METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Google Scholar on 15th May 2020, with search terms including SARS-COV-2, coronavirus, COVID-19, hyposmia, anosmia, ageusia and dysgeusia. The articles included were cross sectional studies, observational studies and retrospective or prospective audits, letters to editor and short communications that included a study of a cohort of patients. Case reports, case-series and interventional studies were excluded.
DISCUSSION: A total of 16 studies were selected. Incidence of smell and taste dysfunction was higher in Europe (34 to 86%), North America (19 to 71%) and the Middle East (36 to 98%) when compared to the Asian cohorts (11 to 15%) in COVID-19 positive patients. Incidence of smell and taste dysfunction in COVID-19 negative patients was low in comparison (12 to 27%). Total incidence of smell and taste dysfunction from COVID-19 positive and negative patients from seven studies was 20% and 10% respectively. Symptoms may appear just before, concomitantly, or immediately after the onset of the usual symptoms. Occurs predominantly in females. When occurring immediately after the onset of the usual symptoms, the median time of onset was 3.3 to 4.4 days. Symptoms persist for a period of seven to 14 days. Patients with smell and taste dysfunction were reported to have a six to ten-fold odds of having COVID-19.
CONCLUSION: Smell and taste dysfunction has a high incidence in Europe, North America, and the Middle East. The incidence was lower in the Asia region. It is a strong risk factor for COVID-19. It may be the only symptom and should be added to the list of symptoms when screening for COVID- 19.
Case Report: We report a rare case of nasal angiomyolipoma in a young male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of angiomyolipoma originating from the posterior end of the inferior turbinate, clinically mimicking juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). The tumor was removed completely via coblator-assisted endoscopic sinus surgery. The patient was asymptomatic at a 2-year follow-up.
Conclusion: Nasal AML located in the posterior nasal cavity in a male patient can mimic the presentation of JNA. A computed tomography scan of the paranasal sinuses played an important role in differentiating nasal AML from JNA. The coblator-assisted endoscopic technique is useful in controlling intraoperative hemostasis in the removal of a suspicious vascular tumor.
METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out in the Otorhinolaryngology - HNS Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC). Subjective assessments of nasal symptoms and quality of life (QoL) using SNOT-22 and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and objective endoscopic assessment was undertaken using a modified Hadley endoscopic examination.
RESULTS: There was no significant statistical difference in the quality of life between the ECRSwNP and non-ECRSwNP groups as evidenced by the SNOT-22 score and the VAS comparison (p>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in terms of recurrence of disease with the presence of nasal polyps on endoscopic examination. (p = 0.016) CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found that there is no significant difference in QoL between ECRSwNP and non- ECRSwNP. There is higher frequency of recurrence of nasal polyps amongst ECRSwNP.