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  1. Saokaew S, Tassaneeyakul W, Maenthaisong R, Chaiyakunapruk N
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e94294.
    PMID: 24732692 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094294
    BACKGROUND: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), caused by allopurinol therapy, are strongly associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), HLA-B*5801. Identification of HLA-B*5801 genotype before prescribing allopurinol offers the possibility of avoiding allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN. As there is a paucity of evidence about economic value of such testing, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of HLA-B*5801 testing compared with usual care (no genetic testing) before allopurinol administration in Thailand.
    METHODS AND FINDING: A decision analytical and Markov model was used to estimate life time costs and outcomes represented as quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. The model was populated with relevant information of the association between gene and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN, test characteristics, costs, and epidemiologic data for Thailand from a societal perspective. Input data were obtained from the literature and a retrospective database analysis. The results were expressed as incremental cost per QALY gained. A base-case analysis was performed for patients at age 30. A series of sensitivity analyses including scenario, one-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were constructed to explore the robustness of the findings. Based on a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients, the incremental total cost was 923,919 THB (USD 29,804) and incremental QALY was 5.89 with an ICER of 156,937.04 THB (USD 5,062) per QALY gained. The cost of gout management, incidence of SJS/TEN, case fatality rate of SJS/TEN, and cost of genetic testing are considered very influential parameters on the cost-effectiveness value of HLA-B*5801 testing.
    CONCLUSIONS: The genetic testing for HLA-B*5801 before allopurinol administration is considered a highly potential cost-effective intervention in Thailand. The findings are sensitive to a number of factors. In addition to cost-effectiveness findings, consideration of other factors including ethical, legal, and social implications is needed for an informed policy decision making.
  2. Ontawong A, Saokaew S, Jamroendararasame B, Duangjai A
    Expert Rev Respir Med, 2020 May;14(5):527-531.
    PMID: 32156169 DOI: 10.1080/17476348.2020.1740089
    Background: Air pollution is a global problem and also linked to respiratory diseases. Wildfire smog is a major cause of air pollution in the upper northern area of Thailand. Thus, in the current study, we examined whether long-term exposure to wildfire smog induces lung function changes in a population from the upper northern area of Thailand.Methods: The lung function of 115 participants with long-term exposure smog was determined using peak flow meter.Results: Long-term smoke exposure participants decreased FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second)/FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio (56.49 ± 23.88 in males and 56.29 ± 28.23 in females) compared with general Thai population. Moreover, the reduction of FVC, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) values also showed in both male and female subjects. These results suggest that long-term smoke exposure induces obstructive lung abnormality. Moreover, itchy/watery nose, cough, phlegm, and chest pain also reported in these subjects.Conclusion: Wildfire smog could be induced respiratory pathway inflammation and easily collapsible respiratory airways.
  3. Sawangjit R, Puttarak P, Saokaew S, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Phytother Res, 2017 Apr;31(4):555-567.
    PMID: 28165166 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5783
    Cissus quadrangularis L. (Cissus) is a medicinal plant commonly used for centuries for various conditions, but lacks critical appraisal of its clinical effects. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of Cissus in all conditions. Publications from 12 electronic databases were searched from inception through November 2016. A total of nine studies with 1108 patients were included. Each outcome was pooled using a random effects model. Effects of Cissus on hemorrhoid symptoms were not different from any comparators but had significant effects on bone pain. Effects of Cissus combination products on body weight reduction, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were superior to placebo, with weighted mean difference of -5.19 kg (-8.82, -1.55), -14.43 mg/dl (-20.06, -8.80), -37.50 mg/dl (-48.71, -26.29), -50.50 mg/dl (-70.97, -30.04), and -10.39 mg/dl (-14.60, -6.18), respectively. No serious adverse effects were reported. Quality of evidence based on Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) indicated low (bone fractures) to high quality (hemorrhoids, body weight reduction).In conclusion, Cissus had benefit for bone fractures, but not for hemorrhoids. For obesity/overweight, only combination products are pooled and show benefit. However, high-quality studies remain needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  4. Kanchanasurakit S, Saokaew S, Siriplabpla W, Arsu A, Boonmak W, Watcharasiriphong W
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2020 Feb 03.
    PMID: 32012317 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.13123
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is a common side effect of thiazide diuretics that can lead to increased mortality and hospitalization. A rapid and accurate screening tool is needed for rapid and appropriate management. In this study, we report on the development of a simple clinical screening tool for hyponatremia using thiazide diuretics.

    METHODS: This nested case-control study was performed by collecting data from 1 January 2015 to 30 June 2017. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify potential risk factors. The regression coefficients were converted into item scores by dividing each regression coefficient with the minimum coefficient in the model and rounding to the nearest integer. This value was then summed to the total score. The prediction power of the model was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AuROC).

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Six clinical risk factors, namely age ≥65 years, benzodiazepine use, history of a cerebrovascular accident, dose of hydrochlorothiazide ≥25 mg, female sex and statin use, were included in our ABCDF-S score. The model showed good power of prediction (AuROC 81.53%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 78%-84%) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow X2  = 23.20; P = .39). The positive likelihood ratios of hyponatremia in patients with low risk (score ≤ 6) and high risk (score ≥ 8) were 0.26 (95% CI: 0.21-0.32) and 3.89 (95% CI: 3.11-4.86), respectively.

    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The screening tool with six risk predictors provided a useful prediction index for thiazide-associated hyponatremia. However, further validation of the tool is warranted prior to its utilization in routine clinical practice.

  5. Chong HY, Saokaew S, Dumrongprat K, Permsuwan U, Sritara P, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Value Health, 2014 Nov;17(7):A760.
    PMID: 27202779 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.254
  6. Permsuwan U, Chaiyakunapruk N, Dilokthornsakul P, Thavorn K, Saokaew S
    Appl Health Econ Health Policy, 2016 Jun;14(3):281-92.
    PMID: 26961276 DOI: 10.1007/s40258-016-0228-3
    BACKGROUND: Even though Insulin glargine (IGlar) has been available and used in other countries for more than a decade, it has not been adopted into Thai national formulary. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term cost effectiveness of IGlar versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in type 2 diabetes from the perspective of Thai Health Care System.

    METHODS: A validated computer simulation model (the IMS CORE Diabetes Model) was used to estimate the long-term projection of costs and clinical outcomes. The model was populated with published characteristics of Thai patients with type 2 diabetes. Baseline risk factors were obtained from Thai cohort studies, while relative risk reduction was derived from a meta-analysis study conducted by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technology in Health. Only direct costs were taken into account. Costs of diabetes management and complications were obtained from hospital databases in Thailand. Both costs and outcomes were discounted at 3 % per annum and presented in US dollars in terms of 2014 dollar value. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were also performed.

    RESULTS: IGlar is associated with a slight gain in quality-adjusted life years (0.488 QALYs), an additional life expectancy (0.677 life years), and an incremental cost of THB119,543 (US$3522.19) compared with NPH insulin. The ICERs were THB244,915/QALY (US$7216.12/QALY) and THB176,525/life-year gained (LYG) (US$5201.09/LYG). The ICER was sensitive to discount rates and IGlar cost. At the acceptable willingness to pay of THB160,000/QALY (US$4714.20/QALY), the probability that IGlar was cost effective was less than 20 %.

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared to treatment with NPH insulin, treatment with IGlar in type 2 diabetes patients who had uncontrolled blood glucose with oral anti-diabetic drugs did not represent good value for money at the acceptable threshold in Thailand.

  7. Saokaew S, Sugimoto T, Kamae I, Pratoomsoot C, Chaiyakunapruk N
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0141993.
    PMID: 26560127 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141993
    Health technology assessment (HTA) has been continuously used for value-based healthcare decisions over the last decade. Healthcare databases represent an important source of information for HTA, which has seen a surge in use in Western countries. Although HTA agencies have been established in Asia-Pacific region, application and understanding of healthcare databases for HTA is rather limited. Thus, we reviewed existing databases to assess their potential for HTA in Thailand where HTA has been used officially and Japan where HTA is going to be officially introduced.
  8. Kanchanasurakit S, Arsu A, Siriplabpla W, Duangjai A, Saokaew S
    Kidney Res Clin Pract, 2020 Mar 31;39(1):81-92.
    PMID: 32172553 DOI: 10.23876/j.krcp.19.106
    Background: Acetaminophen is commonly used for the relief of pain and fever. Advocacy organizations recommend acetaminophen as the drug of choice in patients with kidney disease. Although some studies have suggested a risk of renal impairment after the use of acetaminophen, the effect of acetaminophen on the risk of renal impairment is unclear. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate any correlation linking acetaminophen treatment and renal impairment.

    Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between acetaminophen and renal impairment in adults by searching Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases from initiation to June 16, 2019.

    Results: Of 13,097 articles identified, 5 studies (2 cohort studies and 3 case-control studies) with a total of 13,114 participants were included. In the random-effects meta-analysis of the cohort study, acetaminophen use was shown to have statistically significant effects on the increased risk of renal impairment (adjusted odds ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.40). The results of sensitivity and subgroup analyses also suggested that acetaminophen use increases the risk of renal impairment. The Egger's test (P = 0.607) and Begg's test (P = 0.732) revealed no apparent publication bias.

    Conclusion: Acetaminophen is associated with a significantly increased risk of newly developing renal impairment in adults. Physicians who prescribe acetaminophen should be aware of potential adverse renal effects. A longitudinal study that further explores this association is warranted.

  9. Permsuwan U, Dilokthornsakul P, Thavorn K, Saokaew S, Chaiyakunapruk N
    J Med Econ, 2017 Feb;20(2):171-181.
    PMID: 27645706 DOI: 10.1080/13696998.2016.1238386
    OBJECTIVE: With a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Thailand, the appropriate treatment for the patients has become a major concern. This study aimed to evaluate long-term cost-effective of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor monothearpy vs sulfonylurea (SFU) monotherapy in people with T2DM and CKD.

    METHODS: A validated IMS CORE Diabetes Model was used to estimate the long-term costs and outcomes. The efficacy parameters were identified and synthesized using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Baseline characteristics and cost parameters were obtained from published studies and hospital databases in Thailand. Costs were expressed in 2014 US Dollars. Outcomes were presented as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to estimate parameter uncertainty.

    RESULTS: From a societal perspective, treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors yielded more quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (0.024) at a higher cost (>66,000 Thai baht (THB) or >1,829.27 USD) per person than SFU, resulting in the ICER of >2.7 million THB/QALY (>74,833.70 USD/QALY). The cost-effectiveness results were mainly driven by differences in HbA1c reduction, hypoglycemic events, and drug acquisition cost of DPP-4 inhibitors. At the ceiling ratio of 160,000 THB/QALY (4,434.59 USD/QALY), the probability that DPP-4 inhibitors are cost-effective compared to SFU was less than 10%.

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared to SFU, DPP-4 inhibitor monotherapy is not a cost-effective treatment for people with T2DM and CKD in Thailand.

  10. Saokaew S, Rayanakorn A, Wu DB, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Pharmacoeconomics, 2016 12;34(12):1211-1225.
    PMID: 27510721
    BACKGROUND: Although pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been available for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) for over a decade, their adoption into national immunization programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is still limited. Economic evaluations (EEs) play a crucial role in support of evidence-informed decisions.

    OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to provide a critical summary of EEs of PCVs and identify key drivers of EE findings in LMICs.

    METHODS: We searched Scopus, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central from their inception to 30 September 2015 and limited the search to LMICs. The search was undertaken using the search strings 'pneumococc* AND conjugat* AND (vaccin* OR immun*)' AND 'economic OR cost-effectiveness OR cost-benefit OR cost-utility OR cost-effectiveness OR cost-benefit OR cost-utility' in the abstract, title or keyword fields. To be included, each study had to be a full EE of a PCV and conducted for an LMIC. Studies were extracted and reviewed by two authors. The review involved standard extraction of the study overview or the characteristics of the study, key drivers or parameters of the EE, assumptions behind the analyses and major areas of uncertainty.

    RESULTS: Out of 134 records identified, 22 articles were included. Seven studies used a Markov model for analysis, while 15 studies used a decision-tree analytic model. Eighteen studies performed a cost-utility analysis (CUA), with disability-adjusted life-years, quality-adjusted life-years or life-years gained as a measure of health outcome, while four studies focused only on cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). Both CEA and CUA findings were provided by eight studies. Herd effects and serotype replacement were considered in 10 and 13 studies, respectively. The current evidence shows that both the 10-valent and 13-valent PCVs are probably cost effective in comparison with the 7-valent PCV or no vaccination. The most influential parameters were vaccine efficacy and coverage (in 16 of 22 studies), vaccine price (in 13 of 22 studies), disease incidence (in 11 of 22 studies), mortality from IPD and pneumonia (in 8 of 22 studies) and herd effects (in 4 of 22 studies). The findings were found to be supportive of the products owned by the manufacturers.

    CONCLUSION: Our review demonstrated that an infant PCV programme was a cost-effective intervention in most LMICs (in 20 of 22 studies included). The results were sensitive to vaccine efficacy, price, burden of disease and sponsorship. Decision makers should consider EE findings and affordability before adoption of PCVs.

  11. Permsuwan U, Dilokthornsakul P, Saokaew S, Thavorn K, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Clinicoecon Outcomes Res, 2016;8:521-529.
    PMID: 27703387
    The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in elderly population poses many challenges. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors show particular promise due to excellent tolerability profiles, low risk of hypoglycemia, and little effect on body weight. This study evaluated, from the health care system's perspective, the long-term cost-effectiveness of DPP-4 inhibitor monotherapy vs metformin and sulfonylurea (SFU) monotherapy in Thai elderly T2DM patients.
  12. Permsuwan U, Thavorn K, Dilokthornsakul P, Saokaew S, Chaiyakunapruk N
    J Med Econ, 2017 Sep;20(9):991-999.
    PMID: 28649943 DOI: 10.1080/13696998.2017.1347792
    AIMS: An economic evidence is a vital tool that can inform the decision to use costly insulin analogs. This study aimed to evaluate long-term cost-effectiveness of insulin detemir (IDet) compared with insulin glargine (IGlar) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from the Thai payer's perspective.

    METHODS: Long-term costs and outcomes were projected using a validated IMS CORE Diabetes Model, version 8.5. Cohort characteristics, baseline risk factors, and costs of diabetes complications were derived from Thai data sources. Relative risk was derived from a systematic review and meta-analysis study. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 3% per annum. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was presented in 2015 US Dollars (USD). A series of one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: IDet yielded slightly greater quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (8.921 vs 8.908), but incurred higher costs than IGlar (90,417.63 USD vs 66,674.03 USD), resulting in an ICER of ∼1.7 million USD per QALY. The findings were very sensitive to the cost of IDet. With a 34% reduction in the IDet cost, treatment with IDet would become cost-effective according to the Thai threshold of 4,434.59 USD per QALY.

    CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with IDet in patients with T2DM who had uncontrolled blood glucose with oral anti-diabetic agents was not a cost-effective strategy compared with IGlar treatment in the Thai context. These findings could be generalized to other countries with a similar socioeconomics level and healthcare systems.

  13. Duangjai A, Goh BH, Lee LH, Saokaew S
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2018 Oct;8(4):515-520.
    PMID: 30302332 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2018.01.003
    Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton or commonly known as Siamese neem is one of the most well-known plant in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relaxant effects of A. indica on isolated rat ileum contractions and its potential underlying mechanisms involved. The isometric contractions of ileum segments were investigated in organ baths for spontaneous activity and response to aqueous extract of Siamese neem flower (SNF). The spasmolytic action of the extract was also assessed on contraction induced by acetylcholine and high potassium. Our findings indicate that cumulative concentrations of SNF aqueous extract induced relaxant effect on spontaneous rat ileum contractions. The extract has also suppressed the cumulative concentration response curve for acetylcholine and pottasium ions-induced contraction. The presence and absence of propranol (antagonist of β-adrenergic receptor) and l-Name (antagonist of nitric oxide synthase) in SNF aqeous extract co-treatment demonstrated no significant different in term of contraction activity when compared to SNF extract treatment alone. The treatment of SNF extract caused a significant inhibition in tissue contraction stimulated by accumulation of calcium ions. Our results showed the relaxant effect of SNF aqueous extract on the isolated rat ileum. In short, the SNF aqueous extract exhibited an inhibitory effect on the spontaneous ileum contactions particularly on the contraction stimulated by acetylcholine and high potassium. The observed effect might acted through the modulation of calcium channels. This findings provide a pharmacological basis for the traditional use of SNF for the treatment of gastrointestinal spasms.
  14. Poonual W, Navacharoen N, Kangsanarak J, Namwongprom S, Saokaew S
    Korean J Pediatr, 2017 Nov;60(11):353-358.
    PMID: 29234358 DOI: 10.3345/kjp.2017.60.11.353
    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a simple screening tool to assess hearing loss in newborns. A derived score was compared with the standard clinical practice tool.

    Methods: This cohort study was designed to screen the hearing of newborns using transiently evoked otoacoustic emission and auditory brain stem response, and to determine the risk factors associated with hearing loss of newborns in 3 tertiary hospitals in Northern Thailand. Data were prospectively collected from November 1, 2010 to May 31, 2012. To develop the risk score, clinical-risk indicators were measured by Poisson risk regression. The regression coefficients were transformed into item scores dividing each regression-coefficient with the smallest coefficient in the model, rounding the number to its nearest integer, and adding up to a total score.

    Results: Five clinical risk factors (Craniofacial anomaly, Ototoxicity, Birth weight, family history [Relative] of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and Apgar score) were included in our COBRA score. The screening tool detected, by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, more than 80% of existing hearing loss. The positive-likelihood ratio of hearing loss in patients with scores of 4, 6, and 8 were 25.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.69-43.26), 58.52 (95% CI, 36.26-94.44), and 51.56 (95% CI, 33.74-78.82), respectively. This result was similar to the standard tool (The Joint Committee on Infant Hearing) of 26.72 (95% CI, 20.59-34.66).

    Conclusion: A simple screening tool of five predictors provides good prediction indices for newborn hearing loss, which may motivate parents to bring children for further appropriate testing and investigations.

  15. Wilairat P, Kengkla K, Thayawiwat C, Phlaisaithong P, Somboonmee S, Saokaew S
    Chron Respir Dis, 2018 12 19;16:1479973118815694.
    PMID: 30558448 DOI: 10.1177/1479973118815694
    To examine clinical outcomes of theophylline use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-2 agonists (LABA). Electronic data from five hospitals located in Northern Thailand between January 2011 and December 2015 were retrospectively collected. Propensity score (PS) matching (2:1 ratio) technique was used to minimize confounding factors. The primary outcome was overall exacerbations. Secondary outcomes were exacerbation not leading to hospital admission, hospitalization for exacerbation, hospitalization for pneumonia, and all-cause hospitalizations. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). After PS matching, of 711 patients with COPD (mean age: 70.1 years; 74.4% male; 60.8% severe airflow obstruction), 474 theophylline users and 237 non-theophylline users were included. Mean follow-up time was 2.26 years. Theophylline significantly increased the risk of overall exacerbation (aHR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.11-1.96; p = 0.008) and exacerbation not leading to hospital admission (aHR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.06-2.03; p = 0.020). Theophylline use did not significantly increase the risk of hospitalization for exacerbation (aHR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.79-1.58; p = 0.548), hospitalization for pneumonia (aHR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.89-1.84; p = 0.185), and all-cause hospitalizations (aHR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.80-1.33; p = 0.795). Theophylline use as add-on therapy to ICS and LABA might be associated with an increased risk for overall exacerbation in patients with COPD. A large-scale prospective study of theophylline use investigating both safety and efficacy is warranted.
  16. Kengkla K, Kongpakwattana K, Saokaew S, Apisarnthanarak A, Chaiyakunapruk N
    J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 2018 Jan 01;73(1):22-32.
    PMID: 29069421 DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkx368
    Objectives: To comprehensively compare and rank the efficacy and safety of available treatment options for patients with MDR and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) infection.

    Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane register of trials systematically for studies that examined treatment options for patients with MDR- and XDR-AB infections until April 2016. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed to estimate the risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI from both direct and indirect evidence. Primary outcomes were clinical cure and microbiological cure. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and nephrotoxic and non-nephrotoxic adverse events.

    Results: A total of 29 studies with 2529 patients (median age 60 years; 65% male; median APACHE II score 19.0) were included. Although there were no statistically significant differences between treatment options, triple therapy with colistin, sulbactam and tigecycline had the highest clinical cure rate. Colistin in combination with sulbactam was associated with a significantly higher microbiological cure rate compared with colistin in combination with tigecycline (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.03-1.47) and colistin monotherapy (RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.06-1.38). No significant differences in all-cause mortality were noted between treatment options. Tigecycline-based therapy also appeared less effective for achieving a microbiological cure and is not appropriate for treating bloodstream MDR- and XDR-AB infections.

    Conclusions: Combination therapy of colistin with sulbactam demonstrates superiority in terms of microbiological cure with a safety profile similar to that of colistin monotherapy. Thus, our findings support the use of this combination as a treatment for MDR- and XDR-AB infections.

  17. Duangjai A, Nuengchamnong N, Suphrom N, Trisat K, Limpeanchob N, Saokaew S
    Kobe J Med Sci, 2018 Oct 15;64(3):E84-E92.
    PMID: 30666038
    This study was to assess the impact of different colors of coffee fruit (green, yellow and red) on adipogenesis and/or lipolysis using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Characterization of chemical constituents in different colors of coffee fruit extracts was determined by ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The cytotoxicity of the extracts in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were evaluated by MTT assay. Oil-red O staining and amount of glycerol released in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were measured for lipid accumulation and lipolysis activity. All coffee fruit extracts displayed similar chromatographic profiles by chlorogenic acid > caffeoylquinic acid > caffeic acid. Different colors of raw coffee fruit possessed inhibitory adipogenesis activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, especially CRD decreased lipid accumulation approximately 47%. Furthermore, all extracts except CYF and their major compounds (malic, quinic, and chlorogenic acid) increased glycerol release. Our data suggest that different colors of coffee fruit extract have possessed anti-adipogenic and lipolytic properties and may contribute to the anti-obesity effects.
  18. Wilairat P, Kengkla K, Kaewpanan T, Kaewthong J, Ruankon S, Subthaweesin C, et al.
    Eur J Hosp Pharm, 2020 Mar;27(2):103-110.
    PMID: 32133137 DOI: 10.1136/ejhpharm-2018-001649
    Objective: To examine the comparative efficacy and safety of interventions for preventing chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (OM) in adult cancer patients.

    Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central systematically for the randomised control trials (RCTs) of interventions for preventing OM. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed to estimate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from both direct and indirect evidence. The primary outcome was any grade of OM. Secondary outcomes were mild-moderate OM, severe OM and adverse events, such as taste disturbance and gastrointestinal adverse events. This study was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016052489.

    Results: A total of 29 RCTs with 2348 patients (median age, 56.1 years; 57.5% male) were included. Cryotherapy was associated with a significantly lower risk of OM than control (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.68), and zinc sulphate (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.97), but not significantly lower than sucralfate and palifermin. No significant differences were observed between cryotherapy and control for taste disturbance and gastrointestinal adverse events. Palifermin was associated with the highest risk of taste disturbance.

    Conclusions: This NMA suggests that cryotherapy was the most effective intervention for preventing chemotherapy-induced OM with a safety profile similar to control, but not significantly lower than sucralfate and palifermin. Large RCTs are needed to confirm these findings.

  19. Dilokthornsakul P, Chaiyakunapruk N, Termrungruanglert W, Pratoomsoot C, Saokaew S, Sruamsiri R
    Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer, 2013 Nov;23(9):1544-51.
    PMID: 24172091 DOI: 10.1097/IGC.0b013e3182a80a21
    OBJECTIVE: The potential therapeutic effects of metformin on several cancers were reported. However, the evidence of the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer is still limited and inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis study aim to summarize the existing evidence of the therapeutic effects of metformin on ovarian cancer.

    METHODS: We performed systematic searches using electronic databases including PubMed and EMBASE until December 2012. Key words included "metformin" AND ("ovarian cancer" OR "ovary tumor"). All human studies assessing the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer were eligible for inclusion. All articles were reviewed independently by 2 authors with a standardized approach for the purpose of study, study design, patient characteristics, exposure, and outcomes. The data were pooled using a random-effects model.

    RESULTS: Of 190 studies retrieved, only 3 observational studies and 1 report of 2 randomized controlled trials were included. Among those studies, 2 reported the effects of metformin on survival outcomes of ovarian cancer, whereas the other 2 reported the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer prevention. The findings of studies reporting the effects on survival outcomes indicated that metformin may prolong overall, disease-specific, and progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients. The results of studies reporting the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer prevention were meta-analyzed. It indicated that metformin tended to decrease occurrence of ovarian cancer among diabetic patients with the pooled odds ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.16-1.99).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed the potential therapeutic effects of metformin on survival outcomes of ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer prevention. However, most of the evidence was observational studies. There is a call for further well-conducted controlled clinical trials to confirm the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer survival and ovarian cancer prevention.

  20. Chong HY, Saokaew S, Dumrongprat K, Permsuwan U, Wu DB, Sritara P, et al.
    Thromb. Res., 2014 Dec;134(6):1278-84.
    PMID: 25456732 DOI: 10.1016/j.thromres.2014.10.006
    Pharmacogenetic (PGx) test is a useful tool for guiding physician on an initiation of an optimal warfarin dose. To implement of such strategy, the evidence on the economic value is needed. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of PGx-guided warfarin dosing compared with usual care (UC).
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