OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to introduce readers to the platforms on which Tuberculosis participants interact, to discuss reasons for and risks associated with TB-related activity, and to review research related to the potential impact of individual participation on TB outcomes.
METHODS: Research and online content related to Tuberculosis online activity is reviewed, however, the difficulty in accurate prescribing and adhering to these protocols and the emergence of M. tuberculosis strains resistant to multiple drugs and drug-drug interactions that interfere with optimal treatment of Tuberculosis and co-infected patients with the different disease has generated a pressing need for improved Tuberculosis therapies.
RESULTS: Together with the ominous global burden of Tuberculosis, those shortcomings of current medication have contributed to a renewed interest in the development of improved drugs and protocols for the medication of Tuberculosis. This article features obstacles related with the enhanced utilization of existing drugs and difficulties related with the advancement of enhanced products, concentrating on perspectives characteristic in Tuberculosis drug clinical improvement. The participation includes peer support, advocacy, self-expression, seeking and sharing TB information, improving approaches to Tuberculosis data management, and humour.
CONCLUSION: This article highlights hurdles related to the optimised use of existing drugs and challenges related to the development of improved products, focusing on aspects inherent in Tuberculosis drug clinical development. Concluding comments offer processes for more efficient development of Tuberculosis therapies and increase the quality of life.
OBJECTIVE: To localize and quantify geometric morphometric differences in facial soft tissue morphology in adults with and without OSA.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty adult Malays, consisting of 40 patients with OSA and 40 non-OSA controls, were studied. Both groups were evaluated by the attending physician and through ambulatory sleep studies. 3-D stereophotogrammetry was used to capture facial soft tissues of both groups. The 3-D mean OSA and control facial configurations were computed and subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) and finite-element morphometry (FEM).
RESULTS: The body mass index was significantly greater for the OSA group (32.3 kg/m(2) compared to 24.8 kg/m(2), p < 0.001). The neck circumference was greater for the OSA group (42.7 cm compared to 37.1 cm, p < 0.001). Using PCA, significant differences were found in facial shape between the two groups using the first two principal components, which accounted for 50% of the total shape change (p < 0.05). Using FEM, these differences were localized in the bucco-submandibular regions of the face predominantly, indicating an increase in volume of 7-22% (p < 0.05) for the OSA group.
CONCLUSION: Craniofacial obesity in the bucco-submandibular regions is associated with OSA and may provide valuable screening information for the identification of patients with undiagnosed OSA.