denial of illness. Future research should explore these factors using robust methodological techniques to determine temporality among these factors.
    Study site: Cardiology clinic, Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  12. Damulak PP, Ismail S, Abdul Manaf R, Mohd Said S, Agbaji O
    PMID: 33802322 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18052477
    Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the bedrock of effective therapy and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This systematic review examines the effect of interventions in improving ART adherence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which bears the largest global burden of HIV infection. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, and based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, PUBMED, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were searched for published studies on ART adherence interventions from 2010 to 2019. Thirty-one eligible studies published between 2010 to 2019 were identified, the categories of interventions were structural, behavioral, biological, cognitive, and combination. Study characteristics varied across design, intervention type, intervention setting, country, and outcome measurements. Many of the studies were behavioral interventions conducted in hospitals with more studies being randomized controlled trial (RCT) interventions. Despite the study variations, twenty-four studies recorded improvements. Notwithstanding, more quality studies such as RCTs should be conducted, especially among key affected populations (KAPs) to control transmission of resistant strains of the virus. Reliable objective measures of adherence should replace the conventional subjective self-report. Furthermore, long-term interventions with longer duration should be considered when evaluating the effectiveness of interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  13. Lee PM, Chang CT, Yusoff ZM
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2021 Feb;43(1):46-54.
    PMID: 32524510 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-020-01070-9
    Background Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been demonstrated to improve the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. However, medication adherence is vital for patients on chronic treatment. Objective The objective of the current study was to evaluate response to treatment, adherence by patients to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and factors associated with adherence and response. Setting A haematology clinic in a regional referral hospital in Malaysia. Method Patients aged ≥ 13 years who had been on imatinib or nilotinib for ≥ 12 months were included in this cross-sectional study. An optimal response was defined as the achievement of major molecular response at 12 months of treatment. Patient medication adherence was determined using the average medication possession ratio based on the dispensing records. The patients were considered adherent if the medication possession ratio was > 90%. Multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate the factors associated with adherence. The association of adherence with molecular response was analysed by univariate logistic regression. Main outcome measure The primary outcome measures were the proportion of patients who achieved optimal response and the medication possession ratio. Results A total of 151 patients were screened, and 71 patients were included. Twenty-eight patients (39%) achieved major molecular response at 12 months of treatment. The median time to achieve this was 15.5 months (an interquartile range of 15). The mean medication possession ratio for imatinib and nilotinib was 0.94 (± 0.14) and 0.96 (± 0.10), respectively, but this difference was without statistical significance (t  =  - 0.517, p  =  0.610). Nausea and vomiting (odds ratio [OR] of 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.07-0.83, p  =  0.023) and disease phase at diagnosis (OR of 0.20, 95% CI 0.04-1.06, p  =  0.059) were associated with patient adherence. An association was not found between patient adherence and molecular response (OR of 1.03, 95% CI 0.35-3.09, p  =  0.956). Conclusion The patients in this study demonstrated a relatively deep molecular response and optimal adherence. Nevertheless, one fourth of them were noncompliant with imatinib. Therefore, active interventions are warranted to prevent treatment-associated adverse events and improve adherence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  14. Yong YV, Shafie AA
    Value Health, 2015 Nov;18(7):A501.
    PMID: 26532812 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2015.09.1419
    Objectives: To evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of RMTAC (an adjunct
    pharmaceutical asthma management) vs. usual physician care clinic by using decision analytic modelling method. Methods: A dynamic adherence asthma Markov
    cohort model was developed. The economic evaluation was based on a lifetime
    horizon and cycle length of one month, from the healthcare provider‘s (Ministry
    of Health) perspective, with the outcomes assessed in cost per QALY gained and
    cost per hospitalization averted. Probabilities of asthma control-adherence states
    from RMTAC database, costs from national sources, utilities using standard gamble method on Malaysia’s asthma patients, and other inputs from secondary data
    sources were used to inform the probabilistic model, according to gender and age
    subgroups. A scenario analysis was conducted to test the structural assumption on
    follow-up visits after the final treatment visit. Results: In female subgroup, RMTAC
    management dominates the usual care by having 0.91 (95% CI 0.24 – 1.69) QALY
    gained and 0.58 (95% CI -2.30 – 6.23) hospitalization averted, at a lower cost. For male
    subgroup, the ICERs were RM10 (95% CI -RM14431 – RM8323) per QALY gained and
    RM18 (95% CI -RM35790 – RM30266) per hospitalization averted. At the willingnessto-pay threshold of RM29000 per an additional QALY gained, the RMTAC intervention
    is likely to be cost-effective 99% and 57% of the time (for QALY and hospitalization
    outcome, respectively). The analysis was robust to assumptions of follow-up visits
    frequency and patients’ gender. Conclusions: Implementing RMTAC in Malaysia
    has high probability of being more cost-effective than the usual care management
    for both male and female subgroups across all age groups. Further investigation is
    necessary to ensure that implementing this decision does not exceed the overall
    national healthcare expenditure

    Study site : Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence
  15. Hajialibeigloo R, Mazlum SR, Mohajer S, Morisky DE
    Nurs Open, 2021 07;8(4):1947-1957.
    PMID: 33811803 DOI: 10.1002/nop2.870
    AIM: To investigate the effect of self-administration of medication programme on medication adherence in cardiovascular inpatients and nurse's satisfaction.

    DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial with parallel-group design guided by the CONSORT checklist.

    METHODS: In this study, sixty cardiovascular inpatients were selected through convenience sampling and then randomly assigned to control and intervention groups, in 2018, Iran. The intervention group took responsibility for consuming their prescribed medication according to the self-administration of medication programme and the control group took medications routinely. Medication adherence was measured one and two weeks after the discharge via telephonic follow-up by Morisky Medication Adherence Scale MMAS-8-item and nurses' satisfaction by researcher-made questioner.

    RESULT: There was a higher medication adherence level in the intervention group rather than the usual care group at the follow-up. Most nurses in the study environment were very satisfied.

    CONCLUSION: The self-administration of medication programme can effectively increase patients' medication adherence and nurses' satisfaction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence
  16. Lall P, Lim SH, Khairuddin N, Kamarulzaman A
    J Int AIDS Soc, 2015;18(2 Suppl 1):19393.
    PMID: 25724503 DOI: 10.7448/IAS.18.2.19393
    The 50% increase in HIV-related deaths in youth and adolescents (aged 10-24) from 2005 to 2012 highlights the need to improve HIV treatment and care in this population, including treatment adherence and retention. Youth and adolescents from key populations or young key populations (YKP) in particular are highly stigmatized and may face additional barrier(s) in adhering to HIV treatment and services. We reviewed the current knowledge on treatment adherence and retention in HIV care among YKP to identify gaps in the literature and suggest future directions to improve HIV care for YKP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  17. Chan HK, Hassali MA
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2014 Oct;36(5):904-13.
    PMID: 25135804 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-014-0003-1
    BACKGROUND: Inability to read instructions on drug labels has been identified among the Malaysian population since 1990's.
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of font-enlarged and pictogram-incorporated labels used for long-term medications on patients' adherence, comprehension and preferences.
    SETTING: Outpatient pharmacy in one of the major general hospitals across Northern Malaysia.
    METHOD: This was a three-arm, randomized controlled trial. Outpatients with refill prescriptions of selected oral antihypertensive or antidiabetic medications were screened for eligibility. They were randomly allocated with standard (n = 35), font-enlarged (n = 40) or pictogram-incorporated (n = 35) labels. Assessment of baseline adherence scores using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, comprehension scores using a structured questionnaire and preferences was conducted upon recruitment. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted after 4 weeks.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The changes of patients' adherence and comprehension scores and their preferences.
    RESULTS: Within-group comparisons demonstrated an increase of total adherence scores after 4 weeks in all three groups (mean changes 0.35, 0.58 and 0.67; p = 0.029, 0.013 and 0.011, respectively). The repeatedly measured total comprehension score of pictogram-incorporated label group was significantly higher than baseline (mean change 0.37, p = 0.010). Two intervention groups obtained significantly higher scores for few items in both adherence and comprehension measurements after 4 weeks as compared with baselines. As indicated by F tests, three groups did not significantly differ in the changes of both total adherence and comprehension scores (p = 0.573 and 0.069, respectively) with the subjects' age adjusted. Elderlies and those with a higher number of morbidity preferred pictogram-incorporated label over font-enlarged label.
    CONCLUSION: We did not find a significant change of both adherence and comprehension levels after the introduction of modified medication labels. However, on the basis of within-group comparisons, they may have positive influences on certain aspects of patients' adherence and comprehension. Variations in preferences may reflect the unique need of different subgroups in receiving written medication instructions.
    Study site: Outpatient pharmacy, Sultanah Bahiyah Hospital, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  18. Butt M, Ali AM, Bakry MM
    Curr Diabetes Rev, 2019;15(5):402-406.
    PMID: 30156163 DOI: 10.2174/1573399814666180828152754
    BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the association between self-reported adherence with concurrent and subsequent glycemic control amongst type 2 diabetes patients at a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Demographic and clinical variables were assessed at baseline, after three and six months in 73 type 2 diabetes patients. Regression analysis, using SPSS, evaluated the concurrent and longitudinal association of medication adherence and glycemic control. Potential confounders of variables were identified using bi-variate correlation analyses.

    RESULTS: Concurrent Medication adherence and HbA1c association were significant after adjusting for ethnicity (P = 0.005). For longitudinal observation at 3 months, the association was significant after adjusting for ethnicity (P = 0.016); however, it became non-significant when baseline glycemic control was included in the model (P = 0.28).

    CONCLUSION: Easy to administer MALMAS significantly predicted concurrent glycemic control independent of potential confounders. This association persisted in longitudinal observation after 3 months when adjusted for confounders and became non-significant after adjusting for baseline glycemic control.

    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
  19. Aziz H, Hatah E, Makmor-Bakry M, Islahudin F, Ahmad Hamdi N, Mok Pok Wan I
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2018 08 06;18(1):605.
    PMID: 30081892 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-018-3417-y
    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have evaluated the related factors of medication adherence among patients with chronic disease. However, the factors influencing medication adherence and non-adherence among subsidised patients with chronic diseases-for whom medication costs may not be a constraint-remain unexplored. Thus, this study aims to identify and compare the potential factors that may influence subsidised and non-subsidised (i.e., self-paying) patients' adherence to medication.

    METHODS: Subsidised and self-paying patients were identified at public and private healthcare institutions in three states of Malaysia. Patients were then purposively selected for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews according to their medication adherence status (including adherent and non-adherent patients), which was measured using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Adherence was defined as having 80% or more for the percentage of days in which the dose regimen was executed as prescribed. The interview was conducted from January to August 2016 and during the interviews, patients were asked to provide reasons for their medication adherence or non-adherence. The patient interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic analysis with NVivo 11 software.

    RESULTS: Thirteen subsidised and 12 self-paying patients were interviewed. The themes found among subsidised and self-paying patients were similar. The factors that influenced adherence to medication include the 'perceived importance of quality of life' and 'perceived benefit or value of the medications'. A unique factor reported by patients in this study included 'perceived value of the money spent on medications'; more specifically, patients adhered to their medications because they valued the money spent to buy/receive the medications.

    CONCLUSION: Medication adherence among subsidised and self-paying patients was influenced by many factors, including a unique factor relating to their perceptions of the value of money spent on medications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Medication Adherence*
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