OBJECTIVE: This study examines how patients with diabetes mellitus responded towards their clinical treatments, where the probability distribution of patients and the types of treatment received were derived from the Rasch probabilistic model.
METHODS: This is a retrospective study wherein data were collected from patients' medical records at a local public hospital in Selangor, Malaysia. Clinical and demographic information such as fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), family history, type of diabetes (type 1 or type 2), types of medication (oral or insulin), compliance with treatments, gender, race and age were chosen as the agents of measurement.
RESULTS: The use of Rasch analysis in the present study helped to compare the patients' responses towards the DM treatments and identify the types of treatment they received. Results from the Wright map show that a majority of the diabetes mellitus patients who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes have no controlled readings of HbA1c during their first and second visits to the medical center. However, patients with a family history of diabetes mellitus who took oral medication have controlled readings of fasting blood glucose based on the probabilistic outcomes of the treatment received by the patients.
CONCLUSION: Controlled readings were found only in the readings of fasting blood glucose during the first and second visits, followed by family history, types of medication received, and compliance with the treatment. This study has recommended that type 2 patients with diabetes without a family history of diabetes mellitus need to exercise more control over the readings of HbA1c.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of a home-based carer-assisted in comparison to hospital-based therapist-delivered therapy for community-dwelling stroke survivors.
METHODS: An assessor blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted on 91 stroke survivors (mean age 58.9±10.6 years, median time post-onset 13.0 months, 76.5% males) who had completed individual rehabilitation. The control group received hospital-based group therapy delivered by physiotherapists as out-patients and the test group was assigned to a home-based carer-assisted therapy. Targeted primary outcomes were physical functions (mobility, balance, lower limb strength and gait speed). A secondary outcome index was health-related quality of life. An intention-to-treat analysis was used to evaluate outcomes at week 12 of intervention.
RESULTS: Both therapy groups improved significantly in all the functional measures; mobility (p 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The home-based carer-assisted therapy is as effective as the hospital-based therapist-delivered training in improving post-stroke functions and quality of life.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ICV in primary craniosynostosis patients after the cranial vault reshaping with or without FOA and to compare between syndromic and nonsyndromic synostosis group, to determine factors that associated with significant changes in the ICV postoperative, and to evaluate the resolution of copper beaten sign and improvement in neurodevelopmental delay after the surgery.
METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of all primary craniosynostosis patients who underwent operation cranial vault reshaping with or without FOA in Hospital Kuala Lumpur from January 2017 until Jun 2018. The ICV preoperative and postoperative was measured using the 3D computed tomography (CT) imaging and analyzed. The demographic data, clinical and radiological findings were identified and analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 14 cases (6 males and 8 females) with 28 3D CT scans were identified. The mean age of patients was 23 months. Seven patients were having syndromic synostosis (4 Crouzon syndromes and 3 Apert syndromes) and 7 nonsyndromic synostosis. The mean preoperative ICV was 880 mL (range, 641-1234 mL), whereas the mean postoperative ICV was 1081 mL (range, 811-1385 mL). The difference was 201 mL which was statistically significant (P 1.0). However, there was 100% (n = 13) improvement of this copper beaten sign. However, the neurodevelopmental delay showed no improvement which was statistically not significant (P > 1.0).
CONCLUSION: Surgery in craniosynostosis patient increases the ICV besides it improves the shape of the head. From this study, the syndromic synostosis had better increment of ICV compared to nonsyndromic synostosis.
METHODS: This has been achieved by the participation of a prospective cohort involving a total of 90 moderate to severe psoriasis patients, which has been conducted at 5 public hospitals in Malaysia. The main outcome measures have been evaluated via cost and effectiveness psoriasis area severity index (PASI)-75 and/or body surface area (BSA) <5 and/or dermatology life quality index (DLQI) ≤5), estimated from the societal perspective over a 6-months duration. All costs are based on 2015's recorded Malaysian Ringgit (RM) currency.
RESULTS: Consequently, TS has been found to be the most cost-effective treatment with the lowest cost/PASI-75/and/or BSA <5 and/or DLQI ≤5, valued at RM9034.56 (US$2582.55). This is followed by TP, which is valued at RM28 080.71 (US$8026.93) and TB, valued at RM54 287.02 (US$15 518.06). Furthermore, one-way sensitivity analysis has highlighted the cost of medication as the most sensitive parameter.
CONCLUSION: Thus, the input from this study is helpful for policy-makers in determining the first line treatment for moderate to severe psoriasis with consideration of the costs and its effectiveness in Malaysia. This will consequently allow hospitals to justify and provide the essential resources for further research and development, as well as the adoption of better treatment options.
METHODS: Genome-wide linkage analysis was carried out on eight large extended families of NSCL/P with the total of 91 individuals among Malay population using microarray platform. Based on linkage analyses findings, copy number variation (CNV) of LPHN2, SATB2, PVRL3, COL21A1, and TOX3 were identified in four large extended families that showed linkage evidence using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as for a validation purpose. Copy number calculated (CNC) for each genes were determined with Applied Biosystems CopyCallerTM Software v2.0. Normal CNC of the target sequence expected was set at two.
RESULTS: Genome-wide linkage analysis had discovered several genes including TOX3 and COL21A1 in four different loci 4p15.2-p16.1, 6p11.2-p12.3, 14q13-q21, and 16q12.1. There was significant decreased, p
AIM: To investigate the correlation of HOXA4 and HOXA5 promoter DNA hypermethylation with imatinib resistance among CML patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples from 175 Philadelphia positive CML patients (83 good response and 92 BCR-ABL non-mutated imatinib resistant patients) were subjected to Methylation Specific High Resolution Melt Analysis for methylation levels quantification of the HOXA4 and HOXA5 promoter regions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to elucidate the optimal methylation cut-off point followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Log-Rank analysis was done to measure the overall survival difference between CML groups. The optimal methylation cut-off point was found to be at 62.5% for both HOXA4 and HOXA5. Chronic myeloid leukemia patients with ≥63% HOXA4 and HOXA5 methylation level were shown to have 3.78 and 3.95 times the odds, respectively, to acquire resistance to imatinib. However, overall survival of CML patients that have ≤62% and ≥ 63% methylation levels of HOXA4 and HOXA5 genes were found to be not significant (P-value = 0.126 for HOXA4; P-value = 0.217 for HOXA5).
CONCLUSION: Hypermethylation of the HOXA4 and HOXA5 promoter is correlated with imatinib resistance and with further investigation, it could be a potential epigenetic biomarker in supplement to the BCR-ABL gene mutation in predicting imatinib treatment response among CML patients but could not be considered as a prognostic marker.
METHODS: A total of 25 CLL patients and 25 normal individuals were recruited in this study. The methylation status of ADAM12 was determined using Methylation-Specific PCR (MSP); whereas, DNA sequencing method was applied for validation of the MSP results.
RESULTS: Among CLL patients, 12 (48%) were partially methylated and 13 (52%) were unmethylated. Meanwhile, 5 (20%) and 20 (80.6%) of healthy individuals were partially methylated and unmethylated, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between the status of methylation at ADAM12 and the presence of CLL (p=0.037).
CONCLUSION: The aberrant methylation of ADAM12 found in this study using MSP assay may provide new exposure to CLL that may improve the gaps involved in genetic epigenetic study in CLL.
AIMS: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s) control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI).
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05.
RESULTS: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD) 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5). The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0) months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007), while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06). Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2-100) to 90.5 (range: 27-100) (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01). Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0-22) to 3.0 (range: 0-19) though the change was not significant (Z= -0.744, P = 0.457).
CONCLUSIONS: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level.