OBJECTIVE: We evaluated distribution and interactive association of RTI and STI with survival outcomes of OHCA in four Asian metropolitan cities.
METHODS: An OHCA cohort from Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcome Study (PAROS) conducted between January 2009 and December 2011 was analyzed. Adult EMS-treated cardiac arrests with presumed cardiac origin were included. A multivariable logistic regression model with an interaction term was used to evaluate the effect of STI according to different RTI categories on survival outcomes. Risk-adjusted predicted rates of survival outcomes were calculated and compared with observed rate.
RESULTS: A total of 16,974 OHCA cases were analyzed after serial exclusion. Median RTI was 6.0 min (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-8.0 min) and median STI was 12.0 min (IQR 8.0-16.1). The prolonged STI in the longest RTI group was associated with a lower rate of survival to discharge or of survival 30 days after arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-0.81), as well as a poorer neurologic outcome (aOR 0.63; 95% CI 0.41-0.97) without an increasing chance of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (aOR 1.12; 95% CI 0.88-1.45).
CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged STI in OHCA with a delayed response time had a negative association with survival outcomes in four Asian metropolitan cities using the scoop-and-run EMS model. Establishing an optimal STI based on the response time could be considered.
Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis of the Pan Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) database. Data on the population old-age dependency ratio (i.e. elderly/non-elderly) were extracted from publicly accessible sources (United Nations and World Health Organization).
Results: We analyzed 40,872 OHCA cases from seven PAROS countries over the period 2009 to 2013. We found significant correlation between the population old-age dependency ratio and elderly/non-elderly ratio in OHCA patients (r = 0.92, P = 0.003). There was a significant correlation between the population old-age dependency ratio and risk differences of 30-day survival rates for non-elderly and elderly OHCA patients (r = 0.89, P = 0.007).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the proportion of elderly among OHCA patients will increase, and outcomes could increasingly differ between elderly and non-elderly as a society ages progressively. This has implications for planning and delivery of emergency services as a society ages.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of trauma patients transported from the scene to hospitals by emergency medical service (EMS) from January 1, 2016, to November 30, 2018, using data from the Pan-Asia Trauma Outcomes Study (PATOS) database. Prehospital time intervals were categorized into response time (RT), scene to hospital time (SH), and total prehospital time (TPT). The outcomes were 30-day mortality and functional status at hospital discharge. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of prehospital time and outcomes to adjust for factors including age, sex, mechanism and type of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and prehospital interventions. Overall, 24,365 patients from 4 countries (645 patients from Japan, 16,476 patients from Korea, 5,358 patients from Malaysia, and 1,886 patients from Taiwan) were included in the analysis. Among included patients, the median age was 45 years (lower quartile [Q1]-upper quartile [Q3]: 25-62), and 15,498 (63.6%) patients were male. Median (Q1-Q3) RT, SH, and TPT were 20 (Q1-Q3: 12-39), 21 (Q1-Q3: 16-29), and 47 (Q1-Q3: 32-60) minutes, respectively. In all, 280 patients (1.1%) died within 30 days after injury. Prehospital time intervals were not associated with 30-day mortality. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) per 10 minutes of RT, SH, and TPT were 0.99 (95% CI 0.92-1.06, p = 0.740), 1.08 (95% CI 1.00-1.17, p = 0.065), and 1.03 (95% CI 0.98-1.09, p = 0.236), respectively. However, long prehospital time was detrimental to functional survival. The aORs of RT, SH, and TPT per 10-minute delay were 1.06 (95% CI 1.04-1.08, p < 0.001), 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.08, p = 0.007), and 1.06 (95% CI 1.04-1.08, p < 0.001), respectively. The key limitation of our study is the missing data inherent to the retrospective design. Another major limitation is the aggregate nature of the data from different countries and unaccounted confounders such as in-hospital management.
CONCLUSIONS: Longer prehospital time was not associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality, but it may be associated with increased risk of poor functional outcomes in injured patients. This finding supports the concept of the "golden hour" for trauma patients during prehospital care in the countries studied.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) registry. We included OHCA cases from seven communities (Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and United Arab Emirates) between January 2009 and December 2012. Paediatric cases, cases that were conveyed by non-emergency medical services (EMS), and cases with incomplete records were excluded from the study.
RESULTS: The RACA score showed similar discrimination performance as the original German study and various European validation studies. However, it had poor calibration with the original constant regression coefficient, which was primarily due to the low ROSC rate (8.2%) in the PAROS cohort. The calibration performance of RACA significantly improved after the constant coefficient was modified to adjust for the disparity in ROSC rates between Asia and Europe.
CONCLUSION: This is the largest validation study of the RACA score. RACA consistently performs well in both Pan-Asian and European communities and can thus be a valuable tool for evaluating EMS systems. However, to implement it, the constant coefficient has to be modified in the RACA formula with local historical data.
METHODS: This was a prospective, international, multicenter cohort study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the Asia-Pacific. Arrests caused by trauma, patients who were not transported by emergency medical services (EMS), and pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases (<18 years) were excluded from the analysis. Modifiable out-of-hospital factors (bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] and defibrillation, out-of-hospital defibrillation, advanced airway, and drug administration) were compared for all out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients presenting to EMS and participating hospitals. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge or 30 days of hospitalization (if not discharged). We used multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models to identify factors independently associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival, accounting for clustering within each community.
RESULTS: Of 66,780 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases reported between January 2009 and December 2012, we included 56,765 in the analysis. In the adjusted model, modifiable factors associated with improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes included bystander CPR (odds ratio [OR] 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31 to 1.55), response time less than or equal to 8 minutes (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.35 to 1.71), and out-of-hospital defibrillation (OR 2.31; 95% CI 1.96 to 2.72). Out-of-hospital advanced airway (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.80) was negatively associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival.
CONCLUSION: In the PAROS cohort, bystander CPR, out-of-hospital defibrillation, and response time less than or equal to 8 minutes were positively associated with increased out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival, whereas out-of-hospital advanced airway was associated with decreased out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. Developing EMS systems should focus on basic life support interventions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation.
METHODS: Medical directors and emergency physicians at PATOS-participating hospitals in countries across the Asia Pacific were surveyed through a standardized questionnaire. General information, trauma care system data, and trauma emergency department (ED) outcomes at each hospital were collected by email and analyzed using descriptive statistics.
RESULTS: Survey data from 35 hospitals across 15 countries were collected from archived data between June 2014 and July 2015. Designated trauma centers were identified as the highest hospital level for trauma patients in 70% of surveyed countries. Half of the hospitals surveyed had special teams for trauma care, and almost all prepared activation protocol documents for these teams. Most hospitals offered specialized trauma education programs, and 72.7% of hospitals had a hospital-based trauma registry. The total number of trauma patients visiting the ED across 25 of the hospitals was 300,376. The overall survival-to-discharge rate was 97.2%; however, it varied greatly between 85.1% and 99.7%. The difference between survival-to-discharge rates of moderate and severe injury groups was highest in Taiwan (41.8%) and lowest in Thailand (18.6%).
CONCLUSION: Trauma care systems and ED outcomes vary widely among surveyed hospitals and countries. This information is useful to build further detailed, systematic platforms for trauma surveillance and evidence-based trauma care policies.
METHODS: This was a three-arm, prospective, multi-national, population-based, community-level, implementation trial. Cases between January 2009 and June 2018 from the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study were included. Sites either implemented a comprehensive (with quality improvement tool) or a basic DA-CPR package, or served as controls. Primary outcome was survival-to-discharge/30th day post-arrest. Secondary outcomes were BCPR and favorable neurological outcome. A before-after comparison was made within each country; this before-after change was then compared across the three groups using logistic regression.
RESULTS: 170,687 cases were analyzed. Before-after comparison showed that survival to discharge was higher in the 'implementation' period in all three groups: comprehensive odds ratio (OR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI; [1.0-1.19]); basic OR 1.14, 95% CI (1.08-1.2); and control OR 1.25, 95% CI (1.02-1.53). Comparing between groups, the comprehensive group had significantly higher change in BCPR (comprehensive vs control ratio of OR 1.86, 95% CI [1.66-2.09]; basic vs control ratio of OR 0.94, 95% CI [0.85-1.05]; and comprehensive vs basic ratio of OR 1.97, 95% CI [1.87-2.08]) and survival with favorable neurological outcome (comprehensive vs basic ratio of OR 1.2, 95% CI [1.04-1.39]).
CONCLUSION: We evaluated the impact of a DA-CPR program across heterogeneous EMS systems and demonstrated that a comprehensive DA-CPR program had the most impact on BCPR and favorable neurological outcome.