To identify seasonal fluxes and sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) wet deposition, concentrations and δ15N signatures of nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) in wet precipitation were measured at four typical land-use types in the Three Gorges reservoir (TGR) area of southwest China for a one-year period. Higher DIN fluxes were recorded in spring and summer and their total fluxes (averaged 7.58 kg N ha-1) were similar to the critical loads in aquatic ecosystems. Significant differences of precipitation δ15N were observed for NH4+-N between town and wetland sites in spring and between urban and rural sites in summer. For NO3--N, significant differences of precipitation δ15N were observed between town and rural sites in spring and between urban and town sites in autumn, respectively. Quantitative results of NO3--N sources showed that both biomass burning and coal combustion had higher fluxes at the urban site especially in winter (0.18 ± 0.09 and 0.19 ± 0.08 kg N ha-1), which were about three times higher than those at the town site. A similar finding was observed for soil emission and vehicle exhausts in winter. On the whole, DIN wet deposition averaged at 12.13 kg N ha-1 yr-1 with the urban site as the hotspot (17.50 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and regional NO3--N fluxes had a seasonal pattern with minimum values in winter. The contribution to NO3--N wet deposition from biomass burning was 26.1 ± 14.1%, which is the second dominant factor lower than coal combustion (26.5 ± 12.6%) in the TGR area during spring and summer. Hence N emission reduction from biomass burning, coal combustion and vehicle exhausts should be strengthened especially in spring and summer to effectively manage DIN pollution for the sustainable development in TGR area.
Fluxes and composition dynamics of atmospheric nitrogen deposition play key roles in better balancing economic development and ecological environment. However, there are some knowledge gaps and difficulties in urban ecosystems, especially for small and medium-sized cities. In this study, both flux and composition (ratio of NH4+-N to NO3--N, RN) of wet-deposited dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, sum of NO3--N and NH4+-N) were estimated and sources were identified at a long-term urban observation station in Tongling, a typical medium-sized city in eastern China during 2010-2016, respectively. Results showed that wet-deposited DIN fluxes were 33.20 and 28.15 kgN ha-1 yr-1 in Tongling city during 2010-2011 and 2015-2016, respectively. Compared to these two periods, both DIN and NO3--N fluxes decreased by 15.2% and 31.8% for a series of NOx abatement measures applied effectively, respectively. At the same time, the NH4+-N flux remained stable and ranged from 19.53 to 20.62 kgN ha-1 yr-1, and the RN increased from 1.7 to 2.2. Seasonally, winds from the southwest and west-southwest with higher frequencies and speeds in spring and summer brought more NH4+-N and DIN wet deposition from an ammonia plant, which could threaten the safety of regional hydrosphere ecosystems. On the whole, the wet-deposited NH4+-N was threatening regional ecosystems of both the hydrosphere and forest. The wet-deposited DIN including NH4+-N in Tongling city stemmed mainly from a combined source of coal combustion and dust from Cu extraction and smelting, ammonia production, and roads. Therefore, production lines should be updated for Cu extraction and smelting industries, thermal power generations and the ammonia plant, old vehicles should be eliminated, and the use of new energy vehicles should be promoted for regional sustainable development and human health in the medium-sized city.
Aquaculture production of crustaceans (mainly shrimp and crabs) has expanded globally, but disease outbreaks and pathogenic infections have hampered production in the last two decades. As invertebrates, crustaceans lack an adaptive immune system and mainly defend and protect themselves using their innate immune system. The immune system derives energy and metabolites from nutrients, with amino acids constituting one such source. A growing number of studies have shown that amino acids and their metabolites are involved in the activation, synthesis, proliferation, and differentiation of immune cells, as well as in the activation of immune related signaling pathways, reduction of inflammatory response and regulation of oxidative stress. Key enzymes in amino acid metabolism have also been implicated in the regulation of the immune system. Here, we reviewed the role played by amino acids and their metabolites in immune-modulation in crustaceans. Information is inferred from mammals and fish where none exists for crustaceans. Research themes are identified and the relevant research gaps highlighted for further studies.
To evaluate the inhibitory effects of drugs on the growth of Babesia gibsoni, relative quantification real-time PCR method was developed in this study. The 18S rRNA gene was used as a target gene for the 2-ΔΔCt method analysis. Additionally, chicken RNA was added to the parasitized blood before total RNA extraction. The chicken β-actin gene was selected as an internal control gene for the 2-ΔΔCt method analysis. The 100 µL parasitized blood samples with different percentages of parasitized erythrocytes (PPEs) (3%, 1.5%, 0.75%, 0.375% and 0.1875%) were prepared for relative quantification of B. gibsoni. Regression analysis results revealed significant linear relationships between the relative quantification value and parasitemia. 18S rRNA gene expression was significantly decreased after treatment with diminazene aceturate and artesunate in vitro drug sensitivity test. This result suggested that this relative quantification real-time PCR method can be used to evaluate the effects of drug inhibition.
Aquatic organisms have to produce proteins or factors that help maintain a stable relationship with microbiota and prevent colonization by pathogenic microorganisms. In crustaceans and other aquatic invertebrates, relatively few of these host factors have been characterized. In this study, we show that the respiratory glycoprotein hemocyanin is a crucial host factor that modulates microbial composition and diversity in the hepatopancreas of penaeid shrimp. Diseased penaeid shrimp (Penaeus vannamei), had an empty gastrointestinal tract with atrophied hepatopancreas, expressed low hemocyanin, and high total bacterial abundance, with Vibrio as the dominant bacteria. Similarly, shrimp depleted of hemocyanin had mitochondrial depolarization, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and dysregulation of several energy metabolism-related genes. Hemocyanin silencing together with ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine) treatment improved microbial diversity and decreased Vibrio dominance in the hepatopancreas. However, fecal microbiota transplantation after hemocyanin knockdown could not restore the microbial composition in the hepatopancreas. Collectively, our data provide, to our knowledge, new insight into the pivotal role of hemocyanin in modulating microbial composition in penaeid shrimp hepatopancreas via its effect on mitochondrial integrity, energy metabolism, and ROS production.
With the population growth, urbanization and industrialization, China has become a hotspot of atmospheric deposition nitrogen (ADN), which is a threat to ecosystem and food safety. However, the impacts of increased ADN on rice growth and grain metal content are little studied. Based on previous long-term ADN studies, greenhouse experiment was conducted with four simulated ADN rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (CK, N1, N2 and N3 as δ15N, respectively) to assess rice growth and metal uptake in a red soil ecosystem of southeast China during 2016-2017. Results showed that simulated ADN could promote rice growth and increase yields by 15.68-24.41% (except N2) and accumulations of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) in organs. However, there was no linear relationship between ADN rate and rice growth or Cd or Cu uptake. The 15N-ADN was mainly accumulated in roots (21.31-67.86%) and grains (25.26-49.35%), while Cd and Cu were primarily accumulated in roots (78.86-93.44% and 90.00-96.24%, respectively). 15N-ADN and Cd accumulations in roots were significantly different between the two growing seasons (p
In this study, three soil amendments (inorganic, liming, or organic-inorganic materials) were used in a Cd-contaminated purple field soil to investigate their impacts on soil Cd availability, enzyme (urease, catalase, sucrase, and acid phosphatase) activities, microbial biomass (carbon/nitrogen) and type (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes) in mustard and corn trials. Results showed that soil amendments generally decreased soil exchangeable Cd, fungi and bacterial populations while increasing the activities of all the four soil enzymes tested, microbial biomass carbon and populations of actinomycetes (p 0.05) whereas stronger effects appeared in soil organic matter and available nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium; p
The purification of parasite-infected erythrocytes from whole blood containing leucocytes is crucial for many downstream genetic and molecular assays in parasitology. Current methodologies to achieve this are often costly and time consuming. Here, we demonstrate the successful application of a cheap and simple Non-Woven Fabric (NWF) filter for the purification of parasitized red blood cells from whole blood. NWF filtration was applied to the malaria-parasitized blood of three strains of mice, and one strain of rat, and to Babesia gibsoni parasitized dog blood. Before and after filtration, the white blood cell (WBC) removal rates and red blood cell (RBC) recovery rates were measured. After NWF filter treatment of rodent malaria-infected blood, the WBC removal rates and RBC recovery rates were, for Kunming mice: 99.51%±0.30% and 86.12%±8.37%; for BALB/C mice: 99.61%±0.15% and 80.74%±7.11%; for C57 mice: 99.71%±0.12% and 84.87%±3.83%; for Sprague-Dawley rats: 99.93%±0.03% and 83.30%±2.96%. Microscopy showed WBCs were efficiently removed from infected dog blood samples, and there was no obvious morphological change of B. gibsoni parasites. NWF filters efficiently remove leukocytes from malaria parasite-infected mouse and rat blood, and are also suitable for filtration of B. gibsoni-infected dog blood.