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  1. Rao PV, Gan SH
    Curr Drug Metab, 2015;16(5):371-5.
    PMID: 25429672 DOI: 10.2174/1389200215666141125120215
    Nanotechnology is a field encompassing nanostructures, nanomaterials and nanoparticles, which are of increasing importance to researchers and industrial players alike. Nanotechnology addresses the construction and consumption of substances and devices on the nanometer scale. Nanomedicine is a new field that combines nanotechnology with medicine to boost human health care. Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that includes various areas of biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. The most important problems related to diabetes management, such as self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and insulin injections, can now be conquered due to progress in nanomedicine, which offers glucose nanosensors, the layer-by-layer technique, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, oral insulins, microspheres, artificial pancreases and nanopumps. In this review, the key methodological and scientific characteristics of nanomedicine related to diabetes treatment, glucose monitoring and insulin administration are discussed.
  2. Rao PV, Gan SH
    PMID: 24817901 DOI: 10.1155/2014/642942
    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life.
  3. Aziz MSA, Giribabu N, Rao PV, Salleh N
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 May;89:135-145.
    PMID: 28222394 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.02.026
    Stingless bee honey (SLBH) has been claimed to possess multiple health benefits. Its anti-diabetic properties are however unknown. In this study, ability of SLBH from Geniotrigona thoracica stingless bee species in ameliorating pancreatic damage and in maintaining metabolic profiles were investigated in diabetic condition.

    METHODS: SLBH at 1 and 2g/kg/b.w. was given orally to streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced male diabetic rats for 28days. Metabolic parameters (fasting blood glucose-FBG and lipid profiles-LP and serum insulin) were measured by biochemical assays. Distribution and expression level of insulin, oxidative stress marker i.e. catalase, inflammatory markers i.e. IKK-β, TNF-α, IL-1β and apoptosis marker i.e. caspase-9 in the pancreatic islets were identified and quantified respectively by immunohistochemistry. Levels of NF-κβ in pancreas were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA).

    RESULTS: SLBH administration to diabetic male rats prevented increase in FBG, total cholesterols (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. However, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and serum insulin levels in diabetic rats receiving SLBH increased. Additionally, histopathological changes and expression level of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis markers in pancreatic islets of diabetic rats decreased with increased expression level of insulin in the islets. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of several compounds in SLBH that might be responsible for these effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: SLBH has great potential to be used as agent to protect the pancreas against damage and dysfunction where these could account for its anti-diabetic properties.

  4. Giribabu N, Rao PV, Kumar KP, Muniandy S, Swapna Rekha S, Salleh N
    PMID: 24991228 DOI: 10.1155/2014/834815
    P. niruri has been reported to possess antidiabetic and kidney protective effects. In the present study, the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity of P. niruri leaf aqueous extract were investigated together with its effect on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rat kidney. Results. Treatment of diabetic male rats with P. niruri leaf aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days prevents the increase in the amount of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product, malondialdehyde (MDA), and the diminution of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity levels in the kidney of diabetic rats. The amount of LPO showed strong negative correlation with SOD, CAT, and GPx activity levels. P. niruri leaf aqueous extract exhibits in vitro antioxidant activity with IC50 slightly lower than ascorbic acid. Phytochemical screening of plant extract indicates the presence of polyphenols. Conclusion. P. niruri leaf extract protects the kidney from oxidative stress induced by diabetes.
  5. Gaddam A, Galla C, Thummisetti S, Marikanty RK, Palanisamy UD, Rao PV
    PMID: 26436069 DOI: 10.1186/s40200-015-0208-4
    BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that dietary supplementation with Fenugreek modulates glucose homeostasis and potentially prevents diabetes mellitus in people with prediabetes. The objective of present study is to determine whether Fenugreek can prevent the outcome of T2DM in non diabetic people with prediabetes.

    METHODS: A 3-year randomized, controlled, parallel study for efficacy of Fenugreek (n = 66) and matched controls (n = 74) was conducted in men and women aged 30-70 years with criteria of prediabetes. Fenugreek powder, 5 g twice a day before meals, was given to study subjects and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was monitored at baseline and every 3 months for the 3-year study.

    RESULTS: By the end of intervention period, cumulative incidence rate of diabetes reduced significantly in Fenugreek group when compared to controls. The Fenugreek group also saw a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) whereas serum insulin increased significantly. It was observed that controls had 4.2 times higher chance of developing diabetes compared to subjects in the Fenugreek group. The outcome of diabetes in Fenugreek group was positively associated with serum insulin and negatively associated with insulin resistance (HOMA IR).

    CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation of 10 g Fenugreek/day in prediabetes subjects was associated with lower conversion to diabetes with no adverse effects and beneficial possibly due to its decreased insulin resistance.

  6. Rao PV, Nallappan D, Madhavi K, Rahman S, Jun Wei L, Gan SH
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016;2016:3685671.
    PMID: 27057273 DOI: 10.1155/2016/3685671
    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Several classes of drugs are available to treat different types of cancer. Currently, researchers are paying significant attention to the development of drugs at the nanoscale level to increase their target specificity and to reduce their concentrations. Nanotechnology is a promising and growing field with multiple subdisciplines, such as nanostructures, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles. These materials have gained prominence in science due to their size, shape, and potential efficacy. Nanomedicine is an important field involving the use of various types of nanoparticles to treat cancer and cancerous cells. Synthesis of nanoparticles targeting biological pathways has become tremendously prominent due to the higher efficacy and fewer side effects of nanodrugs compared to other commercial cancer drugs. In this review, different medicinal plants and their active compounds, as well as green-synthesized metallic nanoparticles from medicinal plants, are discussed in relation to their anticancer activities.
  7. Rao PV, Ahuja MM, Trivedi BB, Ramachandran M, Samal KC, Zain AZ, et al.
    J Indian Med Assoc, 1998 May;96(5):155-7.
    PMID: 9828573
  8. Lynch JL, Barrientos-Pérez M, Hafez M, Jalaludin MY, Kovarenko M, Rao PV, et al.
    Ann Nutr Metab, 2020;76(5):289-296.
    PMID: 32980841 DOI: 10.1159/000510499
    BACKGROUND: With increased awareness of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children and adolescents, an overview of country-specific differences in epidemiology data is needed to develop a global picture of the disease development.

    SUMMARY: This study examined country-specific prevalence and incidence data of youth-onset T2D published between 2008 and 2019, and searched for national guidelines to expand the understanding of country-specific similarities and differences. Of the 1,190 articles and 17 congress abstracts identified, 58 were included in this review. Our search found the highest reported prevalence rates of youth-onset T2D in China (520 cases/100,000 people) and the USA (212 cases/100,000) and lowest in Denmark (0.6 cases/100,000) and Ireland (1.2 cases/100,000). However, the highest incidence rates were reported in Taiwan (63 cases/100,000) and the UK (33.2 cases/100,000), with the lowest in Fiji (0.43 cases/100,000) and Austria (0.6 cases/100,000). These differences in epidemiology data may be partly explained by variations in the diagnostic criteria used within studies, screening recommendations within national guidelines and race/ethnicity within countries. Key Messages: Our study suggests that published country-specific epidemiology data for youth-onset T2D are varied and scant, and often with reporting inconsistencies. Finding optimal diagnostic criteria and screening strategies for this disease should be of high interest to every country.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.

  9. Adam SH, Giribabu N, Rao PV, Sayem AS, Arya A, Panichayupakaranant P, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2016 Jan 15;771:173-90.
    PMID: 26703866 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.12.028
    Effect of Rhinacanthin C on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidemia and pancreatic dysfunction in diabetes was investigated. In-vitro effect of Rhinacanthin C on glucose uptake was studied in 3T3-L1 cell line. Meanwhile, in-vivo effect of 28-days treatment with 5mg/kg/day or 20mg/kg/day Rhinacanthin C was studied in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced male diabetic rats. Following completion of treatment, fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, insulin and lipid profile levels were measured by biochemical assays. Histopathological changes in pancreas were observed by light microscopy while levels of pancreatic oxidative stress were determined by enzymatic assays. Expression of insulin, TNFα, Ikkβ and caspase-3 in pancreas were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Molecular docking was used to identify interactions between Rhinacathin C with SOD or GPx enzymes. Dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake was observed with increasing doses of Rhinacathin C. Plasma FBG, HbA1c and lipid profile except LDL levels and pancreatic malonaldehyde level were reduced but serum insulin and pancreatic anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) levels were increased in diabetic rats receiving Rhinacanthin C treatment. Decreased pancreatic histopathological changes with higher pancreatic insulin and Glut-2 levels but lower TNFα, Ikkβ and caspase-3 levels were observed in diabetic rats receiving Rhinacanthin C (P<0.05 compared to non-treated diabetic rats). In diabetic rats which received Rhinacathin C, changes in the above parameters did not achieve the value in non-diabetic rats. Docking shows Rhinacathin C possesses high degree interactions with SOD and GPx. By possessing these effects, Rhinacanthin C could be used as agent to alleviate pancreatic and other complications in diabetes.
  10. Moniruzzaman M, Yung An C, Rao PV, Hawlader MN, Azlan SA, Sulaiman SA, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:737490.
    PMID: 25045696 DOI: 10.1155/2014/737490
    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. The flavonoids, kaempferol, and catechin were most abundant, followed by myricetin and naringenin. The mean moisture content, total sugar content, and color characteristics of the honey samples were 18.36 ± 0.95%, 67.40 ± 5.63 g/100 g, and 129.27 ± 34.66 mm Pfund, respectively. The mean total phenolic acids, total flavonoid content, and proline content were 199.20 ± 135.23, 46.73 ± 34.16, and 556.40 ± 376.86 mg/kg, respectively, while the mean FRAP values and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 327.30 ± 231.87 μM Fe (II)/100 g and 36.95 ± 20.53%, respectively. Among the different types of honey, kalijira exhibited the highest phenolics and antioxidant properties. Overall, our study confirms that all the investigated honey samples are good sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids with good antioxidant properties.
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