OBJECTIVE: To summarize current evidence from systematic reviews that has evaluated pharyngeal airway changes after mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies.
METHODOLOGY: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched with no restriction of language or date. Systematic reviews studying changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions and respiratory parameters after mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies have been identified, screened for eligibility, included and analyzed in this study.
RESULTS: Six systematic reviews have been included. While isolated mandibular setback osteotomies result in reduced oropharyngeal airway dimensions, the reduction is lesser in cases with concomitant upper jaw osteotomies. Only scarce evidence exists currently to what happens to naso- and hypo-pharyngeal airways. There is no evidence for post-surgical OSA, even though some studies reported reduced respiratory parameters after single-jaw mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies.
CONCLUSION: Although mandibular setback osteotomies reduce pharyngeal airway dimensions, evidence confirming post-surgical OSA was not found. Nevertheless, potential post-surgical OSA should be taken into serious consideration during the treatment planning of particular orthognathic cases. As moderate evidence exists that double-jaw surgeries lead to less compromised post-surgical pharyngeal airways, they should be considered as the method of choice especially in cases with severe dentoskeletal Class III deformity.
STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42016046484).
OBJECTIVE: To collect evidence from published systematic reviews that have evaluated pharyngeal airway changes related to mandibular advancement with or without maxillary procedures.
METHODOLOGY: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched without limiting language or timeline. Eligible systematic reviews evaluating changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions and respiratory parameters after mandibular advancement with or without maxillary surgery were identified and included.
RESULTS: This overview has included eleven systematic reviews. Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) increases linear, cross-sectional plane and volumetric measurements of pharyngeal airways significantly (p<0.0001), while reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) significantly (p<0.0001). Two systematic reviews included primary studies that have evaluated single-jaw mandibular advancement, but did not discuss their effect onto pharyngeal airways. Based on the included primary studies of those systematic reviews, single-jaw mandibular advancement was reported to significantly increase pharyngeal airway dimensions (p<0.05); however, conclusive long-term results were lacking.
CONCLUSION: MMA increases pharyngeal airway dimensions and is beneficial to patients suffering from OSA. However, more evidence is still needed to draw definite conclusion related to the effect of single-jaw mandibular advancement osteotomies on pharyngeal airways.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis has been performed on patients with dento-skeletal class III deformity who had undergone orthognathic 2-jaw surgery with segmentations, presenting both pre- and post-surgical cone-beam computed tomographys. Three-dimensional skeletal movements, pharyngeal airway changes and hyoid bone position were measured and correlated.
RESULTS: The mean short term postsurgical review period for all included 47 patients was 5.8 ± 2.2 months. Thirteen patients among them provided a mean long term period of 26.4 ± 3.4 months. The mean postsurgical maxillary movement was 2.29 ± 2.49 mm in vertical, 2.02 ± 3.45 mm in horizontal direction, respectively, while the mandibular movement was 6.49 ± 4.58 mm in vertical, and -5.85 ± 6.13 mm in horizontal direction. In short-term, the vertical length of nasopharynx was found to be reduced (P = 0.005) but increased for the oropharynx (P 0.05) detected between patients with and without genioplasty advancement.
CONCLUSION: Two-jaw orthognathic surgery in dento-skeletal class III patients led to a statistically non-significant reduction of the post-surgical airway volume in both short- and long-term. Although the post-surgical oropharyneal minimum cross-sectional area was decreased significantly in the short term, this finding did not persist in the long term.
METHODS: Relations between skeletal movement, hyoid bone position and three-dimensional pharyngeal airway changes were retrospectively analyzed on pre- and post-surgical CBCTs in dento-skeletal class II patients who underwent orthognathic two-jaw surgery with segmentation.
RESULTS: While long-term significant reductions in length (P= 0.003), surface area (P= 0.042) and volume (P= 0.004) were found in the nasopharynx, the highly significant increases in oropharyngeal airway length, surface area, volume and the minimal cross-sectional area (P
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospectively ECG-triggered CCTA was performed using five commercially available CT scanners: 64-detector-row single source CT (SSCT), 2 × 32-detector-row-dual source CT (DSCT), 2 × 64-detector-row DSCT and 320-detector-row SSCT scanners. Absorbed doses were measured in 34 organs using pre-calibrated optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) placed inside a standard female adult anthropomorphic phantom. HE was calculated from the measured organ doses and compared to the HE derived from the air kerma-length product (PKL) using the conversion coefficient of 0.014 mSv∙mGy-1∙cm-1 for the chest region.
RESULTS: Both breasts and lungs received the highest radiation dose during CCTA examination. The highest HE was received from 2 × 32-detector-row DSCT scanner (6.06 ± 0.72 mSv), followed by 64-detector-row SSCT (5.60 ± 0.68 and 5.02 ± 0.73 mSv), 2 × 64-detector-row DSCT (1.88 ± 0.25 mSv) and 320-detector-row SSCT (1.34 ± 0.48 mSv) scanners. HE calculated from the measured organ doses were about 38 to 53% higher than the HE derived from the PKL-to-HE conversion factor.
CONCLUSION: The radiation doses received from a prospectively ECG-triggered CCTA are relatively small and are depending on the scanner technology and imaging protocols. HE as low as 1.34 and 1.88 mSv can be achieved in prospectively ECG-triggered CCTA using 320-detector-row SSCT and 2 × 64-detector-row DSCT scanners.
Methods: Two hundred fifty adult Cantonese-speaking patients of 18 years or older who underwent orthognathic treatment were recruited in the Prince Philip Dental Hospital of Hong Kong. Nine of an overall of 40 independent FACE-Q scales were selected and translated into Hong Kong Chinese. The reliability, validity, and test-retest reliability were examined using Cronbach's alpha, paired t test and Pearson's correlation coefficients.
Results: The Hong Kong Chinese version of the 9 FACE-Q scales was obtained by forward-backward translation. One hundred eight male (mean age, 25.57 ± 4.49) and 142 female (mean age, 24.61 ± 4.54) patients were recruited for the reliability and validation process. The internal consistency (0.89-0.97) and the test-retest reliability (0.73-0.90) were found to be high. The validity of the translated questionnaires was comparable with that of the original FACE-Q.
Conclusion: The results presented here prove that the 9 translated FACE-Q scales are reliable and valid instruments for research and clinical purposes in Hong Kong Chinese orthognathic patients.
METHODS: 41 medical personnel performing 79 procedures were monitored for their eye lens exposure using the NanoDot™ optically-stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) taped to the outer canthus of their eyes. The air-kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT) and number of procedure runs were also recorded.
RESULTS: KAP, FT and number of runs were strongly correlated. However, only weak to moderate correlations were observed between these parameters with the measured eye lens doses. The average median equivalent eye lens dose was 0.052 mSv (ranging from 0.0155 to 0.672 mSv). The eye lens doses of primary operators were found to be significantly higher than their assistants due to the closer proximity to the patient and X-ray tube. The left eye lens of the operators received the highest amount of radiation due to their habitual positioning towards the radiation source.
CONCLUSION: KAP and FT were not useful in predicting the equivalent eye lens dose exposure in interventional radiological procedures. Direct in vivo measurements were needed to provide a better estimate of the eye lens doses received by medical personnel during these procedures. This study highlights the importance of using direct measurement, such as OSLDs, instead of just indirect factors to monitor dose in the eye lens in radiological procedures.
Methods: This study was carried out between June and December 2017. All 48 paediatric surgeons currently working in Malaysia were invited to participate in a questionnaire-based survey to assess demographic characteristics and practices and perspectives regarding TOC.
Results: A total of 38 paediatric surgeons participated in the survey (response rate: 79.2%). Overall, 97.4% did not have an organised TOC model in their institution, with most (65.8%) caring for paediatric patients with complex surgical conditions until adulthood. Although the majority (86.8%) felt that care should be transitioned to adult surgeons with appropriate credentials, most surgeons (84.2%) nevertheless preferred to be involved in the management of adolescent patients after transition. However, there was no consensus regarding the most suitable age to begin the transition. Years of experience as a paediatric surgeon and place of practice did not affect overall TOC practice scores (P >0.050 each). The presence of adult comorbidities was considered the most common reason to initiate TOC (81.6%), while the lack of TOC guidelines was perceived to be the greatest barrier (84.2%).
Conclusion: This study provides a better understanding of TOC from the point of view of paediatric surgeons in Malaysia. However, further studies involving other stakeholders (i.e. patients and adult surgeons) are needed to help formulate a suitable and successful TOC model in this setting.