Computed tomography (CT) is widely used in assessing clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma. In these patients, liver is one of the commonest organs being injured and CT can accurately identify and assess the extent of the injury. The CT features of blunt liver trauma include laceration, subcapsular or parenchymal haematomas, active haemorrhage and vascular injuries. Widespread use of CT has notably influenced the management of blunt liver injury from routine surgical to nonsurgical management. We present pictorial illustrations of various liver injuries depicted on CT in patients with blunt trauma.
The title compound, C28H24N2O3, is a flexible Schiff base, having a dihedral angle of 59.53 (5)° between the mean planes of two phenyl rings bounded in the centre by a single O atom. The dihedral angles between the mean planes of the phenyl rings bonded to the central O atom and the mean planes of the terminal methyl-phenol rings are 31.47 (6) and 36.03 (5)°, respectively. The sp2-hybridized character of the azanylylidene groups is confirmed by their bond lengths and bond angles. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers by weak C-H⋯N inter-actions and connected into dimeric chains through weak C-H⋯O inter-actions. These chains are inter-connected into a two-dimensional network parallel to (1[Formula: see text]1) via weak C-H⋯π inter-actions.
In the title compound, C18H27N3OS, the cyclo-hexane ring has a chair conformation. The azomethine C=N double bond has an E configuration. The nearly planar hydrazinecarbo-thio-amide moiety and substituted benzene ring are twisted by 31.13 (5)° relative to each other. The amide moiety and the cyclo-hexane ring are almost perpendicular to each other; a similar conformation was previously observed in reported structures. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(8) ring motif.
The mol-ecule of the title Schiff base compound, C14H14N2O2, displays an E conformation with respect the imine C=N double bond. The mol-ecule is approximately planar, with the dihedral angle formed by the planes of the pyridine and benzene rings being 5.72 (6)°. There is an intra-molecular hydrogen bond involving the phenolic H and imine N atoms.
In the mol-ecule of the title compound, C21H17N3O2, the 5,6-di-hydro-benzimidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline moiety is disordered over two orientations about a pseudo-mirror plane, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.863 (2):0.137 (2). The dihedral angles formed by the benzimidazole ring system and the benzene ring of the quinazoline group are 14.28 (5) and 4.7 (3)° for the major and minor disorder components, respectively. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is present. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains running parallel to [10-1].
Renal injury is observed in 10 percent of cases of abdominal trauma, and the majority (80 percent to 90 percent) of these are attributable to blunt trauma. Intravenous urography and ultrasonography of the abdomen were previously the modalities of choice in the imaging of renal injuries. However, computed tomography (CT) is currently the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of blunt renal injury, since it provides the exact staging of renal injuries. The purpose of this article is to describe the CT staging of renal injuries observed in blunt abdominal trauma based on the Federle Classification and the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma renal injury severity scale.
Monitoring treatment response to anti-tuberculous therapy remains unsatisfactory in resource-limited countries where sophisticated and expensive tests are not readily available. Sputum culture for mycobacterium is desirable, but not obtainable in many developing countries. Sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear alone can be misinterpreted in the presence of unviable bacilli or non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Hence the search for a cheaper but reliable monitoring tool, or a combination of several tools, continues. Interesting reports from studies in third world nations have considered weight gain/loss as one such monitoring tool. Since pulmonary tuberculosis is endemic in this country, we take the opportunity to evaluate weight gain and chest radiograph, compared to sputum AFB smear in monitoring patient's response.
A series of four benzimidazolium based nitrile-functionalized mononuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene and binuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (Ag(I)-NHC) hexafluorophosphate complexes (5b-8b) were synthesized by reacting the corresponding hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) with Ag2O in acetonitrile, respectively. These compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, elemental analyses and molar conductivity. Additionally, 8b was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial evaluation was conducted for all the compounds against two standard bacteria; gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. Most of the Ag(I)-NHC complexes (5b-8b) showed moderate to good antibacterial activity with MIC values in the range of 12.5-100 μg/mL. Especially, compound 8b exhibited promising anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity with a low MIC value (12.5 μg/mL). However, all the hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) were inactive against the bacteria strains. The preliminary interactive investigation revealed that the most active compound, 8b, could effectively intercalate into DNA to form 8b-DNA complex which shows a better binding ability for DNA (Kb = 3.627 × 106) than the complexes 5b-7b (2.177 × 106, 8.672 × 105 and 6.665 × 105, respectively). Nuclease activity of the complexes on plasmid DNA and Aedes albopictus genomic DNA was time-dependent, although minimal. The complexes were larvicidal to the mosquito, with 5b, 6b and 8b being highly active. Developmental progression from the larval to the adult stage was affected by the complexes, progressively being toxic to the insect's development with increasing concentration. These indicate the potential use of these complexes as control agents against bacteria and the dengue mosquito Ae. albopictus.
New synthesized bis-imidazolium salts that are linked by xylyl derivatives moiety, 1-4 was reacted with Ag2O to facilitate the formation of dinuclear Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes, 5-8, respectively. All the synthesized ligand salts and complexes were characterized by1H and13C NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Molecular structures of compounds 3, 5, and 7 were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Larvicidal studies against the Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were carried out on all synthesized compounds following the World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test. All the imidazolium salts were found inactive while the activity of the dinuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes on mosquito larvae are varies with the nature of the ligands. Complex 7 has high activity on Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, emphasising its potential as a larvicidal compound.
Melioidosis is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative bacillus. Melioidosis can affect many organs, including the prostate. However, prostatic abscess due to melioidosis is uncommon. We describe five cases of melioidosis with prostatic abscess. Four of five patients had diabetes mellitus and had more than one organ involvement. The diagnosis of prostatic abscess in our patients was only made with computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis. None of our patients underwent surgical drainage and all remained well after treatment with antibiotics, except for one mortality secondary to severe septicaemia.