Six Campylobacter jejuni clinical isolates were examined for the occurrence of plasmids in association with antibiotic resistances as well as conjugal transfer. All the isolates were found to carry three similar plasmids of 78 kb, 12.6 kb and 3.3 kb in size. Multiple resistance to at least three of the antibiotics tested was observed with resistance to tetracycline most common. En bloc transfer of donor resistances at frequencies ranging from 10(-8) to 10(-4) were seen in all but one of the isolates during conjugation. The conjugal transfer of erythromycin, neomycin and streptomycin were observed to occur at frequencies similar to that of chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline. In isolate ABA94, three different antibiotic resistance phenotypes of the transconjugants were seen. In addition to en bloc transfer of the donor resistances, in approximately 10% of the transconjugants the streptomycin resistance was lost although these transconjugants carried the donor complement of three plasmids. In a further 1% of the transconjugants, resistance to kanamycin only was detected and these transconjugants did not carry any plasmids.
The genus Streptomonospora is a group of extremely halophilic filamentous actinomycetes that form a distinct branch in the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree adjacent to the genera Nocardiopsis and Thermobifida, family Norcadiopsaceae. To date, genus Streptomonospora only contain two validly described species which are Streptomonospora salina and Streptomonospora alba. During a biodiversity study on halophilic filamentous actinomycetes from 18 co-ordinates in Barrientos Island, Antarctic, numerous actinomycetes strains were isolated. To identify whether these isolates were members of the genus Streptomonospora, a genus specific primer that allow the rapid detection of the genus Streptomonospora by means of PCR amplification was used. Furthermore molecular cloning was performed to make identical and multiple copies of the target gene. In addition, morphological characteristic identification was performed to validate isolates with positive amplification during PCR.
The concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) in 120 commercial pepper (84 pre-packed and 36 bulk samples), which consist of local and imported white and black pepper in powder and seed form in Malaysia were determined. The objective of the study was to investigate and compare OTA concentration in black pepper and white pepper being commercialized in Malaysia. Determination method was based on HPLC with fluorescence detection coupled with immunoaffinity column clean-up step. Mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (49.5:49.5:1.0, v/v/v), and flow rate was 1 ml/min. The LOD was 0.02 ng/g, and the average recovery values of OTA ranged from 79.5 to 92.0% in black pepper and 81.2-90.3% in white pepper. A total of 57 samples (47.5%) were contaminated with OTA ranging from 0.15 to 13.58 ng/g. The results showed that there was a significant difference between type of pepper and brands. OTA concentration in black pepper was significantly higher than white pepper (p < 0.05). The highest concentration of ochratoxin, 13.58 ng/g, was detected in a sample of black pepper seed followed by 12.64 ng/g in a sample of black pepper powder, both were bulk samples purchased from open market.
The screening of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi was carried out on isopropanol extracts prepared from 121 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plants in Malaysia. Sensitivity was found to vary among the microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Alternaria sp. were susceptible to extracts from three, two and two isolates of endophytic fungi, respectively. None were found effective against Salmonella typhimurium. Sixteen endophytic fungal isolates tested were also found to exhibit antitumor activity in the yeast cell-based assay.
The present study aimed to provide an insight of C. jejuni ATCC 33560 phenotype profiles (carbon sources and sensitivity to osmolytes and pH) using Phenotypic MicroArray (PM) system in response to optimal and suboptimal temperature. C. jejuni ATCC 33560 showed utilization carbon sources from amino acids and carboxylates but not from sugars. C. jejuni ATCC 33560 is sensitive to NaCl at 2% and above but showed survival in a wide range of food preservatives (sodium lactate, sodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate). When incubated at suboptimal temperature, no phenotype loss was observed in carbon source plates. Phenotype loss of C. jejuni ATCC 33560 was observed in sodium chloride (1%), sodium sulphate (2-3%), sodium formate (1%), sodium lactate (7-12%), sodium phosphate pH7 (100mM and 200mM), ammonium sulphate pH8 (50mM), sodium nitrate (60mM, 80mM and 100mM), sodium nitrite (10mM), and growth in pH5. The phenotypic profile from present study will provide a better insight related to survival of C. jejuni ATCC 33560.
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products.
The activities of lipase produced by five lipases-producing thermophilic bacteria strains (SY1, SY5, SY6, SY7 and SY9) isolated from Selayang Hot Spring in the western part of Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed and compared. SY7 and SY9 had considerably higher lipolytic activities than those of SY1, SY5 and SY6. Thermostabilities of lipase produced by all strains were determined after heating at 80°C for 30 minutes. Strain SY7 retained the highest lipolytic activity of 77%, while others had infinitesimally low thermostability (retaining less than 34% of their original activity) at the same temperature and time. SY7 was chosen for further characterization because it showed exceptionally high lipase activity and thermostability. It was identified as belonging to Bacillus species by the conventional Gram-staining technique, Biochemical tests and Biolog Microstation system. By using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain SY7 generated the same expected PCR product with molecular weight of 1500 base pair. It displayed 98% sequence similarity to Bacillus cereus strain J-1 16S rRNA gene partial sequence with accession number: AY305275 and has been deposited in the database of Genbank.
This study was conducted to characterize the growth of and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus on paddy and to develop kinetic models describing the growth rate as a function of water activity (a(w)) and temperature.
Fermented fish and meat samples were purchased from supermarket and wet market for microbiological analysis of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes contamination. Listeria species were isolated from 17 (73.9%) of 23 samples of imported frozen beef, 10 (43.5%) of the 23 samples of local beef and 14 (56%) of the 25 samples of fermented fish from wet market. Listeria monocytogenes occurred in 15 (75%) of the frozen beef samples, 6 (30.4%) of the 23 samples of local meat and 3 (12%) of the 25 samples from fermented fish. Listeria species was not isolated from any of the 23 samples of imported frozen beef from supermarket and from the 5 samples of buffalo meat examined. This highlights the possibility of Listeria spp or L. monocytogenes to persist in meat and fermented fish in wet market and raises the problem of illness due to the handling and consumption of Listeria-contaminated meat or fermented fish are likely as evidence by the high contamination rates of samples sold at the wet market.
This study has evaluated the use of a commercially available Rainbow agar O157 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli and to serotype E. coli O157:H7 from raw meat. The Rainbow agar O157 was found to be selective and sensitive for the screening of the E. coli O157 from artificially and naturally contaminated meat samples. Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli were identified with two primer pairs that amplified fragments of the SLT-I (384 bp) and SLT-II (584 bp). E. coli O157:H7 was serotyped with a primer pair specified for the H7 flagellar gene, which amplify specific DNA fragments (625 bp) from all E. coli O157:H7 strains. The use of Rainbow agar O157 described allows for the presumptive isolation of E. coli O157 in 24 hours. Identification and confirmation of the presumptive isolates as E. coli O157:H7 by PCR assays require additional 6-8 hours. The above-mentioned screening and identification procedures should prove to be a very useful method since it allows for the specific detection of E. coli O157:H7.
A total of 57 Vibrio vulnificus isolates from coastal water were characterized for their antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiles and were typed by the PCR-based techniques: a random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method and the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC) method. All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Fifty-one isolates were resistant to one or more of the other antibiotics tested. Plasmid analysis indicated that only 18 isolates carried small plasmids of 1.6 to 16 megadaltons. Analysis of the RAPD and ERIC DNA fingerprints of the V. vulnificus isolates with Gel Compare and cluster analysis software revealed significant genetic heterogeneity among these isolates. The combination of RAPD and ERIC analysis allowed us to distinguish all isolates. Thus, the combination of the two techniques is recommended for epidemiological investigation.
Antibiotic susceptibility, plasmid profiles and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to study strains of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from cockles (Anadara granosa). Thirty-six isolates were analyzed. The prevalent biotypes were 1 (72.2% of the isolates) and 2 (27.8%). Among these, 21 strains of biotype 1 and two strains of biotype 2 contained plasmid DNA bands ranging in size from 1.4 to 9.7 MDa. Thirty-one (83.3%) were found to be resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents tested, however no specific correlation between antimicrobial resistance patterns and a single biotype was found. In addition, no particular plasmid profile was predictive of a particular pattern of antibiotic susceptibility. Two primers produced polymorphisms in all strains tested, producing bands ranging from 0.25 to 2.7 kb, indicating a high variability among both biotype 1 and biotype 2 of the V. vulnificus strains investigated. RAPD identity across biotypes was also observed among Vibrio vulnificus strains.
Fungi are distributed worldwide and can be found in various foods and feedstuffs from almost every part of the world. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some fungal species and may impose food safety risks to human health. Among all mycotoxins, aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol (DON and T-2 toxin), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisins (FMN) have received much attention due to high frequency and severe health effects in humans and animals. Malaysia has heavy rainfall throughout the year, high temperatures (28 to 31 °C), and high relative humidity (70% to 80% during wet seasons). Stored crops under such conditions can easily be contaminated by mycotoxin-producing fungi. The most important mycotoxins in Malaysian foods are AFs, OTA, DON, ZEN, and FMN that can be found in peanuts, cereal grains, cocoa beans, and spices. AFs have been reported to occur in several cereal grains, feeds, nuts, and nut products consumed in Malaysia. Spices, oilseeds, milk, eggs, and herbal medicines have been reported to be contaminated with AFs (lower than the Malaysian acceptable level of 35 ng/g for total AFs). OTA, a possible human carcinogen, was reported in cereal grains, nuts, and spices in Malaysian market. ZEN was detected in Malaysian rice, oat, barley, maize meal, and wheat at different levels. DON contamination, although at low levels, was reported in rice, maize, barley, oat, wheat, and wheat-based products in Malaysia. FMN was reported in feed and some cereal grains consumed in Malaysia. Since some food commodities are more susceptible than others to fungal growth and mycotoxin contamination, more stringent prevention and control methods are required.
The aim of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of S. polyanthum L. (salam) leaves extract foodborne pathogens. All the foodborne pathogens were inhibited after treating with extract in disk diffusion test with range 6.67 ± 0.58-9.67 ± 0.58 mm of inhibition zone. The range of MIC values was between 0.63 and 1.25 mg/mL whereas MBC values were in the range 0.63 mg/mL to 2.50 mg/mL. In time-kill curve, L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa were found completely killed after exposing to extract in 1 h incubation at 4x MIC. Four hours had been taken to completely kill E. coli, S. aureus, V. cholerae, and V. parahaemolyticus at 4x MIC. However, the population of K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and S. typhimurium only reduced to 3 log CFU/mL. The treated cell showed cell rupture and leakage of the cell cytoplasm in SEM observation. The significant reduction of natural microflora in grapes fruit was started at 0.50% of extract at 5 min and this concentration also was parallel to sensory attributes acceptability where application of extract was accepted by the panellists until 5%. In conclusion, S. polyanthum extract exhibits antimicrobial activities and thus might be developed as natural sanitizer for washing raw food materials.
The growth of Vibrio cholerae O139 inoculated into cendol (a mixture of coconut milk, brown sugar, and green jelly from rice flour), rojak (prawn paste, sugar, soy sauce, spices, garlic, and peanut gravy), gravy, tofu, fried tofu, and wheat-flour noodles (all except rojak gravy containing the natural microbial flora) was examined at four incubation temperatures (7, 15,25, and 35°C). V. cholerae O139 grew well in cendol incubated at 25 and 35°C but not at 15°C or below. No growth of V. cholerae O139 in rojak gravy was detected at any temperature except for very slow growth at 35°C. V. cholerae O139 inoculated into tofu exhibited slow growth at 25 and 35°C and growth was not detected at 7 and 15°C. However, in fried tofu, the organism entered the growth phase after 12 h of incubation at 25 and 35°C. Growth of V. cholerae O139 was not demonstrated in noodles at any incubation temperatures. Nutrient broth with 1% NaCl added supported the growth of V. cholerae O139 at 25 and 35°C. At both of these incubation temperatures mean generation time was longer at pH 5 than at pH 8. The high variation in growth of V. cholerae O139 in the distinct foods examined might have been due to differences in pH, fat content, and aw. Proper sanitary practices and storage of foods at refrigeration temperatures will help to reduce the possibility of growth by Vibrio cholerae O139 in foods to levels which do not imply a risk for food-poisoning.
Understanding the water sorption characteristics of cereal is extremely essential for optimizing the drying process and ensuring storage stability. Water relation of rough rice was studied at 20, 30, 40 and 50 °C over relative humidity (RH.) between 0.113 and 0.976 using the gravimetric technique. The isotherms displayed the general sigmoid, Type II pattern and exhibited the phenomenon of hysteresis where it was more pronounced at lower temperatures. The sorption characteristics were temperature dependence where the sorption capacity of the paddy increased as the temperature was decreased at fixed (RH). Among the models assessed for their ability to fit the sorption data, Oswin equation was the best followed by the third order polynomial, GAB, Smith, Chung-Pfost, and Henderson models. The monolayer moisture content was higher for desorption than adsorption and tend to decrease with the increase in temperature. Given the temperature dependence of the sorption isotherms the isosteric heats of sorption were calculated using Claussius-Clapeyron equation. The net isosteric heats decreased as the moisture content was increased and heats of desorption were greater than that of adsorption.
The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine.
The aim of this study was to model the radial growth rate and to assess aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus as a function of water activity (a(w) 0.82 to 0.92) and temperature (12 to 42 °C) on polished and brown rice. The growth of the fungi, expressed as colony diameter (mm) was measured daily, and the aflatoxins were analyzed using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. The growth rates were estimated using the primary model of Baranyi, which describes the change in colony radius as a function of time. Total of 2 secondary models were used to describe the combined effects of a(w) and temperature on the growth rates. The models were validated using independent experimental data. Linear Arrhenius-Davey model proved to be the best predictor of A. flavus growth rates on polished and brown rice followed by polynomial model. The estimated optimal growth temperature was around 30 °C. A. flavus growth and aflatoxins were not detected at 0.82 a(w) on polished rice while growth and aflatoxins were detected at this a(w) between 25 and 35 °C on brown rice. The highest amounts of toxins were formed at the highest a(w) values (0.90 to 0.92) at a temperature of 20 °C after 21 d of incubation on both types of rice. Nevertheless, the consistencies of toxin production within a wider range of a(w) values occurred between 25 to 30 °C. Brown rice seems to support A. flavus growth and aflatoxin production more than the polished rice.
Twenty-five and three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were identified from 25 tenderloin beef and three chicken meat burger samples, respectively. The bacteria were recovered using the immunomagnetic separation procedure followed by selective plating on sorbitol MacConkey agar and were identified as E. coli serotype O157:H7 with three primer pairs that amplified fragments of the SLT-I, SLT-II and H7 genes in PCR assays. Susceptibility testing to 14 antibiotics showed that all were resistant to two or more antibiotics tested. Although all 28 strains contained plasmid, there was very little variation in the plasmid sizes observed. The most common plasmid of 60 MDa was detected in all strains. We used DNA fingerprinting by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to compare the 28 E. coli O157:H7 strains. At a similarity level of 90%, the results of PFGE after restriction with XbaI separated the E. coli O157:H7 strains into 28 single isolates, whereas RAPD using a single 10-mer oligonucleotides separated the E. coli O157:H7 strains into two clusters and 22 single isolates. These typing methods should aid in the epidemiological clarification of the E. coli O157:H7 in the study area.
A total of 11 Vibrio cholerae isolates from 1996-1998 outbreaks in Malaysia and 4 V. alginolyticus were analyzed. Isolates were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization for the presence of the gene encoding zonula occludens toxin (zot). Screening of zot gene by PCR revealed the presence of this gene in V. cholerae and V. alginolyticus. The zot gene from one V. cholerae Ogawa isolate that was cloned in a pCR 2.1 TOPO vector was sequenced. The sequences obtained were 99% homologous to the zot gene sequence from the Gene Bank.