METHODS: SLBH at 1 and 2g/kg/b.w. was given orally to streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced male diabetic rats for 28days. Metabolic parameters (fasting blood glucose-FBG and lipid profiles-LP and serum insulin) were measured by biochemical assays. Distribution and expression level of insulin, oxidative stress marker i.e. catalase, inflammatory markers i.e. IKK-β, TNF-α, IL-1β and apoptosis marker i.e. caspase-9 in the pancreatic islets were identified and quantified respectively by immunohistochemistry. Levels of NF-κβ in pancreas were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA).
RESULTS: SLBH administration to diabetic male rats prevented increase in FBG, total cholesterols (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. However, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and serum insulin levels in diabetic rats receiving SLBH increased. Additionally, histopathological changes and expression level of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis markers in pancreatic islets of diabetic rats decreased with increased expression level of insulin in the islets. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of several compounds in SLBH that might be responsible for these effects.
CONCLUSIONS: SLBH has great potential to be used as agent to protect the pancreas against damage and dysfunction where these could account for its anti-diabetic properties.
METHODS: A 3-year randomized, controlled, parallel study for efficacy of Fenugreek (n = 66) and matched controls (n = 74) was conducted in men and women aged 30-70 years with criteria of prediabetes. Fenugreek powder, 5 g twice a day before meals, was given to study subjects and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was monitored at baseline and every 3 months for the 3-year study.
RESULTS: By the end of intervention period, cumulative incidence rate of diabetes reduced significantly in Fenugreek group when compared to controls. The Fenugreek group also saw a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) whereas serum insulin increased significantly. It was observed that controls had 4.2 times higher chance of developing diabetes compared to subjects in the Fenugreek group. The outcome of diabetes in Fenugreek group was positively associated with serum insulin and negatively associated with insulin resistance (HOMA IR).
CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation of 10 g Fenugreek/day in prediabetes subjects was associated with lower conversion to diabetes with no adverse effects and beneficial possibly due to its decreased insulin resistance.
SUMMARY: This study examined country-specific prevalence and incidence data of youth-onset T2D published between 2008 and 2019, and searched for national guidelines to expand the understanding of country-specific similarities and differences. Of the 1,190 articles and 17 congress abstracts identified, 58 were included in this review. Our search found the highest reported prevalence rates of youth-onset T2D in China (520 cases/100,000 people) and the USA (212 cases/100,000) and lowest in Denmark (0.6 cases/100,000) and Ireland (1.2 cases/100,000). However, the highest incidence rates were reported in Taiwan (63 cases/100,000) and the UK (33.2 cases/100,000), with the lowest in Fiji (0.43 cases/100,000) and Austria (0.6 cases/100,000). These differences in epidemiology data may be partly explained by variations in the diagnostic criteria used within studies, screening recommendations within national guidelines and race/ethnicity within countries. Key Messages: Our study suggests that published country-specific epidemiology data for youth-onset T2D are varied and scant, and often with reporting inconsistencies. Finding optimal diagnostic criteria and screening strategies for this disease should be of high interest to every country.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.