Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 179 in total

  1. Singh B
    Int J Parasitol, 1997 Oct;27(10):1135-45.
    PMID: 9394184
    Direct microscopy is widely used for the diagnosis of parasitic infections although it often requires an experienced microscopist for accurate diagnosis, is labour intensive and not very sensitive. In order to overcome some of these shortcomings, molecular or nucleic acid-based diagnostic methods for parasitic infections have been developed over the past 12 years. The parasites which have been studied with these techniques include the human Plasmodia, Leishmania, the trypanosomes, Toxoplasma gondii, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia, Trichomonas vaginalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Taenia, Echinococcus, Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti, Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus. Early methods, which involved hybridisation of specific probes (radiolabelled and non-radiolabelled) to target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), have been replaced by more sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays. Other methods, such as PCR-hybridisation assays, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis have also proved valuable for epidemiological studies of parasites. The general principles and development of DNA-based methods for diagnosis and epidemiological studies will be described, with particular reference to malaria. These methods will probably not replace current methods for routine diagnosis of parasitic infections in developing countries where parasitic diseases are endemic, due to high costs. However, they will be extremely useful for genotyping parasite strains and vectors, and for accurate parasite detection in both humans and vectors during epidemiological studies.
  2. Singh B, Daneshvar C
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Sep;65(3):166-72.
    PMID: 21939162 MyJurnal
    Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, is now recognised as the fifth cause of human malaria and can lead to fatal infections in humans. Knowlesi malaria cases are widely distributed in East and West Malaysia and account for more than 50% of admissions for malaria in certain hospitals in the state of Sarawak. This paper will begin with a description of the early studies on P. knowlesi, followed by a review of the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical and laboratory features, and treatment of knowlesi malaria.
  3. Singh B, Cox-Singh J
    Trends Parasitol, 2001 Dec;17(12):597-600.
    PMID: 11756045
    Malaysia is a developing country with a range of parasitic infections. Indeed, soil-transmitted helminths and malaria parasites continue to have a significant impact on public health in Malaysia. In this article, the prevalence and distribution of these parasites, the problems associated with parasitic infections, the control measures taken to deal with these parasites and implications for the future will be discussed.
  4. Dee, S., Singh, B., Remeli, M.F., Tan, L., Oberoi, A.
    This paper looks at electrical power generation from solar concentrator using thermoelectric generator. An experiment was conducted on a concentrator thermoelectric generator (CTEG) utilising solar thermal energy. The CTEG used a parabolic dish as concentrator with thermoelectric device installed at the focal point to convert thermal energy to generate electricity. The investigation covered the cooling effect of the cold side of the thermoelectric generator using natural and forced convection cooling for optimum output. Forced convection cooling with a fan provided 69% more power output from the CTEG system as the temperature difference across the TEG was greater than the system cooled by natural convection. The outcome of this project showed maximum power output was obtained for the CTEG system cooled by forced convection cooling.
  5. Singh BN
    Theor Appl Genet, 1985 Jul;69(4):437-41.
    PMID: 24253913 DOI: 10.1007/BF00570914
    The relative viabilities of homozygous and heterozygous karyotypes were measured by making crosses between strains ofD. ananassae homozygous for ST or inverted gene orders in the second and third chromosomes. The strains utilized during the present study originated from widely separated localities in India, Kuala Lumpur and Kota Kinabaru, Malaysia and Chian Mai, Thailand. The presence of heterosis in many interpopulation crosses is evident from the results which show that the inversion heterozygotes formed by chromosomes coming from distant populations exhibit heterosis. On the other hand, heterosis is absent in two intrapopulation crosses. Thus the present results provide evidence that heterozygosis for many genes and gene complexes does produce high fitness without previous selectional coadaptation.
  6. Singh B, Daneshvar C
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 2013 Apr;26(2):165-84.
    PMID: 23554413 DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00079-12
    Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite that is found in nature in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Naturally acquired human infections were thought to be extremely rare until a large focus of human infections was reported in 2004 in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Human infections have since been described throughout Southeast Asia, and P. knowlesi is now recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in humans. The molecular, entomological, and epidemiological data indicate that human infections with P. knowlesi are not newly emergent and that knowlesi malaria is primarily a zoonosis. Human infections were undiagnosed until molecular detection methods that could distinguish P. knowlesi from the morphologically similar human malaria parasite P. malariae became available. P. knowlesi infections cause a spectrum of disease and are potentially fatal, but if detected early enough, infections in humans are readily treatable. In this review on knowlesi malaria, we describe the early studies on P. knowlesi and focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects, and treatment of knowlesi malaria. We also discuss the gaps in our knowledge and the challenges that lie ahead in studying the epidemiology and pathogenesis of knowlesi malaria and in the prevention and control of this zoonotic infection.
  7. Nambiar P, Jalil N, Singh B
    Int Dent J, 1997 Feb;47(1):9-15.
    PMID: 9448783
    On 15 September 1995 a Malaysian Airlines (MAS) Fokker 50 plane plunged while descending and crashed, killing thirty-four passengers aboard. The dental disaster victim identification team comprising dental surgeons from the Dental faculty, University of Malaya; Ministry of Health, Sabah; and the Malaysian Defence Forces played an active role in the identification process. Most of the bodies were badly mutilated, disfigured and severely incinerated. Problems were encountered due to inadequate facilities and space at the mortuary. Difficulties were also encountered during the procurement and deciphering of information from dental records. This disaster has however created greater awareness amongst Malaysians of the important role of forensic odontology in mass disasters.
  8. Cox-Singh J, Singh B
    Trends Parasitol, 2008 Sep;24(9):406-10.
    PMID: 18678527 DOI: 10.1016/j.pt.2008.06.001
    Several questions on public health impact have arisen from the discovery of a large focus of the simian malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, in the human population. P. knowlesi malaria is not newly emergent and was overlooked until molecular tools to distinguish between P. knowlesi and the morphologically similar Plasmodium malariae became available. Knowlesi malaria is a zoonosis that is widely distributed in Southeast Asia and can be fatal. Information on knowlesi malaria should be included in medical and public health guidelines to encourage the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients, and monitor the incidence and distribution of cases. A complete emergence of P. knowlesi into the human population could be overwhelming and, although challenging, the prevention of this situation deserves serious consideration.
  9. Balasegaram M, Devanand MR, Singh B
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Sep;35(1):68-72.
    PMID: 6265744
    Cefotaxime [HR 756], a third generation cephalosporin with pronounced antibacterial activity
    against the Enterobacteriaceae, was assessed in serious and problem antibiotic resistant infection. Good clinical success was achieved without observed untoward effects. The study suggests that due to its properties, cefotaxime could be used as a first-line antibiotic provided that the clinical situation warrants the use of a cephalosporin or aminoglycoside.
    Key words - cefotaxime [HR 756], serious surgical infection, antibiotic resistant infection.
  10. Singh B, Simon Divis PC
    Emerg Infect Dis, 2009 Oct;15(10):1657-8.
    PMID: 19861067 DOI: 10.3201/eid1510.090364
    After orangutans in Indonesia were reported as infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi and P. vivax, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Plasmodium spp. We found that these orangutans are not hosts of P. cynomolgi and P. vivax. Analysis of >or=1 genes is needed to identify Plasmodium spp. infecting orangutans.
  11. Menon BS, Abdullah MS, Mahamud F, Singh B
    J Trop Pediatr, 1999 Aug;45(4):241-2.
    PMID: 10467838
    In this prospective study, we examined stool specimens from children with cancer receiving chemotherapy who were admitted for fever to the Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital in Kota Baru, Kelantan. Stool specimens were examined for ova and cysts of parasites. Over a period of 15 months, there were 129 febrile episodes in 50 children with cancer and, in all, 237 stool specimens were examined. Sixty-six per cent of febrile episodes were associated with neutropenia and 9 per cent were associated with diarrhoea. Stool parasites were found in 42 per cent of children. The most common were helminths, followed by protozoa. Trichuris trichiura was the most common parasite (24 per cent), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (22 per cent). Hookworm was found in 2 per cent. Giardia lamblia was found in 6 per cent of children, Blastocystis hominis in 4 per cent, and Cryptosporidium parvum in 2 per cent.
  12. Nesaretnam K, Devasagayam TP, Singh BB, Basiron Y
    Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int., 1993 May;30(1):159-67.
    PMID: 8358328
    The effect of palm oil, a widely used vegetable oil, rich in tocotrienols, on peroxidation potential of rat liver was examined. Long-term feeding of rats with palm oil as one of the dietary components significantly reduced the peroxidation potential of hepatic mitochondria and microsomes. As compared to hepatic mitochondria isolated from rats fed control or corn oil-rich diet, those from palm oil-fed group showed significantly less susceptibility to peroxidation induced by ascorbate and NADPH. However, in microsomes, only NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in rats fed palm oil rich-diet. Though the accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in mitochondria from rats fed corn oil-rich diet supplemented with tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil was similar to that of control rats, the initial rate of peroxidation was much slower than those from control or corn oil fed diets. Our in vitro studies as well as analyses of co-factors related to peroxidation potential indicated that the observed decrease in palm oil-fed rats may be due to increased amount of antioxidants in terms of tocotrienol as well as decrease in the availability of substrates for peroxidation.
  13. Dhillon KS, Sengupta S, Singh BJ
    Acta Orthop Scand, 1988 Aug;59(4):419-24.
    PMID: 3421080
    Thirty-nine displaced fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children were followed for an average of 5 (2-5) years. The results were evaluated from functional and cosmetic aspects. Patients treated within 2 weeks by open reduction and internal fixation did well. Those operated on after 6 weeks did not do better than nonoperated on cases. Complications included cubitus varus and valgus deformities, osteonecrosis, nonunion and malunion, and loss of motion. We recommend that patients presenting late be left alone and any sequelae evaluated at a late stage.
  14. Cox-Singh J, Mahayet S, Abdullah MS, Singh B
    Int J Parasitol, 1997 Dec;27(12):1575-7.
    PMID: 9467744
    Malaria remains a disease of underdeveloped and remote regions of the world. The application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to malaria epidemiology has the potential for increasing our knowledge and understanding of this disease. In order to study malaria in all geographical locations it is important that specimen collection and DNA extraction for PCR be kept simple. Here we report a method for extracting DNA from dried blood spots on filter paper which is capable of detecting one Plasmodium falciparum and two Plasmodium vivax parasites/microliter of whole blood by nested PCR without compromising the simplicity of specimen collection or DNA extraction.
  15. Lee KS, Cox-Singh J, Singh B
    Malar J, 2009 Apr 21;8:73.
    PMID: 19383118 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-73
    BACKGROUND: Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, are more common than previously thought. They have been detected by molecular detection methods in various countries in Southeast Asia, where they were initially diagnosed by microscopy mainly as Plasmodium malariae and at times, as Plasmodium falciparum. There is a paucity of information on the morphology of P. knowlesi parasites and proportion of each erythrocytic stage in naturally acquired human infections. Therefore, detailed descriptions of the morphological characteristics and differential counts of the erythrocytic stages of P. knowlesi parasites in human infections were made, photographs were taken, and morphological features were compared with those of P. malariae and P. falciparum.

    METHODS: Thick and thin blood films were made prior to administration of anti-malarial treatment in patients who were subsequently confirmed as having single species knowlesi infections by PCR assays. Giemsa-stained blood films, prepared from 10 randomly selected patients with a parasitaemia ranging from 610 to 236,000 parasites per microl blood, were examined.

    RESULTS: The P. knowlesi infection was highly synchronous in only one patient, where 97% of the parasites were at the late trophozoite stage. Early, late and mature trophozoites and schizonts were observed in films from all patients except three; where schizonts and early trophozoites were absent in two and one patient, respectively. Gametocytes were observed in four patients, comprising only between 1.2 to 2.8% of infected erythrocytes. The early trophozoites of P. knowlesi morphologically resemble those of P. falciparum. The late and mature trophozoites, schizonts and gametocytes appear very similar to those of P. malariae. Careful examinations revealed that some minor morphological differences existed between P. knowlesi and P. malariae. These include trophozoites of knowlesi with double chromatin dots and at times with two or three parasites per erythrocyte and mature schizonts of P. knowlesi having 16 merozoites, compared with 12 for P. malariae.

    CONCLUSION: Plasmodium knowlesi infections in humans are not highly synchronous. The morphological resemblance of early trophozoites of P. knowlesi to P. falciparum and later erythrocytic stages to P. malariae makes it extremely difficult to identify P. knowlesi infections by microscopy alone.

  16. Divis PCS, Singh B, Conway DJ
    Adv Parasitol, 2021;113:191-223.
    PMID: 34620383 DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.08.003
    Molecular epidemiology has been central to uncovering P. knowlesi as an important cause of human malaria in Southeast Asia, and to understanding the complex nature of this zoonosis. Species-specific parasite detection and characterization of sequences were vital to show that P. knowlesi was distinct from the human parasite species that had been presumed to cause all malaria. With established sensitive and specific molecular detection tools, surveys subsequently indicated the distribution of P. knowlesi infections in humans, wild primate reservoir host species, and mosquito vector species. The importance of studying P. knowlesi genetic polymorphism was indicated initially by analysing a few nuclear gene loci as well as the mitochondrial genome, and subsequently by multi-locus microsatellite analyses and whole-genome sequencing. Different human infections generally have unrelated P. knowlesi genotypes, acquired from the diverse local parasite reservoirs in macaques. However, individual human infections are usually less genetically complex than those of wild macaques which experience more frequent superinfection with different P. knowlesi genotypes. Multi-locus analyses have revealed deep population subdivisions within P. knowlesi, which are structured both geographically and in relation to different macaque reservoir host species. Simplified genotypic discrimination assays now enable efficient large-scale surveillance of the sympatric P. knowlesi subpopulations within Malaysian Borneo. The whole-genome sequence analyses have also identified loci under recent positive natural selection in the P. knowlesi genome, with evidence that different loci are affected in different populations. These provide a foundation to understand recent adaptation of the zoonotic parasite populations, and to track and interpret future changes as they emerge.
  17. Thevan K, Ahmad AH, Rawi CS, Singh B
    J Forensic Sci, 2010 Nov;55(6):1656-8.
    PMID: 20579228 DOI: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01485.x
    In estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) using maggots obtained during autopsy, the forensic entomologist makes decisions regarding the effects of low-temperature storage of the body on the insects. In this case report, a corpse was found in an abandoned house in the residential area of Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia. The maggots were found to be alive inside the mouth of the deceased although the corpse had been in the morgue cooler for 12 days. The maggots were reared and identified as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). The emerged adult flies were kept as a stock colony, and the duration of development under the indoor fluctuating temperature regime was studied. The total duration of developmental process of this species was 9.5 ± 0.5 days, and the PMI estimated was 3.2 ± 0.6 days. This case report demonstrates the survival of Ch. megacephala maggots for 12 days and their growth inside the morgue cooler.
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