Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 49 in total

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  1. Sulong S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2010 Jul;17(3):5-12.
    PMID: 22135543
    Screening of the entire human genome using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNPA) has become a powerful technique used in cancer genetics and population genetics studies. The GeneChip® Mapping Array, introduced by Affymetrix, is one SNPA platform utilised for genotyping studies. This GeneChip system allows researchers to gain a comprehensive view of cancer biology on a single platform for the quantification of chromosomal amplifications, deletions, and loss of heterozygosity or for allelic imbalance studies. Importantly, this array analysis has the potential to reveal novel genetic findings involved in the multistep development of cancer. Given the importance of genetic factors in leukaemogenesis and the usefulness of screening the whole genome, SNPA analysis has been utilised in many studies to characterise genetic aberrations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  2. Mahmud Z, Abrahhim SA, Sulong S
    Curr Diabetes Rev, 2021;17(7):e011221190236.
    PMID: 33438543 DOI: 10.2174/1573399817999210112191330
    BACKGROUND: It is important to assess how well patients respond to their medical treatments by observing the results that appear during the clinical treatments. As such, the clinical treatments and results must obtain information on how effective recommended treatments were for patients with diabetes.

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines how patients with diabetes mellitus responded towards their clinical treatments, where the probability distribution of patients and the types of treatment received were derived from the Rasch probabilistic model.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective study wherein data were collected from patients' medical records at a local public hospital in Selangor, Malaysia. Clinical and demographic information such as fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), family history, type of diabetes (type 1 or type 2), types of medication (oral or insulin), compliance with treatments, gender, race and age were chosen as the agents of measurement.

    RESULTS: The use of Rasch analysis in the present study helped to compare the patients' responses towards the DM treatments and identify the types of treatment they received. Results from the Wright map show that a majority of the diabetes mellitus patients who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes have no controlled readings of HbA1c during their first and second visits to the medical center. However, patients with a family history of diabetes mellitus who took oral medication have controlled readings of fasting blood glucose based on the probabilistic outcomes of the treatment received by the patients.

    CONCLUSION: Controlled readings were found only in the readings of fasting blood glucose during the first and second visits, followed by family history, types of medication received, and compliance with the treatment. This study has recommended that type 2 patients with diabetes without a family history of diabetes mellitus need to exercise more control over the readings of HbA1c.

  3. Ramli A, Aljunid SM, Sulong S, Md Yusof FA
    Ther Clin Risk Manag, 2013;9:491-504.
    PMID: 24353428 DOI: 10.2147/TCRM.S52078
    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are extensively used in treating hypercholesterolemia. The statins available in Malaysia include atorvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, and fluvastatin. Over the years, they have accumulated in the National Drug Formulary; hence, the need for review. Effective selection of the best drugs to remain in the formulary can become complex due to the multiple drug attributes involved, and is made worse by the limited time and resources available. The multiattribute scoring tool (MAST) systematizes the evaluation of the drug attributes to facilitate the drug selection process. In this study, a MAST framework was developed to rank the statins based on their utilities or benefits.
  4. Abdullah JM, Zainuddin N, Sulong S, Jaafar H, Isa MN
    Neurosurg Focus, 2003 Apr 15;14(4):e6.
    PMID: 15679305
    Several genes have been shown to carry mutations in human malignant gliomas, including the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deleted on chromosome 10 and p16 tumor suppressor genes. Alterations of this gene located on chromosome 10 q23 and 9p21, respectively, may contribute to gliomagenesis. In this study, the authors analyzed 20 cases of malignant gliomas obtained in patients living on the east coast of Malaysia to investigate the possibilities of involvement of the PTEN and p16 genes.
  5. Nordin NAM, Aziz NA, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    NeuroRehabilitation, 2019;45(1):87-97.
    PMID: 31450518 DOI: 10.3233/NRE-192758
    BACKGROUND: The benefits of engaging informal carers or family in the delivery of therapy intervention for people with stroke have not been well researched.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of a home-based carer-assisted in comparison to hospital-based therapist-delivered therapy for community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    METHODS: An assessor blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted on 91 stroke survivors (mean age 58.9±10.6 years, median time post-onset 13.0 months, 76.5% males) who had completed individual rehabilitation. The control group received hospital-based group therapy delivered by physiotherapists as out-patients and the test group was assigned to a home-based carer-assisted therapy. Targeted primary outcomes were physical functions (mobility, balance, lower limb strength and gait speed). A secondary outcome index was health-related quality of life. An intention-to-treat analysis was used to evaluate outcomes at week 12 of intervention.

    RESULTS: Both therapy groups improved significantly in all the functional measures; mobility (p  0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The home-based carer-assisted therapy is as effective as the hospital-based therapist-delivered training in improving post-stroke functions and quality of life.

  6. Sulong S, Alias A, Johanabas F, Yap Abdullah J, Idris B
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 8 14;31(1):46-50.
    PMID: 31403510 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005810
    BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect that causes ≥1 suture to fuse prematurely. Cranial expansion surgery which consists of cranial vault reshaping with or without fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) is done to correct the skull to a more normal shape of the head as well as to increase the intracranial volume (ICV). Therefore, it is important to evaluate the changes of ICV after the surgery and the effect of surgery both clinically and radiologically.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ICV in primary craniosynostosis patients after the cranial vault reshaping with or without FOA and to compare between syndromic and nonsyndromic synostosis group, to determine factors that associated with significant changes in the ICV postoperative, and to evaluate the resolution of copper beaten sign and improvement in neurodevelopmental delay after the surgery.

    METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of all primary craniosynostosis patients who underwent operation cranial vault reshaping with or without FOA in Hospital Kuala Lumpur from January 2017 until Jun 2018. The ICV preoperative and postoperative was measured using the 3D computed tomography (CT) imaging and analyzed. The demographic data, clinical and radiological findings were identified and analyzed.

    RESULTS: A total of 14 cases (6 males and 8 females) with 28 3D CT scans were identified. The mean age of patients was 23 months. Seven patients were having syndromic synostosis (4 Crouzon syndromes and 3 Apert syndromes) and 7 nonsyndromic synostosis. The mean preoperative ICV was 880 mL (range, 641-1234 mL), whereas the mean postoperative ICV was 1081 mL (range, 811-1385 mL). The difference was 201 mL which was statistically significant (P  1.0). However, there was 100% (n = 13) improvement of this copper beaten sign. However, the neurodevelopmental delay showed no improvement which was statistically not significant (P > 1.0).

    CONCLUSION: Surgery in craniosynostosis patient increases the ICV besides it improves the shape of the head. From this study, the syndromic synostosis had better increment of ICV compared to nonsyndromic synostosis.

  7. Azizam NA, Ismail A, Sulong S, Nor NM
    Int J Health Policy Manag, 2019 07 01;8(7):394-402.
    PMID: 31441276 DOI: 10.15171/ijhpm.2019.17
    BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence detailing the cost-effectiveness of psoriasis treatments in the Asian region. Therefore, this study is aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 psoriasis treatments tailored for moderate to severe psoriasis, namely topical and phototherapy (TP), topical and systemic (TS), and topical and biologic (TB) regimens, respectively.

    METHODS: This has been achieved by the participation of a prospective cohort involving a total of 90 moderate to severe psoriasis patients, which has been conducted at 5 public hospitals in Malaysia. The main outcome measures have been evaluated via cost and effectiveness psoriasis area severity index (PASI)-75 and/or body surface area (BSA) <5 and/or dermatology life quality index (DLQI) ≤5), estimated from the societal perspective over a 6-months duration. All costs are based on 2015's recorded Malaysian Ringgit (RM) currency.

    RESULTS: Consequently, TS has been found to be the most cost-effective treatment with the lowest cost/PASI-75/and/or BSA <5 and/or DLQI ≤5, valued at RM9034.56 (US$2582.55). This is followed by TP, which is valued at RM28 080.71 (US$8026.93) and TB, valued at RM54 287.02 (US$15 518.06). Furthermore, one-way sensitivity analysis has highlighted the cost of medication as the most sensitive parameter.

    CONCLUSION: Thus, the input from this study is helpful for policy-makers in determining the first line treatment for moderate to severe psoriasis with consideration of the costs and its effectiveness in Malaysia. This will consequently allow hospitals to justify and provide the essential resources for further research and development, as well as the adoption of better treatment options.

  8. Ghazali N, Abd Rahman N, Ahmad A, Sulong S, Kannan TP
    Front Physiol, 2021;12:637306.
    PMID: 33732167 DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2021.637306
    Nonsyndromic cleft lip and or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) with the hypodontia is a common developmental abnormality in humans and animals. This study identified the genetic aberration involved in both NSCL/P and hypodontia pathogenesis. A cross-sectional study using genome-wide study copy number variation-targeted CytoScan 750K array carried out on salivary samples from 61 NSCL/P and 20 noncleft with and without hypodontia Malay subjects aged 7-13 years old. Copy number variations (CNVs) of SKI and fragile histidine triad (FHIT) were identified in NSCL/P and noncleft children using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as a validation analysis. Copy number calculated (CNC) for each gene determined with Applied Biosystems CopyCaller Software v2.0. The six significant CNVs included gains (12q14.3, 15q26.3, 1p36.32, and 1p36.33) and losses (3p14.2 and 4q13.2) in NSCL/P with hypodontia patients compared with the NSCL/P only. The genes located in these regions encoded LEMD3, IGF1R, TP73, SKI, FHIT, and UGT2β15. There were a significant gain and loss of both SKI and FHIT copy number in NSCL/P with hypodontia compared with the noncleft group (p < 0.05). The results supported that CNVs significantly furnish to the development of NSCL/P with hypodontia.
  9. Mohamad Shah NS, Sulong S, Wan Sulaiman WA, Halim AS
    Mol Genet Genomic Med, 2019 05;7(5):e635.
    PMID: 30924295 DOI: 10.1002/mgg3.635
    BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate is one of the most common human birth defects worldwide that affects the lip and/or palate. The incidence of clefts varies among populations through ethnic, race, or geographical differences. The focus on Malay nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) is because of a scarce report on genetic study in relation to this deformity in Malaysia. We are interested to discuss about the genes that are susceptible to cause orofacial cleft formation in the family.

    METHODS: Genome-wide linkage analysis was carried out on eight large extended families of NSCL/P with the total of 91 individuals among Malay population using microarray platform. Based on linkage analyses findings, copy number variation (CNV) of LPHN2, SATB2, PVRL3, COL21A1, and TOX3 were identified in four large extended families that showed linkage evidence using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as for a validation purpose. Copy number calculated (CNC) for each genes were determined with Applied Biosystems CopyCallerTM Software v2.0. Normal CNC of the target sequence expected was set at two.

    RESULTS: Genome-wide linkage analysis had discovered several genes including TOX3 and COL21A1 in four different loci 4p15.2-p16.1, 6p11.2-p12.3, 14q13-q21, and 16q12.1. There was significant decreased, p 

  10. Abdul Rashid A, Kamarulzaman A, Sulong S, Abdullah S
    Malays Fam Physician, 2021 Jul 22;16(2):14-18.
    PMID: 34386159 DOI: 10.51866/rv1048
    Online activities have become the norm. From searching for new information to conducting business meetings, social media's role in daily life continues to grow in prominence. It is estimated that the majority of the population uses social media, and users include doctors and other healthcare professionals. It is critical for primary care doctors to note how social media can substantially influence one's healthcare behaviour and decision making. Because primary care doctors are usually the first line of contact for patients, they are the most easily accessible and most instrumental in using social media to steer the public toward proper information on healthcare.
  11. Elias MH, Azlan H, Sulong S, Baba AA, Ankathil R
    Cancer Rep (Hoboken), 2018 08;1(2):e1111.
    PMID: 32721103 DOI: 10.1002/cnr2.1111
    BACKGROUND: Imatinib mesylate is a molecularly targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug. It is effectively used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. However, development of resistance to imatinib mesylate as a result of BCR-ABL dependent and BCR-ABL independent mechanisms has emerged as a daunting problem in the management of CML patients. Between these mechanisms, BCR-ABL independent mechanisms are still not robustly understood.

    AIM: To investigate the correlation of HOXA4 and HOXA5 promoter DNA hypermethylation with imatinib resistance among CML patients.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples from 175 Philadelphia positive CML patients (83 good response and 92 BCR-ABL non-mutated imatinib resistant patients) were subjected to Methylation Specific High Resolution Melt Analysis for methylation levels quantification of the HOXA4 and HOXA5 promoter regions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to elucidate the optimal methylation cut-off point followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Log-Rank analysis was done to measure the overall survival difference between CML groups. The optimal methylation cut-off point was found to be at 62.5% for both HOXA4 and HOXA5. Chronic myeloid leukemia patients with ≥63% HOXA4 and HOXA5 methylation level were shown to have 3.78 and 3.95 times the odds, respectively, to acquire resistance to imatinib. However, overall survival of CML patients that have ≤62% and ≥ 63% methylation levels of HOXA4 and HOXA5 genes were found to be not significant (P-value = 0.126 for HOXA4; P-value = 0.217 for HOXA5).

    CONCLUSION: Hypermethylation of the HOXA4 and HOXA5 promoter is correlated with imatinib resistance and with further investigation, it could be a potential epigenetic biomarker in supplement to the BCR-ABL gene mutation in predicting imatinib treatment response among CML patients but could not be considered as a prognostic marker.

  12. Ankathil R, Ismail SM, Mohd Yunus N, Sulong S, Husin A, Abdullah AD, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Dec;42(3):307-321.
    PMID: 33361712
    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) provides an illustrative disease model for both molecular pathogenesis of cancer and rational drug therapy. Imatinib mesylate (IM), a BCR-ABL1 targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drug, is the first line gold standard drug for CML treatment. Conventional cytogenetic analysis (CCA) can identify the standard and variant Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, and any additional complex chromosome abnormalities at diagnosis as well as during treatment course. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is especially important for cells of CML patients with inadequate or inferior quality metaphases or those with variant Ph translocations. CCA in conjunction with FISH can serve as powerful tools in all phases of CML including the diagnosis, prognosis, risk stratification and monitoring of cytogenetic responses to treatment. Molecular techniques such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is used for the detection of BCR-ABL1 transcripts at diagnosis whereas quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) is used at the time of diagnosis as well as during TKI therapy for the quantitation of BCR-ABL1 transcripts to evaluate the molecular response and minimal residual disease (MRD). Despite the excellent treatment results obtained after the introduction of TKI drugs, especially Imatinib mesylate (IM), resistance to TKIs develops in approximately 35% - 40% of CML patients on TKI therapy. Since point mutations in BCR-ABL1 are a common cause of IM resistance, mutation analysis is important in IM resistant patients. Mutations are reliably detected by nested PCR amplification of the translocated ABL1 kinase domain followed by direct sequencing of the entire amplified kinase domain. The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of regular and timely CCA, FISH analysis and molecular testing in the diagnosis, prognosis, assessment of therapeutic efficacy, evaluation of MRD and in the detection of BCR-ABL1 kinase mutations which cause therapeutic resistance in adult CML patients.
  13. Mohamad A, Hassan R, Husin A, Johan MF, Sulong S
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Jan 01;22(1):85-91.
    PMID: 33507683 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.1.85
    OBJECTIVE: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a common leukemia among Caucasians but rare in Asians population. We postulated that aberrant methylation either hypermethylation or partial methylation might be one of the silencing mechanisms that inactivates the tumour suppressor genes in CLL. This study aimed to compare the methylation status of tumour suppressor gene, ADAM12, among CLL patients and normal individuals. We also evaluated the association between methylation of ADAM12 and clinical and demographic characteristics of the participants.

    METHODS: A total of 25 CLL patients and 25 normal individuals were recruited in this study. The methylation status of ADAM12 was determined using Methylation-Specific PCR (MSP); whereas, DNA sequencing method was applied for validation of the MSP results.

    RESULTS: Among CLL patients, 12 (48%) were partially methylated and 13 (52%) were unmethylated. Meanwhile, 5 (20%) and 20 (80.6%) of healthy individuals were partially methylated and unmethylated, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between the status of methylation at ADAM12 and the presence of CLL (p=0.037).

    CONCLUSION: The aberrant methylation of ADAM12 found in this study using MSP assay may provide new exposure to CLL that may improve the gaps involved in genetic epigenetic study in CLL.

  14. Mohamad Ashari ZS, Sulong S, Hassan R, Husin A, Sim GA, Abdul Wahid SF
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(4):1863-9.
    PMID: 24641422
    The amplification of telomerase component (TERC) gene could play an important role in generation and treatment of haematological malignancies. This present study was aimed to investigate copy number amplification status of TERC gene in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients who were being treated with imatinib mesylate (IM). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of CML-IM Resistant (n=63), CML-IM Respond (n=63) and healthy individuals (n=30). TERC gene copy number predicted (CNP) and copy number calculated (CNC) were determined based on Taqman® Copy Number Assay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed to confirm the normal signal pattern in C4 (calibrator) for TERC gene. Nine of CML patients showed TERC gene amplification (CNP=3), others had 2 CNP. A total of 17 CML patients expressed CNC>2.31 and the rest had 2.31>CNC>1.5. TERC gene CNP value in healthy individuals was 2 and their CNC value showed in range 1.59-2.31. The average CNC TERC gene copy number was 2.07, 1.99 and 1.94 in CML- IM Resistant patients, CML-IM Respond and healthy groups, respectively. No significant difference of TERC gene amplification observed between CML-IM Resistant and CML-IM Respond patients. Low levels of TERC gene amplification might not have a huge impact in haematological disorders especially in terms of resistance towards IM treatment.
  15. Abdul Aziz AF, Mohd Nordin NA, Abd Aziz N, Abdullah S, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    BMC Fam Pract, 2014;15:40.
    PMID: 24580779 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-15-40
    BACKGROUND: Provision of post stroke care in developing countries is hampered by discoordination of services and limited access to specialised care. Albeit shortcomings, primary care continues to provide post-stroke services in less than favourable circumstances. This paper aimed to review provision of post-stroke care and related problems among Family Medicine Specialists managing public primary health care services.
    METHODS: A semi-structured questionnaire was distributed to 121 Family Physicians servicing public funded health centres in a pilot survey focused on improving post stroke care provision at community level. The questionnaire assessed respondents background and practice details i.e. estimated stroke care burden, current service provision and opinion on service improvement. Means and frequencies described quantitative data. For qualitative data, constant comparison method was used until saturation of themes was reached.
    RESULTS: Response rate of 48.8% was obtained. For every 100 patients seen at public healthcentres each month, 2 patients have stroke. Median number of stroke patients seen per month is 5 (IQR 2-10). 57.6% of respondents estimated total stroke patients treated per year at each centre was less than 40 patients. 72.4% lacked a standard care plan although 96.6% agreed one was needed. Patients seen were: discharged from tertiary care (88.1%), shared care plan with specialists (67.8%) and patients who developed stroke during follow up at primary care (64.4%). Follow-ups were done at 8-12 weekly intervals (60.3%) with 3.4% on 'as needed' basis. Referrals ranked in order of frequency were to physiotherapy services, dietitian and speech and language pathologists in public facilities. The FMS' perceived 4 important 'needs' in managing stroke patients at primary care level; access to rehabilitation services, coordinated care between tertiary centres and primary care using multidisciplinary care approach, a standardized guideline and family and caregiver support.
    CONCLUSIONS: Post discharge stroke care guidelines and access to rehabilitation services at primary care is needed for post stroke patients residing at home in the community.
  16. Aziz AF, Aziz NA, Nordin NA, Ali MF, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    J Neurosci Rural Pract, 2013 Oct;4(4):413-20.
    PMID: 24347948 DOI: 10.4103/0976-3147.120243
    CONTEXT: Poststroke care in developing countries is inundated with poor concordance and scarce specialist stroke care providers. A primary care-driven health service is an option to ensure optimal care to poststroke patients residing at home in the community.

    AIMS: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level.

    SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s) control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI).

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05.

    RESULTS: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD) 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5). The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0) months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007), while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06). Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2-100) to 90.5 (range: 27-100) (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01). Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0-22) to 3.0 (range: 0-19) though the change was not significant (Z= -0.744, P = 0.457).

    CONCLUSIONS: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level.

  17. Aljunid S, Abuduxike G, Ahmed Z, Sulong S, Nur AM, Goh A
    BMC Infect Dis, 2011;11:248.
    PMID: 21936928 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-248
    BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as a priority for inclusion into national childhood immunization programmes. Pneumococcal vaccine has yet to be included as part of the national vaccination programme in Malaysia although it has been available in the country since 2005. This study sought to estimate the disease burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and to assess the cost effectiveness of routine infant vaccination with PCV7.
    METHODS: A decision model was adapted taking into consideration prevalence, disease burden, treatment costs and outcomes for pneumococcal disease severe enough to result in a hospital admission. Disease burden were estimated from the medical records of 6 hospitals. Where local data was unavailable, model inputs were obtained from international and regional studies and from focus group discussions. The model incorporated the effects of herd protection on the unvaccinated adult population.
    RESULTS: At current vaccine prices, PCV7 vaccination of 90% of a hypothetical 550,000 birth cohort would incur costs of RM 439.6 million (US$128 million). Over a 10 year time horizon, vaccination would reduce episodes of pneumococcal hospitalisation by 9,585 cases to 73,845 hospitalisations with cost savings of RM 37.5 million (US$10.9 million) to the health system with 11,422.5 life years saved at a cost effectiveness ratio of RM 35,196 (US$10,261) per life year gained.
    CONCLUSIONS: PCV7 vaccination of infants is expected to be cost-effective for Malaysia with an incremental cost per life year gained of RM 35,196 (US$10,261). This is well below the WHO's threshold for cost effectiveness of public health interventions in Malaysia of RM 71,761 (US$20,922).
  18. Zamzuri I, Ghazali MM, Zainuddin N, Sulong S, Samarendra SM, Yusoff AAM, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Aug;60(3):360-3.
    PMID: 16379193
    We describe a rare tumor site in a 46 year old man who presented with a two week history of headache. Physical examination revealed bilateral papilloedema with no other localizing signs. Computed Tomographic Scan as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain revealed a lesion with a dura tail located adjacent to the falx cerebri of the right frontal lobe. This lesion was not invading the inner table of the skull base. A tumor blush was seen on angiogram. There were no abnormalities on CT scan of the abdomen and fundoscopy was normal. Intraoperatively a vascular tumor not attached to the dura was noted and removed totally. Histopathological examination was typical of a hemangioblastoma. Analysis revealed no mutations of the VHL gene in 5 regions, exon 5-8 of the p53 gene, exon 1-2 of the p16 gene and exon 5,6 and 8 of the PTEN gene. This is the first case report of a supratentorial hemangioblastoma in a non-Von Hippel Lindau patient with genetic evidence.
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