Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

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  1. Tanaka H, Kawamoto Y, Terao K
    J Med Primatol, 1991 May;20(3):126-32.
    PMID: 1895332
    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) of crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) was examined by means of three electrophoretic methods. DBP phenotypes were observed to be one or two bands in each method. All of DBP molecular variants could be detected by the simultaneous typing with these three methods. Family analysis suggested that DBP variants followed the mode of autosomal codominant inheritance. A total of 17 phenotypes governed by at least 11 alleles were observed in the populations of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The genetic variability was high in Malaysian and Indonesian populations but low in the Philippine population.
  2. TermehYousefi A, Tateno K, Bagheri S, Tanaka H
    Sci Rep, 2017 05 09;7(1):1623.
    PMID: 28487527 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-01855-5
    A method to fabricate a bioinspired nanobiosensor using electronic-based artificial taste receptors for glucose diagnosis is presented. Fabricated bioinspired glucose nanobiosensor designated based on an artificial taste bud including an amperometric glucose biosensor and taste bud-inspired circuits. In fact, the design of the taste bud-inspired circuits was inspired by the signal-processing mechanism of taste nerves which involves two layers. The first, known as a type II cell, detects the glucose by glucose oxidase and transduces the current signal obtained for the pulse pattern is conducted to the second layer, called type III cell, to induce synchronisation of the neural spiking activity. The oscillation results of fabricated bioinspired glucose nanobiosensor confirmed an increase in the frequency of the output pulse as a function of the glucose concentration. At high glucose concentrations, the bioinspired glucose nanobiosensor showed a pulse train of alternating short and long interpulse intervals. A computational analysis performed to validate the hypothesis, which was successfully reproduced the alternating behaviour of bioinspired glucose our nanobiosensor by increasing the output frequency and alternation of pulse intervals according to the reduction in the resistivity of the biosensor.
  3. TermehYousefi A, Azhari S, Khajeh A, Hamidon MN, Tanaka H
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Aug 01;77:1098-1103.
    PMID: 28531983 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.04.040
    Haptic sensors are essential devices that facilitate human-like sensing systems such as implantable medical devices and humanoid robots. The availability of conducting thin films with haptic properties could lead to the development of tactile sensing systems that stretch reversibly, sense pressure (not just touch), and integrate with collapsible. In this study, a nanocomposite based hemispherical artificial fingertip fabricated to enhance the tactile sensing systems of humanoid robots. To validate the hypothesis, proposed method was used in the robot-like finger system to classify the ripe and unripe tomato by recording the metabolic growth of the tomato as a function of resistivity change during a controlled indention force. Prior to fabrication, a finite element modeling (FEM) was investigated for tomato to obtain the stress distribution and failure point of tomato by applying different external loads. Then, the extracted computational analysis information was utilized to design and fabricate nanocomposite based artificial fingertip to examine the maturity analysis of tomato. The obtained results demonstrate that the fabricated conformable and scalable artificial fingertip shows different electrical property for ripe and unripe tomato. The artificial fingertip is compatible with the development of brain-like systems for artificial skin by obtaining periodic response during an applied load.
  4. Rahman NH, Tanaka H, Shin SD, Ng YY, Piyasuwankul T, Lin CH, et al.
    Int J Emerg Med, 2015;8:12.
    PMID: 25932052 DOI: 10.1186/s12245-015-0062-7
    One of the key principles in the recommended standards is that emergency medical service (EMS) providers should continuously monitor the quality and safety of their services. This requires service providers to implement performance monitoring using appropriate and relevant measures including key performance indicators. In Asia, EMS systems are at different developmental phases and maturity. This will create difficultly in benchmarking or assessing the quality of EMS performance across the region. An attempt was made to compare the EMS performance index based on the structure, process, and outcome analysis.
  5. Oda K, Igarashi A, Kheong CT, Hong CC, Vijayamalar B, Sinniah M, et al.
    PMID: 9185254
    Serum specimens were collected from 6 species of animals living in 9 states of Malaysia including Sabah, North Borneo in 1993. Antibodies against Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus in these sera were detected by means of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) tests. By HI test, 702 of 2,152 (32.6%) sera showed positive results. Higher positive rates were obtained by the NT test, in which 1,787 of 1,927 (92.7%) sera had antibodies against JE virus. All serum specimens with positive HI were confirmed as positive by the NT. Swine sera showed especially higher rates of antibody positive and higher antibody titers compared with other animals. These results suggest that JE infections are widely distributed among many animals of Malaysia, and pig is the most susceptible amplifier host for JE virus.
  6. Tsuchie H, Oda K, Vythilingam I, Thayan R, Vijayamalar B, Sinniah M, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1997 Feb;56(2):153-8.
    PMID: 9080873
    Two hundred forty nucleotides from the pre-membrane gene region of 12 Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strains isolated from three different regions of Malaysia from 1993 to 1994 were sequenced and compared with each other and with the JEV strains from different geographic areas in Asia. These 12 Malaysian isolates were classified into two genotypes. The four JEV strains isolated from Sarawak in 1994 and the four JEV strains isolated from Sepang, Selangor in 1993 were classified into one genotype that included earlier isolated strains from Malaysia (JE-827 from Sarawak in 1968 and WTP/70/22 from Kuala Lumpur in 1970). The four JEV strains from Ipoh, Perak in 1994 were classified into another genotype that included JEV strains isolated from northern Thailand and Cambodia. In an earlier report, 10 JEV strains from Sabak Bernam, Selangor in 1992 were classified into the largest genotype that included strains isolated in temperate regions such as Japan, China, and Taiwan. The data indicate that at least three genotypes of JEV have been circulating in Malaysia.
  7. Fauzi AA, Jalil AA, Mohamed M, Triwahyono S, Jusoh NWC, Rahman AFA, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2018 Dec 01;227:34-43.
    PMID: 30172157 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.08.073
    Fibrous silica-titania (FST) catalysts were synthesized by microemulsion followed by silica seed-crystal crystallization methods under various molar ratios of toluene to water (T/W). The catalysts were characterized by XRD, UV-DRS, FESEM, TEM, AFM, N2 adsorption-desorption, FTIR, and ESR. The results revealed that altering the T/W ratio affected the growth of the silica and titania and led to different size, fiber density, silica-titania structure, and number of hydroxyl groups, as well as oxygen vacancies in the FSTs, which altered their behavior toward subsequent application. Photodegradation of ibuprofen (IBP) are in the following order: FST(6:1) (90%) > FST(5:1) (84%) > FST(7:1) (79%) > commercial TiO2 (67%). A kinetics study using Langmuir-Hinshelwood model illustrated that the photodegradation followed the pseudo-first-order and adsorption was the rate-limiting step. Optimization by response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the pH, initial concentration, and catalyst dosage were the remarkable parameters in photodegradation of IBP. The FST (6:1) maintained its photocatalytic activities for up to five cycles reaction without serious catalyst deactivation, and was also able to degrade other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, indicating its potential use for the treatment of those chemicals in wastewater.
  8. Kim TH, Lee K, Shin SD, Ro YS, Tanaka H, Yap S, et al.
    J Emerg Med, 2017 Nov;53(5):688-696.e1.
    PMID: 29128033 DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.08.076
    BACKGROUND: Response time interval (RTI) and scene time interval (STI) are key time variables in the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases treated and transported via emergency medical services (EMS).

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated distribution and interactive association of RTI and STI with survival outcomes of OHCA in four Asian metropolitan cities.

    METHODS: An OHCA cohort from Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcome Study (PAROS) conducted between January 2009 and December 2011 was analyzed. Adult EMS-treated cardiac arrests with presumed cardiac origin were included. A multivariable logistic regression model with an interaction term was used to evaluate the effect of STI according to different RTI categories on survival outcomes. Risk-adjusted predicted rates of survival outcomes were calculated and compared with observed rate.

    RESULTS: A total of 16,974 OHCA cases were analyzed after serial exclusion. Median RTI was 6.0 min (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-8.0 min) and median STI was 12.0 min (IQR 8.0-16.1). The prolonged STI in the longest RTI group was associated with a lower rate of survival to discharge or of survival 30 days after arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-0.81), as well as a poorer neurologic outcome (aOR 0.63; 95% CI 0.41-0.97) without an increasing chance of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (aOR 1.12; 95% CI 0.88-1.45).

    CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged STI in OHCA with a delayed response time had a negative association with survival outcomes in four Asian metropolitan cities using the scoop-and-run EMS model. Establishing an optimal STI based on the response time could be considered.

  9. Tagami T, Tanaka H, Shin SD, Ma MH, Ko PC, Karim S, et al.
    Acute medicine & surgery, 2019 05 22;7(1):e430.
    PMID: 31988755 DOI: 10.1002/ams2.430
    Aim: As a population ages, it can impact on the characteristics and outcomes of cardiogenic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the age incidence of cardiogenic OHCA and population aging.

    Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis of the Pan Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) database. Data on the population old-age dependency ratio (i.e. elderly/non-elderly) were extracted from publicly accessible sources (United Nations and World Health Organization).

    Results: We analyzed 40,872 OHCA cases from seven PAROS countries over the period 2009 to 2013. We found significant correlation between the population old-age dependency ratio and elderly/non-elderly ratio in OHCA patients (r = 0.92, P = 0.003). There was a significant correlation between the population old-age dependency ratio and risk differences of 30-day survival rates for non-elderly and elderly OHCA patients (r = 0.89, P = 0.007).

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the proportion of elderly among OHCA patients will increase, and outcomes could increasingly differ between elderly and non-elderly as a society ages progressively. This has implications for planning and delivery of emergency services as a society ages.

  10. Lin CH, Ng YY, Chiang WC, Karim SA, Shin SD, Tanaka H, et al.
    J Formos Med Assoc, 2016 Aug;115(8):628-38.
    PMID: 26596689 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfma.2015.10.003
    Protocols for managing patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) may vary due to legal, cultural, or socioeconomic concerns. We sought to assess international variation in policies and protocols related to OHCA.
  11. Tokudome S, Ando R, Ghadimi R, Tanaka T, Hattori N, Yang Z, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2007 Mar;8(3):462-3.
    PMID: 18159988
    The great variability in gastric cancer rates across Asia, with very high incidences in Japan and Korea, and exceedingly low incidences in ethnic Malays, whether in Malaysia or Indonesia, appears largely due to variation in Helicobacter pylori infection rates. While between 2% and 10.6% of gastric cancers in a recent Japanese survey were considered to be negative for bacterial infection on the basis of seropositivity and H. pylori-dependent mucosal atrophy, it is notoriously difficult to preclude past infection. The situation is greatly complicated by reported differences in the etiology of gastric cardia and non-cardia cancers. In the Western world there do appear to be tumours arising close to the esophageal-gastric junction which are not related to H. pylori and associated inflammation, but in most Asian populations these appear to be very rare. Therefore preventive efforts, and particularly screening, should be focused on markers of bacterial infection, with avoidance of unnecessary exposure to X-ray radiation.
  12. Ong ME, Cho J, Ma MH, Tanaka H, Nishiuchi T, Al Sakaf O, et al.
    Emerg Med Australas, 2013 Feb;25(1):55-63.
    PMID: 23379453 DOI: 10.1111/1742-6723.12032
    Asia-Pacific countries have unique prehospital emergency care or emergency medical services (EMS) systems, which are different from European or Anglo-American models. We aimed to compare the EMS systems of eight Asia-Pacific countries/regions as part of the Pan Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS), to provide a basis for future comparative studies across systems of care.
  13. Chen CH, Shin SD, Sun JT, Jamaluddin SF, Tanaka H, Song KJ, et al.
    PLoS Med, 2020 10;17(10):e1003360.
    PMID: 33022018 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003360
    BACKGROUND: Whether rapid transportation can benefit patients with trauma remains controversial. We determined the association between prehospital time and outcome to explore the concept of the "golden hour" for injured patients.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of trauma patients transported from the scene to hospitals by emergency medical service (EMS) from January 1, 2016, to November 30, 2018, using data from the Pan-Asia Trauma Outcomes Study (PATOS) database. Prehospital time intervals were categorized into response time (RT), scene to hospital time (SH), and total prehospital time (TPT). The outcomes were 30-day mortality and functional status at hospital discharge. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of prehospital time and outcomes to adjust for factors including age, sex, mechanism and type of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and prehospital interventions. Overall, 24,365 patients from 4 countries (645 patients from Japan, 16,476 patients from Korea, 5,358 patients from Malaysia, and 1,886 patients from Taiwan) were included in the analysis. Among included patients, the median age was 45 years (lower quartile [Q1]-upper quartile [Q3]: 25-62), and 15,498 (63.6%) patients were male. Median (Q1-Q3) RT, SH, and TPT were 20 (Q1-Q3: 12-39), 21 (Q1-Q3: 16-29), and 47 (Q1-Q3: 32-60) minutes, respectively. In all, 280 patients (1.1%) died within 30 days after injury. Prehospital time intervals were not associated with 30-day mortality. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) per 10 minutes of RT, SH, and TPT were 0.99 (95% CI 0.92-1.06, p = 0.740), 1.08 (95% CI 1.00-1.17, p = 0.065), and 1.03 (95% CI 0.98-1.09, p = 0.236), respectively. However, long prehospital time was detrimental to functional survival. The aORs of RT, SH, and TPT per 10-minute delay were 1.06 (95% CI 1.04-1.08, p < 0.001), 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.08, p = 0.007), and 1.06 (95% CI 1.04-1.08, p < 0.001), respectively. The key limitation of our study is the missing data inherent to the retrospective design. Another major limitation is the aggregate nature of the data from different countries and unaccounted confounders such as in-hospital management.

    CONCLUSIONS: Longer prehospital time was not associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality, but it may be associated with increased risk of poor functional outcomes in injured patients. This finding supports the concept of the "golden hour" for trauma patients during prehospital care in the countries studied.

  14. Liu N, Ong MEH, Ho AFW, Pek PP, Lu TC, Khruekarnchana P, et al.
    Resuscitation, 2020 04;149:53-59.
    PMID: 32035177 DOI: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.01.029
    AIM: Survival is the most consistently captured outcome across countries for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA), with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) representing the earliest endpoint for 'unbiased' initial resuscitation success. The ROSC after cardiac arrest (RACA) score was developed to predict ROSC and has been validated in several European countries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the performance of RACA in a Pan-Asian population.

    METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) registry. We included OHCA cases from seven communities (Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and United Arab Emirates) between January 2009 and December 2012. Paediatric cases, cases that were conveyed by non-emergency medical services (EMS), and cases with incomplete records were excluded from the study.

    RESULTS: The RACA score showed similar discrimination performance as the original German study and various European validation studies. However, it had poor calibration with the original constant regression coefficient, which was primarily due to the low ROSC rate (8.2%) in the PAROS cohort. The calibration performance of RACA significantly improved after the constant coefficient was modified to adjust for the disparity in ROSC rates between Asia and Europe.

    CONCLUSION: This is the largest validation study of the RACA score. RACA consistently performs well in both Pan-Asian and European communities and can thus be a valuable tool for evaluating EMS systems. However, to implement it, the constant coefficient has to be modified in the RACA formula with local historical data.

  15. Ng YY, Wah W, Liu N, Zhou SA, Ho AF, Pek PP, et al.
    Resuscitation, 2016 May;102:116-21.
    PMID: 26970031 DOI: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2016.03.002
    BACKGROUND: The incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in women is thought to be lower than that of men, with better outcomes in some Western studies.
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on OHCA outcomes in the Pan-Asian population.
    METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective, secondary analysis of the Pan Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) data between 2009 and 2012. We included OHCA cases which were presumed cardiac etiology, aged 18 years and above and resuscitation attempted by emergency medical services (EMS) systems. We used multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression models to account for the clustering effect of individuals within the country. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge.
    RESULTS: We included a total of 40,159 OHCA cases, 40% of which were women. We found that women were more likely to be older and have an initial non-shockable arrest rhythm; they were more likely to receive bystander cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The univariate analysis showed that women were significantly less likely to have return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) at scene or in the emergency department (ED), and had lower rates of survival-to-admission and discharge, and poorer overall and cerebral performance outcomes. There was however, no significant gender difference on outcomes after adjustment of other confounders. Women in the reproductive age group (age 18-44 years) were significantly more likely to have ROSC at scene or in the ED, higher rates of survival-to-admission and discharge, and have better overall and cerebral performance outcomes after adjustment for differences in baseline and pre-hospital factors. Menopausal women (age 55 years and above) were less likely to survive to admission after adjusting for other pre-hospital characteristics but not after age adjustment.
    CONCLUSION: Differences in survival outcomes between reproductive and menopausal women highlight a need for further investigations into the plausible social, pathologic or hormonal basis.
    KEYWORDS: Gender; Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; Registry
  16. Ong ME, Shin SD, De Souza NN, Tanaka H, Nishiuchi T, Song KJ, et al.
    Resuscitation, 2015 Nov;96:100-8.
    PMID: 26234891 DOI: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.07.026
    The Pan Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) Clinical Research Network (CRN) was established in collaboration with emergency medical services (EMS) agencies and academic centers in Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, and UAE-Dubai and aims to report out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) and provide a better understanding of OHCA trends in Asia.
  17. Tanaka H, Ong MEH, Siddiqui FJ, Ma MHM, Kaneko H, Lee KW, et al.
    Ann Emerg Med, 2018 05;71(5):608-617.e15.
    PMID: 28985969 DOI: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2017.07.484
    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The study aims to identify modifiable factors associated with improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival among communities in the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) Clinical Research Network: Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United Arab Emirates (Dubai).

    METHODS: This was a prospective, international, multicenter cohort study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the Asia-Pacific. Arrests caused by trauma, patients who were not transported by emergency medical services (EMS), and pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases (<18 years) were excluded from the analysis. Modifiable out-of-hospital factors (bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] and defibrillation, out-of-hospital defibrillation, advanced airway, and drug administration) were compared for all out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients presenting to EMS and participating hospitals. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge or 30 days of hospitalization (if not discharged). We used multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models to identify factors independently associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival, accounting for clustering within each community.

    RESULTS: Of 66,780 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases reported between January 2009 and December 2012, we included 56,765 in the analysis. In the adjusted model, modifiable factors associated with improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes included bystander CPR (odds ratio [OR] 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31 to 1.55), response time less than or equal to 8 minutes (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.35 to 1.71), and out-of-hospital defibrillation (OR 2.31; 95% CI 1.96 to 2.72). Out-of-hospital advanced airway (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.80) was negatively associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival.

    CONCLUSION: In the PAROS cohort, bystander CPR, out-of-hospital defibrillation, and response time less than or equal to 8 minutes were positively associated with increased out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival, whereas out-of-hospital advanced airway was associated with decreased out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. Developing EMS systems should focus on basic life support interventions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation.

  18. Ho AFW, Hao Y, Pek PP, Shahidah N, Yap S, Ng YY, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Mar;98(10):e14611.
    PMID: 30855446 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000014611
    Studies are divided on the effect of day-night temporal differences on clinical outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This study aimed to elucidate any differences in OHCA survival between day and night occurrence, and the factors associated with differences in survival.This was a prospective, observational study of OHCA cases across multinational Pan-Asian sites. Cases were divided according to time call received by dispatch centers into day (0700H-1900H) and night (1900H-0659H). Primary outcome was 30-day survival. Secondary outcomes were prehospital and hospital modifiable resuscitative characteristics.About 22,501 out of 55,881 cases occurred at night. Night cases were less likely to be witnessed (40.2% vs. 43.1%, P 
  19. Jung YH, Wi DH, Shin SD, Tanaka H, Shaun GE, Chiang WC, et al.
    Clin Exp Emerg Med, 2019 Dec;6(4):321-329.
    PMID: 31910503 DOI: 10.15441/ceem.18.088
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the demographic characteristics and trauma service structures and processes of hospitals in 15 countries across the Asia Pacific, and to provide baseline data for the integrated trauma database: the Pan-Asian Trauma Outcomes Study (PATOS).

    METHODS: Medical directors and emergency physicians at PATOS-participating hospitals in countries across the Asia Pacific were surveyed through a standardized questionnaire. General information, trauma care system data, and trauma emergency department (ED) outcomes at each hospital were collected by email and analyzed using descriptive statistics.

    RESULTS: Survey data from 35 hospitals across 15 countries were collected from archived data between June 2014 and July 2015. Designated trauma centers were identified as the highest hospital level for trauma patients in 70% of surveyed countries. Half of the hospitals surveyed had special teams for trauma care, and almost all prepared activation protocol documents for these teams. Most hospitals offered specialized trauma education programs, and 72.7% of hospitals had a hospital-based trauma registry. The total number of trauma patients visiting the ED across 25 of the hospitals was 300,376. The overall survival-to-discharge rate was 97.2%; however, it varied greatly between 85.1% and 99.7%. The difference between survival-to-discharge rates of moderate and severe injury groups was highest in Taiwan (41.8%) and lowest in Thailand (18.6%).

    CONCLUSION: Trauma care systems and ED outcomes vary widely among surveyed hospitals and countries. This information is useful to build further detailed, systematic platforms for trauma surveillance and evidence-based trauma care policies.

  20. Eng Hock Ong M, Do Shin S, Chow-In Ko P, Lin X, Huei-Ming Ma M, Wook Ryoo H, et al.
    Resuscitation, 2021 Dec 30.
    PMID: 34974143 DOI: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.12.032
    BACKGROUND: Dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR) has the potential to deliver early bystander CPR (BCPR) and improve out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival. This study in the Asia-Pacific evaluated the impact of a DA-CPR program on BCPR rates and survival.

    METHODS: This was a three-arm, prospective, multi-national, population-based, community-level, implementation trial. Cases between January 2009 and June 2018 from the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study were included. Sites either implemented a comprehensive (with quality improvement tool) or a basic DA-CPR package, or served as controls. Primary outcome was survival-to-discharge/30th day post-arrest. Secondary outcomes were BCPR and favorable neurological outcome. A before-after comparison was made within each country; this before-after change was then compared across the three groups using logistic regression.

    RESULTS: 170,687 cases were analyzed. Before-after comparison showed that survival to discharge was higher in the 'implementation' period in all three groups: comprehensive odds ratio (OR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI; [1.0-1.19]); basic OR 1.14, 95% CI (1.08-1.2); and control OR 1.25, 95% CI (1.02-1.53). Comparing between groups, the comprehensive group had significantly higher change in BCPR (comprehensive vs control ratio of OR 1.86, 95% CI [1.66-2.09]; basic vs control ratio of OR 0.94, 95% CI [0.85-1.05]; and comprehensive vs basic ratio of OR 1.97, 95% CI [1.87-2.08]) and survival with favorable neurological outcome (comprehensive vs basic ratio of OR 1.2, 95% CI [1.04-1.39]).

    CONCLUSION: We evaluated the impact of a DA-CPR program across heterogeneous EMS systems and demonstrated that a comprehensive DA-CPR program had the most impact on BCPR and favorable neurological outcome.

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