Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 85 in total

  1. Shi X, Wu X, Song T, Li X
    Nanoscale, 2016 Jul 22.
    PMID: 27444699
    The design of DNA nanotubes is a promising and hot research branch in structural DNA nanotechnology, which is rapidly developing as a versatile method for achieving subtle nanometer scale materials and molecular diagnostic/curative devices. Multifarious methods have been proposed to achieve varied DNA nanotubes, such as using square tiles and single-stranded tiles, but it is still a challenge to develop a bottom-up assembly way to build DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns using certain universal DNA nanostructures. This work addresses the challenge by assembling three types of spatial DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns from the so-called "basic bricks", i.e., hierarchical DNA sub-tiles. A high processing rate and throughput synthesis of DNA nanotubes are observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Experimental observations and data analysis suggests the stability and controllability of DNA nanotubes assembled by hierarchical DNA sub-tiles.
  2. Li X, Wang X, Song T, Lu W, Chen Z, Shi X
    J Anal Methods Chem, 2015;2015:675827.
    PMID: 26491602 DOI: 10.1155/2015/675827
    DNA strand displacement technique is widely used in DNA programming, DNA biosensors, and gene analysis. In DNA strand displacement, leaky reactions can cause DNA signals decay and detecting DNA signals fails. The mostly used method to avoid leakage is cleaning up after upstream leaky reactions, and it remains a challenge to develop reliable DNA strand displacement technique with low leakage. In this work, we address the challenge by experimentally evaluating the basic factors, including reaction time, ratio of reactants, and ion concentration to the leakage in DNA strand displacement. Specifically, fluorescent probes and a hairpin structure reporting DNA strand are designed to detect the output of DNA strand displacement, and thus can evaluate the leakage of DNA strand displacement reactions with different reaction time, ratios of reactants, and ion concentrations. From the obtained data, mathematical models for evaluating leakage are achieved by curve derivation. As a result, it is obtained that long time incubation, high concentration of fuel strand, and inappropriate amount of ion concentration can weaken leaky reactions. This contributes to a method to set proper reaction conditions to reduce leakage in DNA strand displacement.
  3. Wei J, Yang F, Gong C, Shi X, Wang G
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 2019 Jun;33(6):e22319.
    PMID: 30897277 DOI: 10.1002/jbt.22319
    Oxidative stress is performing an essential role in developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), and age-related disorder and other neurodegenerative diseases. In existing research, we have aimed at investigating the daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) effect (10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight), as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant in streptozotocin (STZ) infused AD in rat model. Daidzein treatment led to significant improvement in intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced memory and learning impairments that was evaluated by Morris water maze test and spontaneous locomotor activity. It significantly restored the alterations in malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione levels. In addition, histopathological observations in cerebral cortex and hippocampal areas confirmed the neuroprotective effect of daidzein. These outcomes provide experimental proof showing preventive effect of daidzein on memory, learning dysfunction and oxidative stress in case of ICV-STZ rats. In conclusion, daidzein offers a potential treatment module for various neurodegenerative disorders with regard to mental deficits like AD.
  4. Shi X, Xu L, Le TB, Zhou G, Zheng C, Tsuru K, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:542-548.
    PMID: 26652406 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.024
    Dental implants made of pure titanium suffer from abrasion and scratch during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results in an irreversible surface damage, facilitates bacteria adhesion and increases risk of peri-implantitis. To overcome these problems, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was introduced to increase surface hardness of pure titanium. However, the osteoconductivity of TiN is considered to be similar or superior to that of titanium and its alloys and therefore surface modification is necessary. In this study, TiN coating prepared through gas nitriding was partially oxidized by hydrothermal (HT) treatment and ozone (O3) treatment in pure water to improve its osteoconductivity. The effects of HT treatment and O3 treatment on surface properties of TiN were investigated and the osteoconductivity after undergoing treatment was assessed in vitro using osteoblast evaluation. The results showed that the critical temperature for HT treatment was 100°C since higher temperatures would impair the hardness of TiN coating. By contrast, O3 treatment was more effective in oxidizing TiN surfaces, improving its wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Osteoblast attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralization were improved on oxidized specimens, especially on O3 treated specimens, compared with untreated ones. These effects seemed to be consequences of partial oxidation, as well as improved hydrophilicity and surface decontamination. Finally, it was concluded that, partially oxidized TiN is a promising coating to be used for dental implant.
  5. Alpay F, Zare Y, Kamalludin MH, Huang X, Shi X, Shook GE, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(12):e111704.
    PMID: 25473852 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111704
    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29.
  6. Shi X, Karachi A, Hosseini M, Yazd MS, Kamyab H, Ebrahimi M, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2020 Nov;68:104460.
    PMID: 30712851 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.01.018
    The aim of this study was ultrasound assisted removal of Ceftriaxone sodium (CS) based on CCD model. Using sonochemical synthesized Bi2WO6 implanted on graphitic carbon nitride/Multiwall carbon nanotube (g-C3N4/MWCNT/Bi2WO6). For this purpose g-C3N4/MWCNT/Bi2WO6 was synthesized and characterized using diverse approaches including XRD, FE-SEM, XPS, EDS, HRTEM, FT-IR. Then, the contribution of conventional variables including pH, CS concentration, adsorbent dosage and ultrasound contact time were studied by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). ANOVA was employed to the variable factors, and the most desirable operational conditions mass provided. Drug adsorption yield of 98.85% obtained under these defined conditions. Through conducting five experiments, the proper prediction of the optimum point were examined. The respective results showed that RSD% was lower than 5% while the t-test confirmed the high quality of fitting. Langmuir isotherm equation fits the experimental data best and the removal followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The estimation of the experimentally obtained maximum adsorption capacities was 19.57 mg.g- of g-C3N4/MWCNT/Bi2WO6 for CS. Boundary layer diffusion explained the mechanism of removal via intraparticle diffusion.
  7. Guan M, Tan H, Fazhan H, Xie Z, Shi X, Zhang Y, et al.
    Mitochondrial DNA B Resour, 2018 Oct 26;3(2):1244-1245.
    PMID: 33474478 DOI: 10.1080/23802359.2018.1532345
    The mitochondrial genome plays an important role in studies on phylogeography and population genetic diversity. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Lupocycloporus gracilimanus (Stimpson, 1858) which is the first mitochondrial genome reported in genus Lupocycloporus by now. The mitogenome is 15,990 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a putative control region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that L. gracilimanus was closest to genus Scylla. The present research should provide valuable information for phylogenetic analysis and classification of Portunidae.
  8. Zhang H, Liu S, Wu K, Cui J, Zhu A, Zhang Y, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2021 Jul;168:112433.
    PMID: 33962084 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112433
    The heavy metal contents (Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As) of 88 surface sediment samples from the western Sunda Shelf were analyzed to determine their spatial distribution patterns and contamination status. The results demonstrated that high enrichment regions of heavy metals were focused in the Kelantan, Pahang, and Ambat river estuaries, and deep water regions of the study area. These high enrichment regions were mainly controlled by riverine inputs and their hydrodynamic conditions. The enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were used to assess heavy metal accumulation. The results indicated that the study area was not significantly contaminated overall at the time of the study; however, Cd, As, and Hg were at levels corresponding to moderate contamination at many stations located in the Pahang River estuary, Kelantan River estuary, and north-eastern region of the study area, primarily because of anthropogenic activities.
  9. Li J, Tang J, Lua GW, Chen J, Shi X, Liu F, et al.
    Surg Endosc, 2017 12;31(12):5183-5191.
    PMID: 28597288 DOI: 10.1007/s00464-017-5585-y
    BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors (SETs) may harbor potential malignancy. Although it is well recognized that large SETs should be resected, the treatment strategy remains controversial. Compared to surgical resection, endoscopic resection has many advantages such as less invasive, shorter hospital stay, lower costs, and better quality of life. However, Endoscopic resection of large SETs in the cardia is challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the treatment of such SETs.

    METHODS: A total of 41 patients with large SETs (≥3 cm in diameter) located in the cardia were involved in the study. All patients underwent ESD. Data on therapeutic outcomes and follow-up were collected, for analysis of risk factors of complication rates.

    RESULTS: The average tumor size was 4.7 ± 1.7 cm. The average procedure time was 69.3 ± 32.7 min and the average postoperative hospital stay was 3.5 ± 1.1 days. A total of 41 tumors were removed successfully, in which 35 were leiomyomas, three were gastrointestinal stromal tumors, two were lipomas, and one was gastritis cystica profunda. The en bloc resection rate was 90.2%, and was significantly higher for tumors with a round or oval shape (100%) than for those with an irregular shape (75.0%) (P 

  10. Bang LT, Shi R, Bui Duc L, Ramesh S, Shi X, Sugiura Y, et al.
    Biomed Mater, 2020 Jan 08.
    PMID: 31914435 DOI: 10.1088/1748-605X/ab6939
    Titainum (Ti) implants have been successfully used in orthopaedic and dental surgery. However, the poor early bone tissue integration is still a common failure. This could be modulated by improving material bonding or adhesion directly to bone though a surface roughening and/or a bioresorbable and osteoconductive coating. In this study, we report on the biological behavious of the Ti substrate with modified surface roughness and/or bioactive coating. The roughened Ti surface was prepared by acid etching reaction, and the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) coating on the substrates was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of Ti in calcium citrate complexes. The study demonstrated that surface roughing of Ti alone did not improve the biological reponse of the MC3T3-E1 cells, however, CaCO3 coating on smooth Ti surface increased cell responses, and the affects were further enhanced in combination with Ti surface roughening. Larger cell area, greater cell proliferation and increased bone-like nodule formation were obtained on the CaCO3 coating of the roughened Ti surface. This was also supported by a higher ALP value obtained for the the coatings of roughened Ti surface. The cell behaviours found in the current study support further development of calcium carbonate coatings towards clinical application.
  11. Shi X, Ling GHT, Leng PC, Rusli N, Matusin AMRA
    One Health, 2023 Jun;16:100551.
    PMID: 37153369 DOI: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2023.100551
    During the period in which the Omicron coronavirus variant was rapidly spreading, the impact of the institutional-social-ecological dimensions on the case-fatality rate was rarely afforded attention. By adopting the diagnostic social-ecological system (SES) framework, the present paper aims to identify the impact of institutional-social-ecological factors on the case-fatality rate of COVID-19 in 134 countries and regions and test their spatial heterogeneity. Using statistical data from the Our World In Data website, the present study collected the cumulative case-fatality rate from 9 November 2021 to 23 June 2022, along with 11 country-level institutional-social-ecological factors. By comparing the goodness of fit of the multiple linear regression model and the multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model, the study demonstrated that the effects of SES factors exhibit significant spatial heterogeneity in relation to the case-fatality rate of COVID-19. After substituting the data into the MGWR model, six SES factors were identified with an R square of 0.470 based on the ascending effect size: COVID-19 vaccination policy, age dependency ratio, press freedom, gross domestic product (GDP), COVID-19 testing policy, and population density. The GWR model was used to test and confirm the robustness of the research results. Based on the analysis results, it is suggested that the world needs to meet four conditions to restore normal economic activity in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic: (i) Countries should increase their COVID-19 vaccination coverage and maximize COVID-19 testing expansion. (ii) Countries should increase public health facilities available to provide COVID-19 treatment and subsidize the medical costs of COVID-19 patients. (iii) Countries should strictly review COVID-19 news reports and actively publicize COVID-19 pandemic prevention knowledge to the public through a range of media. (iv) Countries should adopt an internationalist spirit of cooperation and help each other to navigate the COVID-19 pandemic. The study further tests the applicability of the SES framework to the field of COVID-19 prevention and control based on the existing research, offering novel policy insights to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic that coexists with long-term human production and life for a long time.
  12. Fang S, Zhang Y, Shi X, Zheng H, Li S, Zhang Y, et al.
    Genomics, 2020 01;112(1):404-411.
    PMID: 30851358 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.03.003
    In this study, we first identified male-specific SNP markers using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, and further developed a PCR-based sex identification technique for Charybdis feriatus. A total of 296.96 million clean reads were obtained, with 114.95 and 182.01 million from females and males. After assembly and alignment, 10 SNP markers were identified being heterozygous in males but homozygous in females. Five markers were further confirmed to be male-specific in a large number of individuals. Moreover, two male-specific sense primers and a common antisense primer were designed, using which, a PCR-based genetic sex identification method was successfully developed and used to identify the sex of 103 individuals, with a result of 49 females and 54 males. The presence of male-specific SNP markers suggests an XX/XY sex determination system for C. feriatus. These findings should be helpful for better understanding sex determination mechanism, and drafting artificial breeding program in crustaceans.
  13. Waiho K, Shi X, Fazhan H, Li S, Zhang Y, Zheng H, et al.
    Front Genet, 2019;10:298.
    PMID: 31024620 DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00298
    Mud crab, Scylla paramamosain is one of the most important crustacean species in global aquaculture. To determine the genetic basis of sex and growth-related traits in S. paramamosain, a high-density genetic linkage map with 16,701 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was constructed using SLAF-seq and a full-sib family. The consensus map has 49 linkage groups, spanning 5,996.66 cM with an average marker-interval of 0.81 cM. A total of 516 SNP markers, including 8 female-specific SNPs segregated in two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for phenotypic sex were located on LG32. The presence of female-specific SNP markers only on female linkage map, their segregation patterns and lower female: male recombination rate strongly suggest the conformation of a ZW/ZZ sex determination system in S. paramamosain. The QTLs of most (90%) growth-related traits were found within a small interval (25.18-33.74 cM) on LG46, highlighting the potential involvement of LG46 in growth. Four markers on LG46 were significantly associated with 10-16 growth-related traits. BW was only associated with marker 3846. Based on the annotation of transcriptome data, 11 and 2 candidate genes were identified within the QTL regions of sex and growth-related traits, respectively. The newly constructed high-density genetic linkage map with sex-specific SNPs, and the identified QTLs of sex- and growth-related traits serve as a valuable genetic resource and solid foundation for marker-assisted selection and genetic improvement of crustaceans.
  14. Lin F, Xie Z, Fazhan H, Baylon JC, Yang X, Tan H, et al.
    Mitochondrial DNA B Resour, 2018 Feb 23;3(1):263-264.
    PMID: 33474136 DOI: 10.1080/23802359.2018.1443043
    The complete mitochondrial genome plays an important role in the research on phylogenetic relationship. Here, we reported the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Varuna yui Hwang & Takeda, 1986 (Varunidae). The complete mtDNA (15,915 bp in length) consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNA genes, and a control region. The gene arrangement was identical to those observed in the Varunidae species. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that V. yui had close relationship with other Varunidae species (Helicetient sinensis, Eriocher sinesis, etc.). The newly described genome may facilitate further comparative mitogenomic analysis within Varunidae species.
  15. Yang X, Ikhwanuddin M, Li X, Lin F, Wu Q, Zhang Y, et al.
    Mar Biotechnol (NY), 2018 Feb;20(1):20-34.
    PMID: 29152671 DOI: 10.1007/s10126-017-9784-2
    The molecular mechanism underlying sex determination and gonadal differentiation of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) has received considerable attention, due to the remarkably biological and economic differences between sexes. However, sex-biased genes, especially non-coding genes, which account for these differences, remain elusive in this crustacean species. In this study, the first de novo gonad transcriptome sequencing was performed to identify both differentially expressed genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) between male and female S. paramamosain by using Illumina Hiseq2500. A total of 79,282,758 and 79,854,234 reads were generated from ovarian and testicular cDNA libraries, respectively. After filtrating and de novo assembly, 262,688 unigenes were produced from both libraries. Of these unigenes, 41,125 were annotated with known protein sequences in public databases. Homologous genes involved in sex determination and gonadal development pathways (Sxl-Tra/Tra-2-Dsx/Fru, Wnt4, thyroid hormone synthesis pathway, etc.) were identified. Three hundred and sixteen differentially expressed unigenes were further identified between both transcriptomes. Meanwhile, a total of 233,078 putative lncRNAs were predicted. Of these lncRNAs, 147 were differentially expressed between sexes. qRT-PCR results showed that nine lncRNAs negatively regulated the expression of eight genes, suggesting a potential role in sex differentiation. These findings will provide fundamental resources for further investigation on sex differentiation and regulatory mechanism in crustaceans.
  16. Rozaimi R, Shu-Chien AC, Wang Y, Sutikno S, Ikhwanuddin M, Shi X, et al.
    PeerJ, 2023;11:e15143.
    PMID: 37033733 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.15143
    Asymmetric body traits in bilateral organisms are common and serve a range of different functions. In crustaceans, specifically among brachyuran crabs, heterochely and handedness in some species are known to aid in behavioural responses such as food acquisition, and sexual and territorial displays. However, the heterochely of the intertidal mud crab genus Scylla is still poorly understood. This study investigated the cheliped morphometric characteristics of orange mud crab Scylla olivacea and the relation of heterochely and handedness to sex. Scylla olivacea is heterochelous, with predominant right-handed (70.2%). Three morphometric variables, i.e., propodus length (PL), propodus depth (PD), and propodus width (PW) were significantly larger in the right cheliped and the estimated handedness based on these three variables were consistent with the presence of molariform teeth. The effect of sex had no influence on the occurrence of heterochely or handedness. The frequency of left-handedness increased with size, especially in males. We postulate that handedness reversal, a phenomenon seen in other crab species when the dominant hand is lost, also occurs in S. olivacea, thereby resulting in a change in left-handedness frequency. The use of chelipeds by males in mate and territorial defenses might provide an explanation for the higher risk of losing a dominant cheliped and thus, higher left-handedness frequency compared to females. Future behavioural research could shed light on the selective forces that affect the handedness distribution in mud crabs. Knowledge on heterochely and handedness of mud crabs could be useful for future development of less aggressive crab populations by claw reversal and the optimisation of limb autotomy techniques.
  17. Shi X, Waiho K, Li X, Ikhwanuddin M, Miao G, Lin F, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2018 Dec 29;19(1):981.
    PMID: 30594128 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-018-5380-8
    BACKGROUND: Mud crabs, Scylla spp., are commercially important large-size marine crustaceans in the Indo-West Pacific region. As females have the higher growth rate and economic value, the production of all female stocks is extremely essential in aquaculture. However, the sex determination mechanism is still unclear. Development of sex-specific genetic markers based on next-generation sequencing proved to be an effective tool for discovering sex determination system in various animals.

    RESULTS: Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was employed to isolate sex-specific SNP markers for S. paramamosain. A total of 335.6 million raw reads were obtained from 20 individuals, of which 204.7 million were from 10 females and 130.9 million from 10 males. After sequence assembly and female-male comparison, 20 SNP markers were identified to be sex-specific. Furthermore, ten SNPs in a short sequence (285 bp) were confirmed heterozygous in females and homozygous in males in a large population by PCR amplification and sequencing. Subsequently, a female-specific primer was successfully designed according to the female-specific nucleotide which could amplify an expected band from females but not from males. Thus, a rapid and effective method for molecular sexing in S. paramamosain was developed, meanwhile, this method could successfully identify the sex of S. tranquebarica and S. serrata. Finally, nine and four female-specific SNP markers were detected in S. tranquebarica and S. serrata, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sex-specific SNP markers were firstly identified in crab species and showed female heterogamety and male homogamety, which provided strong genetic evidence for a WZ/ZZ sex determination system in mud crabs S. paramamosain, S. tranquebarica and S. serrata. These findings will lay a solid foundation for the study of sex determination mechanism, sex chromosome evolution, and the development of mono-sex population in crustaceans.

  18. Shen D, Qi H, Lin W, Zhang W, Bian D, Shi X, et al.
    Sci Adv, 2021 Jun;7(23).
    PMID: 34088662 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abf0614
    Balancing the biodegradability and mechanical integrity of a bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) with time after implantation to match the remodeling of the scaffolded blood vessel is important, but a key challenge in doing so remains. This study presents a novel intercalated structure of a metallic BRS by introducing a nanoscale Zn sacrificial layer between the nitrided Fe platform and the sirolimus-carrying poly(d,l-lactide) drug coating. The PDLLA-Zn-FeN BRS shows a multistage biodegradation behavior, maintaining mechanical integrity at the initial stage and exhibiting accelerated biodegradation at the subsequent stage in both rabbit abdominal aortas and human coronary arteries, where complete biodegradation was observed about 2 years after implantation. The presence of the nanoscale Zn sacrificial layer with an adjustable thickness also contributes to the tunable biodegradation of BRS and allows the reduction of the metallic strut thickness to 53 μm, with radial strength as strong as that of the current permanent drug-eluting stents.
  19. Gao C, Xia J, Zhou X, Liang Y, Jiang Y, Wang M, et al.
    Appl Environ Microbiol, 2021 10 28;87(22):e0116021.
    PMID: 34469192 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01160-21
    Nordic Seas are the subarctic seas connecting the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean with complex water masses, experiencing an abrupt climate change. Though knowledge of the marine virosphere has expanded rapidly, the diversity of viruses and their relationships with host cells and water masses in the Nordic Seas remain to be fully revealed. Here, we establish the Nordic Sea DNA virome (NSV) data set of 55,315 viral contigs including 1,478 unique viral populations from seven stations influenced by both the warm Atlantic and cold Arctic water masses. Caudovirales dominated in the seven NSVs, especially in the warm Atlantic waters. The major giant nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) contributed a significant proportion of the classified viral contigs in the NSVs (32.2%), especially in the cold Arctic waters (44.9%). The distribution patterns of Caudovirales and NCLDVs were a reflection of the community structure of their hosts in the corresponding water masses and currents. Latitude, pH, and flow speed were found to be key factors influencing the microbial communities and coinfluencing the variation of viral communities. Network analysis illustrated the tight coupling between the variation of viral communities and microbial communities in the Nordic Seas. This study suggests a probable linkage between viromes, host cells, and surface water masses from both the cool Arctic and warm Atlantic Oceans. IMPORTANCE This is a systematic study of Nordic Sea viromes using metagenomic analysis. The viral diversity, community structure, and their relationships with host cells and the complex water masses from both the cool Arctic and the warm Atlantic oceans were illustrated. The NCLDVs and Caudovirales are proposed as the viral characteristics of the cold Arctic and warm Atlantic waters, respectively. This study provides an important background for the viromes in the subarctic seas connecting the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean and sheds light on their responses to abrupt climate change in the future.
  20. Chaisson MJP, Sanders AD, Zhao X, Malhotra A, Porubsky D, Rausch T, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 04 16;10(1):1784.
    PMID: 30992455 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-08148-z
    The incomplete identification of structural variants (SVs) from whole-genome sequencing data limits studies of human genetic diversity and disease association. Here, we apply a suite of long-read, short-read, strand-specific sequencing technologies, optical mapping, and variant discovery algorithms to comprehensively analyze three trios to define the full spectrum of human genetic variation in a haplotype-resolved manner. We identify 818,054 indel variants (<50 bp) and 27,622 SVs (≥50 bp) per genome. We also discover 156 inversions per genome and 58 of the inversions intersect with the critical regions of recurrent microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. Taken together, our SV callsets represent a three to sevenfold increase in SV detection compared to most standard high-throughput sequencing studies, including those from the 1000 Genomes Project. The methods and the dataset presented serve as a gold standard for the scientific community allowing us to make recommendations for maximizing structural variation sensitivity for future genome sequencing studies.
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