Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 77 in total

  1. Tan SY
    Kidney Blood Press. Res., 2000;23(2):138-42.
    PMID: 10765117 DOI: 10.1159/000025967
    FcgammaRIIs are the most widely distributed of the Fcgamma receptor family and play an important role in the clearance of immune complexes. Evidence that the FcgammaRIIa-R131 allotype is less able to process and clear immune complexes effectively suggests that this may be a disease susceptibility factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Data from studies published thus far do not agree on the potential role of FcgammaRIIa polymorphism in the genetics of SLE. Most studies in fact show no evidence for any correlation between polymorphism of FcgammaRIIa and risk for SLE. However, it remains to be determined whether FcgammaRIIa polymorphism may play a critical role in certain groups of patients, especially in those of differing ethnic background. Polymorphism of FcgammaRIIa may also be important in determining disease phenotype, and identification of this influence may have important implications in patient care and in identifying patients for more aggressive therapy.
  2. Tan SY
    Perit Dial Int, 2008 Jun;28 Suppl 3:S49-52.
    PMID: 18552263
    Although peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective alternative to hemodialysis (HD) and indeed, in terms of survival, superior to HD in first year of dialysis, the utilization rate for PD remains low. Although the utilization rate of PD varies considerably, the worldwide penetration rate appears to be falling. Still, in rapidly developing countries such as China, the PD penetration rate is rising-an encouraging sign. Clearly, considerable room for improvement remains, particularly with the take-on rate of PD, and one of the potentially influential factors is the role of research activities in improving both the quantity and quality of life of patients on PD.
  3. Tan SY
    JUMMEC, 2010;13(2):70-71.
    The current issue of JUMMEC touches on many diverse topics and in many ways reflects the evolution of modern medicine from the practice of acupuncture to epidemics facilitated by modern travel to the subject of ethics including controversies surrounding financial incentives given in promoting organ donation.(Copied from article).
  4. Tan SY, Hatah E
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2017 Apr;39(2):450-458.
    PMID: 28108846 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-017-0425-7
    Background Research utilization is part of evidence-based practice referring to the process of reviewing and critiquing scientific research and applying the findings to one's own clinical practice. Many studies on research utilization have been conducted with doctors and nurses, but to our knowledge, none have been investigated amongst pharmacists. Objective To assess research utilization and its barriers among pharmacists and identify potential influencing factors. Setting Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional survey was administered online and by mail to a convenient sample of pharmacists working in hospitals, health clinics, and retail pharmacies in rural and urban areas. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results Six hundred surveys were mailed to potential respondents, and 466 were returned (77.7% response rate). Twenty-eight respondents completed the survey online. The respondents' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices were found to be moderate. Research utilization was associated with respondents' knowledge and attitude scores (P 
  5. Lim SK, Tan SY
    JUMMEC, 2007;10(2):51-56.
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the commonest systemic autoimmune diseases that can present with variable clinical manifestations. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as a salvage therapy for severe lupus with encouraging results though there is yet randomised trial to support the usage. This report highlights the efficacy and safety of high dose IVIG in SLE patients with multi-organ involvement particularly lupus nephritis. We also reviewed the literature on the usage of IVIG for lupus nephritis. However, more studies are needed to further clarify the optimal therapeutic dosage and regime for IVIG and to identify the group of patients who might benefit the most from this expensive therapy.
  6. Tan SY, Arshad H, Abdullah A
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(1):e0207191.
    PMID: 30605474 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207191
    Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) requires a descriptor that is robust to changes in viewing conditions in real time application. Many different descriptors had been proposed in the literature for example floating-point descriptors (SIFT and SURF) and binary descriptors (BRIEF, ORB, BRISK and FREAK). According to literature, floating-point descriptors are not suitable for real-time application because its operating speed does not satisfy real-time constraints. Binary descriptors have been developed with compact sizes and lower computation requirements. However, it is unclear which binary descriptors are more appropriate for MAR. Hence, a distinctive and efficient accuracy measurement of four state-of-the-art binary descriptors, namely, BRIEF, ORB, BRISK and FREAK were performed using the Mikolajczyk dataset and ALOI dataset to identify the most appropriate descriptor for MAR in terms of computation time and robustness to brightness, scale and rotation changes. The obtained results showed that FREAK is the most appropriate descriptor for MAR application as it able to produce an application that are efficient (shortest computation time) and robust towards scale, rotation and brightness changes.
  7. Chin JJ, Tan SY, Heng SH, Phan RC
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2015;2015:237514.
    PMID: 25692179 DOI: 10.1155/2015/237514
    Most identity-based identification (IBI) schemes proposed in recent literature are built using pairing operations. This decreases efficiency due to the high operation costs of pairings. Furthermore, most of these IBI schemes are proven to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using interactive assumptions such as the one-more RSA inversion assumption or the one-more discrete logarithm assumption, translating to weaker security guarantees due to the interactive nature of these assumptions. The Schnorr-IBI scheme was first proposed through the Kurosawa-Heng transformation from the Schnorr signature. It remains one of the fastest yet most secure IBI schemes under impersonation against passive attacks due to its pairing-free design. However, when required to be secure against impersonators under active and concurrent attacks, it deteriorates greatly in terms of efficiency due to the protocol having to be repeated multiple times. In this paper, we upgrade the Schnorr-IBI scheme to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using only the classical discrete logarithm assumption. This translates to a higher degree of security guarantee with only some minor increments in operational costs. Furthermore, because the scheme operates without pairings, it still retains its efficiency and superiority when compared to other pairing-based IBI schemes.
  8. Chin JJ, Tan SY, Heng SH, Phan RC
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:170906.
    PMID: 25207333 DOI: 10.1155/2014/170906
    Security-mediated cryptography was first introduced by Boneh et al. in 2001. The main motivation behind security-mediated cryptography was the capability to allow instant revocation of a user's secret key by necessitating the cooperation of a security mediator in any given transaction. Subsequently in 2003, Boneh et al. showed how to convert a RSA-based security-mediated encryption scheme from a traditional public key setting to an identity-based one, where certificates would no longer be required. Following these two pioneering papers, other cryptographic primitives that utilize a security-mediated approach began to surface. However, the security-mediated identity-based identification scheme (SM-IBI) was not introduced until Chin et al. in 2013 with a scheme built on bilinear pairings. In this paper, we improve on the efficiency results for SM-IBI schemes by proposing two schemes that are pairing-free and are based on well-studied complexity assumptions: the RSA and discrete logarithm assumptions.
  9. Lai PS, Tan SY, Liew SM
    Arch Sex Behav, 2016 Nov;45(8):2081-2089.
    PMID: 27502351 DOI: 10.1007/s10508-016-0796-1
    Sociocultural factors have been shown to be important influencers of sexual health and sexuality. Hence, the aim of our study was to explore the views and experiences of family medicine trainees regarding female sexual dysfunction (FSD) with a focus on the barriers and facilitators towards the initiation of conversation on this topic. A qualitative study design involving semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) was conducted with 19 family medicine trainees in Malaysia. The conceptual framework used was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Participants perceived FSD as being uncommon and unimportant. According to our participants, patients often presented with indirect complaints, and doctors were not proactive in asking about FSD. Three main barriers were identified: doctor factors, perceived patient factors, and system factors. Lack of confidence, knowledge, experience, time, and embarrassment were the key barriers identified at the doctors' level. Lack of awareness, among patients regarding FSD, and local cultural and religious norms were the perceived patient barriers. System barriers were lack of time and privacy. Various facilitators, such as continuous medical education and public forums, were suggested as means to encourage family medicine trainees to initiate discussion on sexual matters during consultations. In conclusion, family medicine trainees found it difficult to initiate conversation on FSD with patients. Interventions to encourage conversation on FSD should target this and other identified barriers.
  10. Chua KH, Kee BP, Tan SY, Lian LH
    Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2009 Jun;42(6):551-5.
    PMID: 19448905 DOI: 10.1590/s0100-879x2009000600012
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that involves the inflammation of various organs upon deposition of immune complexes and is characterized by uncontrolled B cell hyperactivity. Despite intensive research on the etiology of the disease, the exact cause of the onset of SLE is unknown. The pathogenesis of the disease has been proposed to be associated with the imbalance of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine activities. Elevated serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a Th2 cytokine with various functions in the regulation of human biological systems, are observed in SLE patients. In the present study, 100 Malaysian SLE patients and 100 controls were evaluated in order to determine the association of polymorphisms existing in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene with the onset of SLE. The homozygous G genotype was found to be significant in SLE patients (chi(2) = 33.754; P = 0.00000000625), whereas the heterozygous G/C genotype was significant in the controls (chi(2)= 25.087; P = 0.000000548). We suggest that the C allele might have a masking effect on the G allele when both alleles are present in heterozygous individuals. However, we did not observe any significant association of the homozygous C allele with the onset of SLE or with protection from the disease (chi(2) = 1.684; P = 0.194366).
  11. Goh BL, Morad Z, Cheah PL, Chua CT, Tan SY
    Transplant. Proc., 1998 Nov;30(7):3592-3.
    PMID: 9838574
  12. Yap SN, Phipps ME, Manivasagar M, Tan SY, Bosco JJ
    Lupus, 1999;8(4):305-10.
    PMID: 10413210 DOI: 10.1191/096120399678847876
    SLE is an autoimmune and polygenic disorder characterized by an accumulation and deposition of immune complexes. Several studies have indicated differential impact of FcgammaR polymorphism genotypes in different ethnic groups studied. The Fc receptor for IgG class IIA gene (FcgammaRIIA) occurs in two allelic forms. The allele FcgammaRIIA-H131 encodes a receptor with a histidine at the 131 amino acid position; the other allele FcgammaRIIA-R131 encodes an arginine. This polymorphism is believed to determine the affinity of the receptor for hIgG2 in immune complexes. FcgammaRIIA-H131 has a higher capacity for hIgG2 compared to FcgammaRIIA-R131 as measured by in vitro studies of insoluble immune complex clearance. We have investigated the polymorphism for FcgammaRIIA using a novel polymerase chain reaction-allele specific primer (PCR-ASP) method designed specifically to distinguish the two allelic forms. Our studies were based on 175 Chinese and 50 Malays SLE patients as well as 108 and 50 ethnically matched healthy controls for the respective groups. Analysis of the data (chi2 test with Yates correction factors and odds ratios) revealed that there were no significant differences between SLE patients and controls. We have not found evidence of a protective effect conferred by FcgammaRIIA-H131 in the ethnic groups studied.
  13. Tan SY, Kumar G, Surrun SK, Ong YY
    Travel Med Infect Dis, 2007 Jan;5(1):62-3.
    PMID: 17161325
    Dengue fever is endemic in many countries of South East Asia. In spite of the occasional epidemics, dengue maculopathy remains a rare entity.
  14. Nazratun N, Mahmood AA, Kuppusamy UR, Ahmad TS, Tan SY
    Vasc Med, 2006 Nov;11(4):245-50.
    PMID: 17390548
    The excess accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contributes to the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and renal failure. Biopsy specimens (n = 184) of arterial (n = 92) and venous (n = 92) tissues were obtained (radial artery and cephalic vein) from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with or without DM and normal healthy subjects (n = 12) requiring surgery (trauma patients). Immunohistochemical assessment of the blood vessels revealed the presence of pentosidine (AGE marker) in both veins and arteries in 72% of the ESRD patients. The percentage of arteries and veins that showed positive pentosidine staining in ESRD patients with type 2 DM alone was 100% and 92% respectively, in the non-diabetic ESRD patients it was < 70% (for arteries and veins), and in the ESRD patients with hypertension as an additional co-morbidity to type 2 DM it was 70% and 82%, respectively. The veins of ESRD patients with DM showed a strong (+++) positive staining and very strong (++++) positive staining was observed in the patients with DM and hypertension. Only mild (+) or moderate (++) pentosidine staining intensity was observed in the arteries of ESRD patients without or with comorbidities, respectively. The accumulation of AGE in the vein rather than the artery may be a better reflection of the extent of complications of ESRD.
  15. Tan SY, Praveena SM, Abidin EZ, Cheema MS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Dec;25(34):34623-34635.
    PMID: 30315534 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3396-x
    This study aimed to determine bioavailable heavy metal concentrations (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn) and their potential sources in classroom dust collected from children's hand palms in Rawang (Malaysia). This study also aimed to determine the association between bioavailable heavy metal concentration in classroom dust and children's respiratory symptoms. Health risk assessment (HRA) was applied to evaluate health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) due to heavy metals in classroom dust. The mean of bioavailable heavy metal concentrations in classroom dust found on children's hand palms was shown in the following order: Zn (1.25E + 01 μg/g) > Cu (9.59E-01 μg/g) > Ni (5.34E-01 μg/g) > Cr (4.72E-02 μg/g) > Co (2.34E-02 μg/g) > As (1.77E-02 μg/g) > Cd (9.60E-03 μg/g) > Pb (5.00E-03 μg/g). Hierarchical cluster analysis has clustered 17 sampling locations into three clusters, whereby cluster 1 (S3, S4, S6, S15) located in residential areas and near to roads exposed to vehicle emissions, cluster 2 (S10, S12, S9, S7) located near Rawang town and cluster 3 (S13, S16, S1, S2, S8, S14, S11, S17, S5) located near industrial, residential and plantation areas. Emissions from vehicles, plantations and industrial activities were found as the main sources of heavy metals in classroom dust in Rawang. There is no association found between bioavailable heavy metal concentrations and respiratory symptoms, except for Cu (OR = 0.03). Health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) indicated that there are no potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of heavy metals in classroom dust toward children health.
  16. Yeong UY, Tan SY, Yap JF, Choo WY
    Malays Fam Physician, 2016;11(1):7-14.
    PMID: 28461842 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Fall is a major cause of injuries and can increase the risk of early mortality among elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly in rural Malaysia and its associated factors.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey in five randomly selected districts in the state of Perak, Malaysia. A total of 250 households were randomly selected. A total of 811 individuals aged 60 years or more were recruited and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Information about socio-demographic, history of falls in the past 1 year, medical history, drug history and physical activity level were enquired.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in the past 1 year among community-dwelling elderly was reported to be 4.07%. Indigenous elderly (Adjusted odd ratio, AOR = 6.06, 95% CI = 1.10-33.55, p = 0.039) and living alone (AOR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.04-6.50, p = 0.042) were shown to be factors associated with falls. Physical activity level, number of co-morbidities and number of medications used were not associated with falls.

    CONCLUSION: Elderly of indigenous ethnicity and living alone are the main factors associated with falls in this population. Indigenous people may be at higher risk, which warrant further investigation with a larger sample to improve the precision of estimates.

  17. Tan SY, Visvanathan S, Abu Hassan R, Khan M
    Front Oncol, 2019;9:1335.
    PMID: 31850220 DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2019.01335
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is causally linked to hepatocellular injury and cell death, which are followed by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after a long latent period. The HBV derived X protein (HBX) is the most potent carcinogenic factor for HCC, however, the molecular mechanism of HBX-induced transformation of hepatic cells in HCC is poorly understood. We have shown that nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR) is essential for the spatial repression of global transcription by the promyelocytic leukemia oncogenic domains (PODs), a frequent target of viral oncoproteins like HBX and that disintegration of PODs due to misfolded conformation dependent loss (MCDL) of NCoR is linked to promyelocytic and monocytic acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Given the key role of NCoR in cellular homeostasis across various tissue subtypes, we hypothesized that HBX-induced MCDL of NCoR might be linked to HCC through similar mechanism. Based on this hypothesis, the conformation of NCoR in HCC derived tumor cells and primary human tissue sections were analyzed and a selective MCDL of NCoR in HBX positive HCC cells was identified. HBX triggered the misfolding of NCoR through ubiquitination, followed by its degradation by autophagy, thus suggesting a cross talk between ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy lysosomal pathway (ALP) in MCDL of NCoR in HBX positive HCC cells. SiRNA-induced NCoR ablation selectively impaired the growth and survival of HBX positive HCC cells, suggesting a role of MCDL in the growth and survival of HBX positive HCC cells. These finding identify a possible crosstalk between UPS and ALP in the misfolding and loss of NCoR in HBX positive HCC cells and suggest a role of autophagic recycling of misfolded NCoR in the activation of oncogenic metabolic signaling in HCC. The misfolded NCoR reported in this study represents a novel conformation based molecular target which could be valuable in the design and development of tumor cell specific diagnostic and therapeutic approach for HBX positive HCC.
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