Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Usman A, Razak IA, Fun HK, Chantrapromma S, Zhang Y, Xu JH
    Acta Crystallogr C, 2001 Dec;57(Pt 12):1438-40.
    PMID: 11740110
    In the title compound, C25H19NO4, the indole moiety is not completely planar, the heterocyclic ring being distorted very slightly towards a half-chair conformation. The benzoyl and 4-methoxyphenyl substituents are individually almost planar and are in a bisecting and nearly perpendicular configuration, respectively, with respect to the plane of the indole moiety. The molecular and packing structures in the crystal are stabilized by intramolecular and intermolecular C-H...O interactions.
  2. Xu J, Harrison LJ, Vittal JJ, Xu YJ, Goh SH
    J. Nat. Prod., 2000 Aug;63(8):1062-5.
    PMID: 10978198
    Leaf extracts of Callicarpa pentandra provided four new clerodane-type diterpenoids (1-4), of which 1, 2, and 4 have ring-A-contracted structures. Their structures and stereochemistry were established by spectral data interpretation, and for 3 also by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.
  3. Zhang Q, Zhao JJ, Xu J, Feng F, Qu W
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Sep 15;173:48-80.
    PMID: 26091967 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.011
    The genus Uncaria belongs to the family Rubiaceae, which mainly distributed in tropical regions, such as Southeast Asia, Africa and Southeast America. Their leaves and hooks have long been thought to have healing powers and are already being tested as a treatment for asthma, cancer, cirrhosis, diabetes, hypertension, stroke and rheumatism. The present review aims to provide systematically reorganized information on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Uncaria to support for further therapeutic potential of this genus. To better understanding this genus, information on the stereo-chemistry and structure-activity relationships in indole alkaloids is also represented.
  4. Heng BC, Gong T, Xu J, Lim LW, Zhang C
    Biomed Rep, 2018 Aug;9(2):161-168.
    PMID: 29963307 DOI: 10.3892/br.2018.1108
    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) originate from the embryonic neural crest and have neurogenic potential. The present study investigated the roles of the forward and reverse EphrinB2 signalling pathways during DPSC neurogenesis. Treatment of DPSCs with recombinant EphrinB2-Fc protein over 7 days in a neural induction culture resulted in significant downregulation of the following neural markers: βIII-Tubulin, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), nestin, neurogenin 2 (NGN2), neurofilament medium polypeptide and Musashi1. Immunocytochemistry revealed that EphrinB2-Fc-treated DPSCs exhibited more rounded morphologies with fewer neurite outgrowths as well as reduced protein expression of βIII-tubulin and NGN2. Treatment of DPSCs with a peptide inhibitor specific to the EphB4 receptor significantly upregulated expression of the neural markers microtubule-associated protein 2, Musashi1, NGN2 and neuron-specific enolase, whereas treatment with a peptide inhibitor specific to the EphB2 receptor exerted negligible effects on neurogenesis. Transgenic expression of EphrinB2 in DPSCs resulted in significant upregulation of Musashi1 and NCAM gene expression, while treatment of DPSCs with recombinant EphB4-Fc protein led to significant upregulation of only Musashi1. Thus, it may be concluded that stimulation of forward EphrinB2-EphB4 signalling markedly inhibited neurogenesis in DPSCs, whereas suppression of this forward signalling pathway with peptide inhibitor specific to EphB4 promoted neurogenesis. Meanwhile, stimulation of reverse EphB4-EphrinB2 signalling only marginally enhanced the neural differentiation of DPSCs. The present findings indicate the potential application of peptide or small molecule inhibitors of EphrinB2 forward signalling in neural tissue engineering with DPSCs.
  5. Chen Z, Ding G, Wang Y, Xu J, Lin Z
    J. Genet., 2018 Nov 14;97(5):e147-e151.
    PMID: 30574879
    The tiger frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann 1834) is a large robust dicroglossid frog widely distributed in southern China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand. The escaped bred tiger frog introduced from Thailand hybridized with Chinese native population may have affected the genetic diversity of local Chinese tiger frogs. However, previous microsatellite loci of this species do not offer enough information to construct the genetic map. Here, we reported 33 new microsatellite loci from transcriptome sequencing for H. rugulosus. Alleles ranged between 1 and 10 per locus and only one locus (HRT001) was monomorphic. The polymorphic information content, observed and expected heterozygosity were 0-0.794, 0-0.969 and 0-0.831, respectively. None of the loci was observed in linkage disequilibrium and two loci (HRT023 and HRT068) deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. These transcriptome-derived microsatellite markers will be usedto study the genetic divergence and construct the genetic map in H. rugulosus.
  6. Gong T, Heng BC, Xu J, Zhu S, Yuan C, Lo EC, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 04;105(4):1083-1093.
    PMID: 28076902 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36003
    Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence, we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells. Compared to cells plated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured on the HUVECs-DECM demonstrated more regular arrangement and elongated morphology. HUVECs-DECM significantly enhanced the rapid adhesion and proliferation rates of SHED, as demonstrated by WST-8 assay and immunocytochemistry indicating higher expression levels of vinculin by newly adherent SHED on HUVECs-DECM versus TCP. In addition, there was twofold to fivefold higher mRNA expression levels of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and VEGFR-2 in SHED after seven days of culture on DECM versus TCP. Functional testing with in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay identified more capillary-like structure formation with significantly higher tubule length in SHED induced by DECM versus TCP. Hence, the results of this study provide a better understanding of the unique characteristics of cell-specific ECM and demonstrated the potential use of HUVECs-DECM as a culture substratum conducive for stimulating the endothelial differentiation of SHED for therapeutic angiogenic applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1083-1093, 2017.
  7. Lin C, Wei Z, Cheng KK, Xu J, Shen G, She C, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 28;7(1):6820.
    PMID: 28754994 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-07306-5
    Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy that has been found useful for treating various diseases. The treatments involve the insertion of fine needles at acupoints along specific meridians (meridian specificity). This study aims to investigate the metabolic basis of meridian specificity using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomics. Electro-acupuncture (EA) stimulations were performed at acupoints of either Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming (SMFY) or Gallbladder Meridian of Foot-Shaoyang (GMFS) in healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. 1H-NMR spectra datasets of serum, urine, cortex, and stomach tissue extracts from the rats were analysed by multivariate statistical analysis to investigate metabolic perturbations due to EA treatments at different meridians. EA treatment on either the SMFY or GMFS acupoints induced significant variations in 31 metabolites, e.g., amino acids, organic acids, choline esters and glucose. Moreover, a few meridian-specific metabolic changes were found for EA stimulations on the SMFY or GMFS acupoints. Our study demonstrated significant metabolic differences in response to EA stimulations on acupoints of SMFY and GMFS meridians. These results validate the hypothesis that meridian specificity in acupuncture is detectable in the metabolome and demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of a metabolomics approach in understanding the mechanism of acupuncture.
  8. Xu J, Cheng KK, Yang Z, Wang C, Shen G, Wang Y, et al.
    PMID: 26170882 DOI: 10.1155/2015/801691
    Gastric mucosal lesion (GML) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with multiple pathogenic mechanisms in clinical practice. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), electroacupuncture (EA) treatment has been proven as an effective therapy for GML, although the underlying healing mechanism is not yet clear. Here, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance- ((1)H NMR-) based metabolomic method to investigate the metabolic perturbation induced by GML and the therapeutic effect of EA treatment on stomach meridian (SM) acupoints. Clear metabolic differences were observed between GML and control groups, and related metabolic pathways were discussed by means of online metabolic network analysis toolbox. By comparing the endogenous metabolites from GML and GML-SM groups, the disturbed pathways were partly recovered towards healthy state via EA treated on SM acupoints. Further comparison of the metabolic variations induced by EA stimulated on SM and the control gallbladder meridian (GM) acupoints showed a quite similar metabolite composition except for increased phenylacetylglycine, 3,4-dihydroxymandelate, and meta-hydroxyphenylacetate and decreased N-methylnicotinamide in urine from rats with EA treated on SM acupoints. The current study showed the potential application of metabolomics in providing further insight into the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.
  9. Xu J, Jiang H, Li J, Cheng KK, Dong J, Chen Z
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0119654.
    PMID: 25849323 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119654
    Wilson's disease (WD), also known as hepatoleticular degeneration (HLD), is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of copper metabolism, which causes copper to accumulate in body tissues. In this study, rats fed with copper-laden diet are used to render the clinical manifestations of WD, and their copper toxicity-induced organ lesions are studied. To investigate metabolic behaviors of 'decoppering' process, penicillamine (PA) was used for treating copper-laden rats as this chelating agent could eliminate excess copper through the urine. To date, there has been limited metabolomics study on WD, while metabolic impacts of copper accumulation and PA administration have yet to be established.
  10. Shen G, Huang Y, Dong J, Wang X, Cheng KK, Feng J, et al.
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2018 Jan 10;66(1):368-377.
    PMID: 29215281 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03182
    Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth. After extraction using aqueous and organic solvents, 19 taurine-induced metabolic changes were evaluated in our study. The metabolic changes were characterized by differences in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and nucleotide contents. The results indicate that taurine supplementation could significantly regulate the physiological state of fish and promote growth and development. These results provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of dietary taurine supplementation in fish feeding. 1H NMR spectroscopy, coupled with multivariate pattern recognition technologies, is an efficient and useful tool to map the fish metabolome and identify metabolic responses to different dietary nutrients in aquaculture.
  11. Zhang S, Xu J, Lee LH, Chew EP, Wong WP, Chen CH
    IEEE Trans Evol Comput, 2017 Apr;21(2):206-219.
    PMID: 29170617 DOI: 10.1109/TEVC.2016.2592185
    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a popular metaheuristic for deterministic optimization. Originated in the interpretations of the movement of individuals in a bird flock or fish school, PSO introduces the concept of personal best and global best to simulate the pattern of searching for food by flocking and successfully translate the natural phenomena to the optimization of complex functions. Many real-life applications of PSO cope with stochastic problems. To solve a stochastic problem using PSO, a straightforward approach is to equally allocate computational effort among all particles and obtain the same number of samples of fitness values. This is not an efficient use of computational budget and leaves considerable room for improvement. This paper proposes a seamless integration of the concept of optimal computing budget allocation (OCBA) into PSO to improve the computational efficiency of PSO for stochastic optimization problems. We derive an asymptotically optimal allocation rule to intelligently determine the number of samples for all particles such that the PSO algorithm can efficiently select the personal best and global best when there is stochastic estimation noise in fitness values. We also propose an easy-to-implement sequential procedure. Numerical tests show that our new approach can obtain much better results using the same amount of computational effort.
  12. Li C, Wang R, Xu J, Luo Y, Tan ML, Jiang Y
    Int J Biometeorol, 2018 Dec;62(12):2197-2204.
    PMID: 30368677 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-018-1623-2
    Understanding the impacts of climate change on crop yield is important for improving crop growth and yield formation in northwestern China. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between meteorological dryness/wetness conditions and spring wheat yield in the Ili river basin (IRB). The climate and yield data from 1961 to 2013 were collected to analyze characteristics and correlations between these two variables using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), yield detrending method, modified Mann-Kendall test and Spearman correlation analysis. Main results were as follows: (1) correlations between monthly SPEI values (MSV) and climatic yield of spring wheat indicated that the dryness/wetness condition in May was a key factor affecting yield in the whole region; (2) although the MSV in May and yield fluctuated from negative to positive values in time, the severely and extremely dryness events were in good agreement with the higher yield losses; (3) each increase of 0.5 MSV in May promoted over 3% increase of yield in most part of IRB; however, the larger variability of MSV in May resulted in larger yield fluctuations; and (4) the Tibetan Plateau index in April showed significant correlations with the MSV in May and yield, which provided a precursory signal for decision-makers to better understand potential yield fluctuations.
  13. Zhu J, Li Y, Jiang H, Liu C, Lu W, Dai W, et al.
    Ecotoxicology, 2018 May;27(4):411-419.
    PMID: 29404868 DOI: 10.1007/s10646-018-1904-x
    The novel mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was highly effective in controlling both imidacloprid-susceptible and resistant planthopper populations in Malaysia. However, the toxicity of triflumezopyrim to planthopper populations and their natural enemies has been under-investigated in China. In this study, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of triflumezopyrim were determined in eight field populations of Nilaparvata lugens and one population of Sogatella furcifera from China under laboratory conditions. Triflumezopyrim showed higher toxicity to planthopper populations than the commonly-used insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, the lethal effect of triflumezopyrim on eight beneficial arthropods of planthoppers was investigated in the laboratory and compared with three commonly-used insecticides, thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin. Triflumezopyrim was harmless to Anagrus nilaparvatae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis and Paederus fuscipes, while thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin were moderately harmful or harmful to the insect parasitoid and predators. Triflumezopyrim and thiamethoxam were harmless to the predatory spiders Pirata subpiraticus, Ummeliata insecticeps, Hylyphantes graminicola and Pardosa pseudoannulata, and slightly harmful to Theridion octomaculatum. Chlorpyrifos caused slight to high toxicity to four spider species except U. insecticeps. Abamectin was moderately to highly toxic to all five spider species. Our results indicate that triflumezopyrim has high efficacy for rice planthoppers populations and is compatibile with their natural enemies in China.
  14. Wang L, Xu J, Yan Y, Liu H, Karunakaran T, Li F
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2019 Dec;47(1):1617-1627.
    PMID: 31014134 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2019.1594862
    Nanotechnology has been materialized as a proficient technology for the development of anticancer nanoparticles all the way through an environment-friendly approach. Conventionally, nanoparticles have been assembled by dissimilar methods, but regrettably rely on the negative impact on the natural environment. Amalgamation of nanoparticles by means of plant extract is alternate conservative methods. Scutellaria barbata species was used majorly as food or as medicines against various diseases, and extensive research was conducted for their therapeutic properties. The present research was mainly focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles from the Scutellaria barbata by green route method and evaluation of its anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1). The gold nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, SAED, AFM, and FTIR analysis. The synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possessed effective anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1). Hence, further research on this plant may lead to the development of novel anticancer drugs which can be used to combat pancreatic cancer.
  15. Xu J, Lin X, Cheng KK, Zhong H, Liu M, Zhang G, et al.
    PMID: 31186665 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6947471
    Electroacupuncture and moxibustion are traditional Chinese medicine practices that exert therapeutic effects through stimulation of specific meridian acupoints. However, the biological basis of the therapies has been difficult to establish; thus the current practices still rely on ancient TCM references. Here, we used a rat model to study perturbations in cortex, liver, and stomach metabolome and plasma hormones following electroacupuncture or moxibustion treatment on either stomach meridian or gallbladder meridian acupoints. All treatment groups, regardless of meridian and mode of treatment, showed perturbation in cortex metabolome and increased phenylalanine, tyrosine, and branched-chain amino acids in liver. In addition, electroacupuncture was found to increase ATP in cortex, creatine, and dimethylglycine in stomach and GABA in liver. On the other hand, moxibustion increased plasma enkephalin concentration, as well as betaine and fumarate concentrations in stomach. Furthermore, we had observed meridian-specific changes including increased N-acetyl-aspartate in liver and 3-hydroxybutyrate in stomach for gallbladder meridian stimulation and increased noradrenaline concentration in blood plasma following stimulation on stomach meridian. In summary, the current findings may provide insight into the metabolic basis of electroacupuncture and moxibustion, which may contribute towards new application of acupoint stimulation.
  16. Xu J, Zheng X, Cheng KK, Chang X, Shen G, Liu M, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 03 30;7:45580.
    PMID: 28358020 DOI: 10.1038/srep45580
    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a common gastrointestinal disease which has been considered as precancerous lesions of gastric carcinoma. Previously, electro-acupuncture stimulation has been shown to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of CAG. However the underlying mechanism of this beneficial treatment is yet to be established. In the present study, an integrated histopathological examination along with molecular biological assay, as well as 1H NMR analysis of multiple biological samples (urine, serum, stomach, cortex and medulla) were employed to systematically assess the pathology of CAG and therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulation at Sibai (ST 2), Liangmen (ST 21), and Zusanli (ST 36) acupoints located in the stomach meridian using a rat model of CAG. The current results showed that CAG caused comprehensive metabolic alterations including the TCA cycle, glycolysis, membrane metabolism and catabolism, gut microbiota-related metabolism. On the other hand, electro-acupuncture treatment was found able to normalize a number of CAG-induced metabolomics changes by alleviating membrane catabolism, restoring function of neurotransmitter in brain and partially reverse the CAG-induced perturbation in gut microbiota metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the biochemistry of CAG and mechanism of the therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulations.
  17. Han H, Hu S, Syed-Hassan SSA, Xiao Y, Wang Y, Xu J, et al.
    Bioresour. Technol., 2017 Jul;236:138-145.
    PMID: 28399417 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.112
    Sewage sludge is an important class of bioresources whose energy content could be exploited using pyrolysis technology. However, some harmful trace elements in sewage sludge can escape easily to the gas phase during pyrolysis, increasing the potential of carcinogenic material emissions to the atmosphere. This study investigates emission characteristics of arsenic, cadmium and lead under different pyrolysis conditions for three different sewage sludge samples. The increased temperature (within 723-1123K) significantly promoted the cadmium and lead emissions, but its influence on arsenic emission was not pronounced. The releasing rate order of the three trace elements is volatile arsenic compounds>cadmium>lead in the beginning of pyrolysis. Fast heating rates promoted the emission of trace elements for the sludge containing the highest amount of ash, but exhibited an opposite effect for other studied samples. Overall, the high ash sludge released the least trace elements almost under all reaction conditions.
  18. Zawawi MS, Marino V, Perilli E, Cantley MD, Xu J, Purdue PE, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2015 Nov;103(11):3572-9.
    PMID: 25903444 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35484
    The study aimed to determine the effects of parthenolide (PAR) on bone volume (BV) and bone surface resorption as assessed by live-animal microcomputed tomography (μCT) and possible osteocyte death as indicated by empty lacunae histologically in polyethylene (PE) particle-induced calvarial osteolysis in mice. Baseline μCT scans were conducted 7 days preimplantation of 2 × 10(8) PE particles/mL over the calvariae (day 0). PAR at 1 mg/kg/day was subcutaneously injected on days 0, 4, 7, and 10. At day 14, BV and surface resorption was analyzed with μCT. Calvarial tissue was processed for histomorphometric osteocyte evaluation. Serum was analyzed for type-1 carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX-1) and osteoclast associated receptor (OSCAR) levels by ELISA. PE significantly decreased BV (p = 0.0368), increased surface bone resorption area (p = 0.0022), and increased the percentage of empty lacunae (p = 0.0043). Interestingly, PAR significantly reduced the resorption surface area (p = 0.0022) and the percentage of empty osteocyte lacunae (p = 0.0087) in the PE-calvariae, but it did not affect BV, serum CTX-1 or OSCAR levels. The ability of PAR to inhibit PE-induced surface bone erosion may better reflect the in vivo situation, where bone resorption occurs on the surface at the bone-implant interface and may also be related to the role of osteocytes in this pathology.
  19. Lin X, Liu X, Xu J, Cheng KK, Cao J, Liu T, et al.
    Chin Med, 2019;14:18.
    PMID: 31080495 DOI: 10.1186/s13020-019-0240-2
    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which is commonly treated with antidiarrhoeal, antispasmodics, serotonergic agents or laxative agents. These treatments provide relief for IBS symptoms but may also lead to undesired side effects. Previously, herb-partitioned moxibustion (HPM) treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of IBS. However, the underlying mechanism of this beneficial treatment is yet to be established. The aim of the current study was to systematically assess the metabolic alterations in response to diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and therapeutic effect of HPM.

    Methods: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR)-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate fecal and serum metabolome of rat model of IBS-D with and without HPM treatment.

    Results: The current results showed that IBS-induced metabolic alterations in fecal and serum sample include higher level of threonine and UDP-glucose together with lower levels of aspartate, ornithine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, 2-hydroxy butyrate, valine, lactate, ethanol, arginine, 2-oxoisovalerate and bile acids. These altered metabolites potentially involve in impaired gut secretory immune system and intestinal inflammation, malabsorption of nutrients, and disordered metabolism of bile acids. Notably, the HPM treatment was found able to normalize the Bristol stool forms scale scores, fecal water content, plasma endotoxin level, and a number of IBS-induced metabolic changes.

    Conclusions: These findings may provide useful insight into the molecular basis of IBS and mechanism of the HPM intervention.

  20. Wang AJ, Bong CW, Xu YH, Hassan MHA, Ye X, Bakar AFA, et al.
    Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2017 Dec 15;125(1-2):492-500.
    PMID: 28807422 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.08.010
    To understand the source-to-sink of pollutants in the Kelantan River estuary and the adjacent shelf area in Malaysia, a total of 42 surface sediment samples were collected in the Kelantan River-estuary-shelf system to analyze for grain size, total organic carbon (TOC) content, Al and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). The surficial sediments were mainly composed of clayey silt and the TOC content in sediments decreased from the river to the shelf. The surficial sediments experienced Pb pollution; Cr only showed a certain level of pollution in the coastal area of the estuary but not in other areas, and Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd showed no pollution. The heavy metals mainly originated from natural weathering and erosion of rocks and soils in the catchment and enriched near the river mouth. Total organic carbon can promote the enrichment of heavy metals in sediments.
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