Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 102 in total

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  1. Singh G, Krishnan S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1978 Mar;32(3):232-5.
    PMID: 683048
  2. Adityanjee, Singh S, Singh G, Ong S
    Br J Psychiatry, 1988 Jul;153:107-11.
    PMID: 3224231
    Although neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) was initially thought to be a rare, idiosyncratic complication, the incidence estimates have been rising over the years. A part of this increase can be explained on the basis of an over-inclusive definition of NMS. The unitary concept of NMS has been challenged recently and a spectrum concept has been enunciated on the basis of findings of retrospective chart-reviews which have used too broad a definition of NMS. The authors describe three cases of neuroleptic-related toxicity with different clinical presentations which appeared in a manner apparently supporting the spectrum concept. They discuss this controversial concept critically, however, and caution against its overzealous use in routine clinical practice owing to its far-reaching clinical implications.
  3. Ahirwal MK, Kumar A, Singh GK
    IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform, 2013 Nov-Dec;10(6):1491-504.
    PMID: 24407307 DOI: 10.1109/TCBB.2013.119
    This paper explores the migration of adaptive filtering with swarm intelligence/evolutionary techniques employed in the field of electroencephalogram/event-related potential noise cancellation or extraction. A new approach is proposed in the form of controlled search space to stabilize the randomness of swarm intelligence techniques especially for the EEG signal. Swarm-based algorithms such as Particles Swarm Optimization, Artificial Bee Colony, and Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm with their variants are implemented to design optimized adaptive noise canceler. The proposed controlled search space technique is tested on each of the swarm intelligence techniques and is found to be more accurate and powerful. Adaptive noise canceler with traditional algorithms such as least-mean-square, normalized least-mean-square, and recursive least-mean-square algorithms are also implemented to compare the results. ERP signals such as simulated visual evoked potential, real visual evoked potential, and real sensorimotor evoked potential are used, due to their physiological importance in various EEG studies. Average computational time and shape measures of evolutionary techniques are observed 8.21E-01 sec and 1.73E-01, respectively. Though, traditional algorithms take negligible time consumption, but are unable to offer good shape preservation of ERP, noticed as average computational time and shape measure difference, 1.41E-02 sec and 2.60E+00, respectively.
  4. Chan WF, Sinnathuray TA, Singh G
    Med J Malaya, 1972 Dec;27(2):103-6.
    PMID: 4268034
  5. Singh G, Kesharwani P, Srivastava AK
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2018;15(3):312-320.
    PMID: 29165080 DOI: 10.2174/1567201814666171120125916
    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an infection and caused by gentle growing bacteria. The Internet provides opportunities for people with tuberculosis (TB) to connect with one another to address these challenges.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to introduce readers to the platforms on which Tuberculosis participants interact, to discuss reasons for and risks associated with TB-related activity, and to review research related to the potential impact of individual participation on TB outcomes.

    METHODS: Research and online content related to Tuberculosis online activity is reviewed, however, the difficulty in accurate prescribing and adhering to these protocols and the emergence of M. tuberculosis strains resistant to multiple drugs and drug-drug interactions that interfere with optimal treatment of Tuberculosis and co-infected patients with the different disease has generated a pressing need for improved Tuberculosis therapies.

    RESULTS: Together with the ominous global burden of Tuberculosis, those shortcomings of current medication have contributed to a renewed interest in the development of improved drugs and protocols for the medication of Tuberculosis. This article features obstacles related with the enhanced utilization of existing drugs and difficulties related with the advancement of enhanced products, concentrating on perspectives characteristic in Tuberculosis drug clinical improvement. The participation includes peer support, advocacy, self-expression, seeking and sharing TB information, improving approaches to Tuberculosis data management, and humour.

    CONCLUSION: This article highlights hurdles related to the optimised use of existing drugs and challenges related to the development of improved products, focusing on aspects inherent in Tuberculosis drug clinical development. Concluding comments offer processes for more efficient development of Tuberculosis therapies and increase the quality of life.

  6. Banabilh SM, Rajion ZA, Samsudin AR, Singh GD
    Int J Orthod Milwaukee, 2006;17(4):17-20.
    PMID: 17256439
    Facial soft tissues are a major determinant of treatment choice. When Class I and Class II malocclusions were compared using finite-element analysis, morphologic differences were localized and quantified. This study highlights the importance of determining the timing, magnitude and direction offacial growth prior to treatment to achieve stable results.
  7. Banabilh SM, Suzina AH, Dinsuhaimi S, Singh GD
    Aust Orthod J, 2007 Nov;23(2):89-95.
    PMID: 18200785
    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been described as a public health problem comparable to smoking in its impacts upon society.
  8. Banabilh SM, Rajion ZA, Samsudin R, Singh GD
    Aust Orthod J, 2006 Nov;22(2):99-103.
    PMID: 17203572
    To quantify and localise differences in Class I and Class II dental arches in Malay schoolchildren.
  9. Banabilh SM, Suzina AH, Dinsuhaimi S, Samsudin AR, Singh GD
    J Oral Rehabil, 2009 Mar;36(3):184-92.
    PMID: 19207445 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2008.01915.x
    The association between dental arch morphology and the aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is not clear. To compare dental arch morphology in 108 Asian adults with and without ''OSA, overnight'' hospital polysomnography was performed, and sleep reports were obtained for all subjects. Standardized digital photographs were also taken of the subjects' upper and lower study models. Using 25 homologous landmarks, mean OSA and control dental arch configurations were computed, and subjected to finite-element morphometry (FEM), t-tests and principal components analysis (PCA). Mean upper and lower OSA dental arch morphologies were statistically different from respective Control upper and lower arch morphologies (P < 0.05). FEM of the upper arch indicated that the mean OSA configuration was 7-11% narrower in the transverse plane in the incisor and canine regions when compared with the control configuration, and inter-landmark analysis (ILA) confirmed this finding. FEM for the lower arch indicated that the mean OSA configuration was 10-11% narrower in the antero-posterior plane in the pre-molar and molar regions, and confirmed by ILA. Using PCA, significant differences were also found between the two groups in the lower arch using the first two eigenvalues, which accounted for 90% of the total shape change (P < 0.001). Supporting their role as aetiological factors, size and shape differences in dental arch morphology are found in patients with OSA.
  10. Dutta S, Singh G, Sreejith S, Mamidi MK, Husin JM, Datta I, et al.
    CNS Neurosci Ther, 2013 Jan;19(1):5-11.
    PMID: 23253099 DOI: 10.1111/cns.12027
    Neurodegenerative diseases are devastating because they cause increasing loss of cognitive and physical functions and affect an estimated 1 billion individuals worldwide. Unfortunately, no drugs are currently available to halt their progression, except a few that are largely inadequate. This mandates the search of new treatments for these progressively degenerative diseases. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been successfully isolated, propagated, and characterized from the adult brains of mammals, including humans. The confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain via NSCs opens up fresh avenues for treating neurological problems. The proof-of-concept studies demonstrating the neural differentiation capacity of stem cells both in vitro and in vivo have raised widespread enthusiasm toward cell-based interventions. It is anticipated that cell-based neurogenic drugs may reverse or compensate for deficits associated with neurological diseases. The increasing interest of the private sector in using human stem cells in therapeutics is evidenced by launching of several collaborative clinical research activities between Pharma giants and research institutions or small start-up companies. In this review, we discuss the major developments that have taken place in this field to position stem cells as a prospective candidate drug for the treatment of neurological disorders.
  11. Banabilh SM, Suzina AH, Dinsuhaimi S, Samsudin AR, Singh GD
    Sleep Breath, 2009 Mar;13(1):19-24.
    PMID: 18763003 DOI: 10.1007/s11325-008-0211-9
    INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity are serious, widespread public health issues.

    OBJECTIVE: To localize and quantify geometric morphometric differences in facial soft tissue morphology in adults with and without OSA.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty adult Malays, consisting of 40 patients with OSA and 40 non-OSA controls, were studied. Both groups were evaluated by the attending physician and through ambulatory sleep studies. 3-D stereophotogrammetry was used to capture facial soft tissues of both groups. The 3-D mean OSA and control facial configurations were computed and subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) and finite-element morphometry (FEM).

    RESULTS: The body mass index was significantly greater for the OSA group (32.3 kg/m(2) compared to 24.8 kg/m(2), p < 0.001). The neck circumference was greater for the OSA group (42.7 cm compared to 37.1 cm, p < 0.001). Using PCA, significant differences were found in facial shape between the two groups using the first two principal components, which accounted for 50% of the total shape change (p < 0.05). Using FEM, these differences were localized in the bucco-submandibular regions of the face predominantly, indicating an increase in volume of 7-22% (p < 0.05) for the OSA group.

    CONCLUSION: Craniofacial obesity in the bucco-submandibular regions is associated with OSA and may provide valuable screening information for the identification of patients with undiagnosed OSA.

  12. Singh GD, Ganjoo M, Youssouf MS, Koul A, Sharma R, Singh S, et al.
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2009 Oct;47(10):2661-5.
    PMID: 19654032 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.07.031
    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns.
  13. Banabilh SM, Suzina AH, Mohamad H, Dinsuhaimi S, Samsudin AR, Singh GD
    Clin Oral Investig, 2010 Oct;14(5):491-8.
    PMID: 19806371 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-009-0342-9
    The aim of the present study is to investigate nasal airway morphology in Asian adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using acoustic rhinometry (AR), principal components analysis (PCA), and 3-D finite-element analysis (FEA). One hundred eight adult Malays aged 18-65 years (mean ± SD, 33.2 ± 13.31) underwent clinical examination and limited channel polysomnography, providing 54 patients with OSA and 54 non-OSA controls. The mean minimal cross section area 1 (MCA1) and the mean minimal cross sectional area 2 (MCA2) were obtained from AR for all subjects and subjected to t tests. The OSA and control nasal airways were reconstructed in 3-D and subjected to PCA and FEA. The mean MCA1 and MCA2 using AR were found to be significantly smaller in the OSA group than in the control group (p < 0.001). Comparing the 3-D OSA and control nasal airways using PCA, the first two eigenvalues accounted for 94% of the total shape change, and statistical differences were found (p < 0.05). Similarly, comparing the nasal airways using FEA, the 3-D mean OSA nasal airway was significantly narrower in the OSA group compared to the control group. Specifically, decreases in size of approx. 10-22% were found in the nasal valve/head of inferior turbinate area. In conclusion, differences in nasal airway morphology are present when comparing patients with OSA to controls. These differences need to be recognized as they can improve our understanding of the etiological basis of obstructive sleep apnea and facilitate its subsequent management.
  14. Mamidi MK, Singh G, Husin JM, Nathan KG, Sasidharan G, Zakaria Z, et al.
    J Transl Med, 2012;10:229.
    PMID: 23171323 DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-10-229
    Numerous preclinical and clinical studies have investigated the regenerative potential and the trophic support of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) following their injection into a target organ. Clinicians favor the use of smallest bore needles possible for delivering MSCs into vascular organs like heart, liver and spleen. There has been a concern that small needle bore sizes may be detrimental to the health of these cells and reduce the survival and plasticity of MSCs.
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