METHODS: Gene expression of IL-6 and IL-6Rα in PSC and PDAC cells was measured with qRT-PCR. The role of PSC-secreted IL-6, JAK/Stat3 signaling, and Nrf2 mediation on EMT-related genes expression was also examined with qRT-PCR. EMT phenotypes were assessed with morphological change, wound healing, migration, and invasion.
RESULTS: PSC expressed higher mRNA levels of IL-6 but lower IL-6Rα compared to PDAC cells. Neutralizing IL-6 in PSC secretion reduced mesenchymal-like morphology, migration and invasion capacity, and mesenchymal-like gene expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, Sip1, Snail, Slug, and Twist2. Inhibition of JAK/Stat3 signaling induced by IL-6 repressed EMT and Nrf2 gene expression. Induction of Nrf2 activity by tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) increased both EMT phenotypes and gene expression (N-cadherin, fibronectin, Twist2, Snail, and Slug) repressed by IL-6 neutralizing antibody. Simultaneous inhibition of Nrf2 expression with siRNA and Stat3 signaling further repressed EMT gene expression, indicating that Stat3/Nrf2 pathway mediates EMT induced by IL-6.
CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 from PSC promotes EMT in PDAC cells via Stat3/Nrf2 pathway.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Targeting Stat3/Nrf2 pathway activated by PSC-secreted IL-6 may provide a novel therapeutic option to improve the prognosis of PDAC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a PSA screening initiative, 161 men were shown to have elevated PSA levels in their blood and underwent prostatic tissue biopsy. DNA was extracted from the blood, and exon 1 of the AR gene amplified by PCR and sequenced. The number of CAG repeat sequences were counted and compared to the immunohistochemical expression of ERG and AR in the matched tumour biopsies.
RESULTS: Of men with elevated PSA, 89 were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 72 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There was no significant difference in the length of the CAG repeat in men with prostate cancer and BPH. The CAG repeat length was not associated with; age, PSA or tumour grade, though a longer CAG repeat was associated with tumour stage. ERG and AR were expressed in 36% and 86% of the cancers, respectively. There was no significant association between CAG repeat length and ERG or AR expression. However, there was a significant inverse relationship between ERG and AR expression. In addition, a significantly great proportion of Indian men had ERG positive tumours, compared to men of Malay or Chinese descent.
CONCLUSIONS: CAG repeat length is not associated with prostate cancer or expression of ERG or AR. However, ERG appears to be more common in the prostate cancers of Malaysian Indian men than in the prostate cancers of other Malaysian ethnicities and its expression in this study was inversely related to AR expression.
METHODS: This study included 168 non-diabetic patients (58% males, 69% of Chinese ethnicity) who received renal transplantation between 1st January 1994 to 31st December 2014, and were followed up in two major renal transplant centres in Malaysia. Fasting blood glucose levels were used to diagnose NODAT in patients who received renal transplantation within 1 year. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely; rs1494558 (interleukin-7 receptor, IL-7R) and rs2232365 (mannose-binding leptin-2, MBL2) were selected and genotyped using Sequenom MassArray platform. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine the risk of developing NODAT according to the different demographics and clinical covariates, utilizing four time-points (one-month, three-months, six-months, one-year) post-transplant.
RESULTS: Seventeen per cent of patients (n = 29, 55% males, 69% Chinese) were found to have developed NODAT within one-year of renal transplantation based on their fasting blood glucose levels. NODAT patients had renal transplantation at an older age compared to non-NODAT (39.3 ± 13.4 vs 33.9 ± 11.8 years, p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, renal-transplanted patients who received a higher daily dose of cyclosporine (mg) were associated with increased risk of NODAT (Hazard ratio (HR) =1.01 per mg increase in dose, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.01, p = 0.002). Other demographic (gender, ethnicities, age at transplant) and clinical factors (primary kidney disease, type of donor, place of transplant, type of calcineurin inhibitors, duration of dialysis pre-transplant, BMI, creatinine levels, and daily doses of tacrolimus and prednisolone) were not found to be significantly associated with risk of NODAT. GA genotype of rs1494558 (HR = 3.15 95% CI 1.26, 7.86) and AG genotype of rs2232365 (HR = 2.57 95% CI 1.07, 6.18) were associated with increased risk of NODAT as compared to AA genotypes.
CONCLUSION: The daily dose of cyclosporine and SNPs of IL-7R (rs1494558) and MBL2 (rs2232365) genes are significantly associated with the development of NODAT in the Malaysian renal transplant population.