SIGNIFICANCE: Plant proteomics study is a rapidly growing area of biological research that is positively impacting plant science. With the recent advances in new technologies, proteomics not only allows us to comprehensively analyses crop proteins, but also help us to understand the functions of the genes. In this review, we highlighted recent proteomic studies in commercial crops and updated the advances in our understanding of the proteomes of these crops. We believe that proteomic-based research will continue to grow and contribute to the improvement of crops.
METHODS: Uncaria gambir extracts at concentrations ranging from 1000 to 7.8 µg/ml and MTA eluates at 4- and 48 h setting times were prepared. 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and culture media were used as positive and negative controls respectively. Cell viability on days 1, 2, 3 and 7 was analysed using Alamar Blue and Live and Dead Cell assay. Any morphological cellular changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopes (TEM). Data were analysed using a two-way mixed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).
RESULTS: The interaction between the concentration and exposure time on the fluorescence intensity of Uncaria gambir extract and MTA 48 h was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). No cytotoxic effects on the cells were exerted by both MTA 48 h and Uncaria gambir extract at a concentration below 500 µg/mL. TEM analysis and Live and Dead Cell assay for both materials were comparable to the negative control. No significant differences in fluorescent intensity were observed between Uncaria gambir extract at 500 µg/mL and MTA 48 h (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Uncaria gambir extracts at a maximum concentration of 500 μg/mL are non-cytotoxic over time and are comparable to the MTA.
OBJECTIVES: This study has aimed to establish optimum conditions to generate and characterize MSC from human umbilical cord (UC-MSC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To optimize MSC population growth, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was utilized in culture media. Effects of bFGF on expansion kinetics, cell cycle, survival of UC-MSC, cytokine secretion, expression of early stem-cell markers and immunomodulation were investigated.
RESULTS: bFGF supplementation profoundly enhanced UC-MSC proliferation by reducing population doubling time without altering immunophenotype and immunomodulatory function of UC-MSC. However, cell cycle studies revealed that bFGF drove the cells into the cell cycle, as a higher proportion of cells resided in S phase and progressed into M phase. Consistent with this, bFGF was shown to promote expression of cyclin D proteins and their relevant kinases to drive UC-MSC to transverse cell cycle check points, thus, committing the cells to DNA synthesis. Furthermore, supplementation with bFGF changed the cytokine profiles of the cells and reduced their apoptotic level.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that bFGF supplementation of UC-MSC culture enhanced the cells' growth kinetics without compromising their nature.