Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Kohilavani, Zzaman, W., Abdullah, W.W.N., Tajul, A.Y.
    Since early 2000, Malaysian food-export industries have recognised the demand for food
    compliant with Islamic dietary law (halal), with primary consumer choices based on quality
    and safety. The lack of documented monitoring for health hazards and haram substances led
    to the withdrawal of certification. The HACCP-based halal quality-assurance standards were
    developed as a result, using the HACCP criteria for safety, religious dietary requirement and
    quality. Halal critical control points (HlCCP) are identified using HACCP criteria and a question
    tree on HALAL processing and storage. This approach harmonizes and unifies halal processing
    with the specific food industry via an HACCP–based halal quality-assurance system.
  2. Asmaa, A.A., Zzaman, W., Tajul, A.Y.
    The influence of superheated steam cooking on fat and fatty acid composition of chicken sausage were investigated at various temperatures (150, 200, and 250°C) with different time domains (2-6 min). It has been found that the fat content of raw sample was higher than that of all cooked samples. The total fat content of cooked sample, showed a linear decreasing with time at all investigated temperatures. Superheated steam produce changes in saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in which their values were found to decrease in cooked samples. When different cooking conditions (temperature, time) were applied, the fatty acids were decreased as the time and temperature increased. The PUFA and MUFA were less prone to decrease at 150°C, while at this temperature there was a remarkable loss in SFA content. This cooking method considerably reduced the level of fat and SFA which have a positive effect on health. In addition it could imply a great choice for consumers to choose the healthier technique for cooking food.
  3. Issara, U., Zzaman, W., Yang, T.A.
    This review of literature provides an overview on the compositional data of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Linn.) and rambutan seed fat for usage in chocolate product. It is a seasonal fruit native of west Malaysia and Sumatra. It is harvested when the fruit have reached optimum visual and organoleptic quality. Rambutans rapidly deteriorate unless proper handling techniques are employed. The rambutan fruits are deseeded during processing and these seeds (~ 4-9 g/100 g) are a waste by-product of the canning industry. And some studies was showed that rambutan seed possesses a relatively high amount of fat and these fats are similar to those of cocoa fat, although have some different physical properties. In the present research about rambutan seed fat continued increasing due to from previous research was found that this fat can use as substitute in cocoa butter for chocolate products. Therefore, the extracted fat from rambutan seed not only could be used for manufacturing candles, soaps, and fuels, but it also has a possible to be a source of natural edible fat with feasible industry use.
  4. Sumaiya, K., Zzaman, W., Jahurul, M.H.A.
    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known and nutrient rich edible fruits. Peel and Arils of three available cultivars of this fruit in Bangladesh namely, Bangladesh pomegranate, Indian-Mridula and Egypt pomegranate were analyzed to evaluate their biochemical and bioactive properties. The ash, crude fiber, lipid, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solid, total sugar as well as bioactive properties included DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total tannin content (TTC) and vitamin C were assessed in the study. The results of the analysis showed that the ash, pH, titratable acidity, moisture, total sugar ranged from 0.26-0.93%, 3.54-4.01, 1.40-1.87%, 75.4381.20%, 9.02-10.12 g DE/100g for aril and 1-2.03%, 3.53-4.12, 1.75-1.88%, 71.69-76.65%, 21.14-29.19 g DE/100g for peel respectively. However, the seed of all cultivars contained significantly (p
  5. Zzaman, W., Yusoff, M.M., Yang, T.A.
    Fish crackers made from freshwater fishes is a new dimension in fish cracker industry. In this study, three species were chosen based on their general preference and acceptability by Malaysian. Together with other ingredients, these crackers were prepared using standard formulation and tested in laboratory for their proximate analysis and physical characteristic analysis includes linear expansion, oil absorption, color measurement and texture. Sensory analysis for overall acceptability was carried out among trained panelist in the school. The results for proximate composition and physical analysis showed that there were significant differences (p
  6. Zzaman, W., Issara, U., Febrianto, N.F., Yang, T.A.
    International Food Research Journal, 2014;21(3):10191-1023.
    The study was conducted to investigate fatty acid composition, rheological properties and crystal formation of rambutan fat and cocoa butter. The results showed that lauric acid, palmitic acid, and stearic fatty acid in rambutan fat were less than cocoa butter, but oleic acid found almost the same. The crystal formation of cocoa butter was not complex at 25oC, while rambutan fat and their mixture shown complicated network of crystal form. The Newton, Bingham and Casson plastic rheological models was used to describe fat flow in this experiment and the result showed that rambutan fat had higher viscosity than cocoa fat. Based on the results the study recommended that mixture proportion up to 30% rambutan seed fat can be used as a cocoa butter substitute whereas higher proportion completely alters original cocoa butter properties. Therefore, there is feasibility of using the rambutan fat to substitute cocoa butter and the mixtures of the two fats in suitable proportion in chocolate manufacturing.
  7. Zzaman, W., Issara, U., Easa, A.M., Yang, T.A.
    Fat content and macroscopic properties of fat network formulation result in final products in chocolate industry. The knowledge of physical properties is required in regard to stability of final food products resulting to quality. The study was carried out to investigate the thermal behavior, solid fat content and hardness of Rambutan fat (RF), cocoa butter and mixtures between two fats. The results found that the mixtures can be compatibility; the cocoa butter indicated the higher of solid fat content at room temperature more than RF and other mixtures. The RF had the highest melting point in both non-stabilized and stabilized form among cocoa butter and their mixtures. The hardness behavior showed lower in the mixture 1 and RF. For the phase behavior of crystallization exhibited the similar for all samples whereas the time of crystallization and temperatures were different. Therefore, the RF might be possible source of cocoa butter substitute with suitable proportion in the manufacturing chocolate and confectionery products.
  8. Abedin, M.Z., Karim, A.A., Gan, C.Y., Ghazali, F.C., Barzideh, Z., Zzaman, W., et al.
    The sea cucumber (Stichopus vastus) is an underutilized species, as most of its parts, including the integument (high collagen content) are thrown away during processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different hydrolysis conditions (substrate to enzyme ratio (S/E), reaction temperature, and hydrolysis time) on the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and radical scavenging (RSc) activities of the hydrolysates produced from trypsin hydrolysis of S. vastus collagen. Optimal conditions predicted by Box-Behnken Design modelling for producing ACE inhibitory and RSc hydrolysates were found to be S/E ratio (15), reaction temperature (55°C), and hydrolysis time (1 h). Under optimal conditions, ACE inhibitory and RSc activities were estimated to be as high as 67.8% and 77.9%, respectively. Besides, some novel bioactive peptides were identified through mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicate that S. vastus hydrolysates might be used as a functional ingredient in food and nutraceutical products.
  9. Felli R, Yang TA, Abdullah WNW, Zzaman W
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2018 Mar;29(1):113-126.
    PMID: 29644019 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2018.29.1.8
    Nowadays, there is a rising interest towards consuming health beneficial food products. Bread-as one of the most popular food products-could be improved to 'healthy bread' by addition of ingredients high in protein, dietary fiber and low in calorie. Incorporating Jackfruit rind powder (JRP) as a by-product rich in dietary fiber in bread, could not only provide health beneficial bread products, but also lead to develop an environmental friendly technology by solving the problem of waste disposal of residues. In this study, addition of jackfruit rind powder (JRP) as a high dietary fiber and functional ingredient in bread was examined. The results showed that incorporation of JRP in bread improved functional properties of flour such as Oil Holding Capacity (OHC), Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and pasting properties. Addition of 5%, 10% and 15% of JRP in wheat flour caused significantly (p < 0.05) higher insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber in flour and bread products. Results from proximate composition indicated that all breads substituted with JRP, contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher fiber, moisture and fat. Obtained results confirmed that the JRP has great potential in development of functional foods especially functional bread products.
  10. Sifat SAD, Trisha AT, Huda N, Zzaman W, Julmohammad N
    Int J Food Sci, 2021;2021:3681807.
    PMID: 34966820 DOI: 10.1155/2021/3681807
    This research was done to optimize the influence of various egg albumin (EA) concentrations of 2, 4, and 6% as a foaming agent and whipping times of 5, 10, and 15 minutes, on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of plum powder produced using response surface methodology (RSM). Physical properties of the foam such as density, porosity, and expansion were determined. After drying and powder manufacturing, physical properties, namely, the water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI), as well as chemical characteristics such as pH, titratable acidity, and browning index, were assessed. Finally, antioxidant capabilities such as the total phenol content (TPC), DPPH scavenging activity, beta carotene, and total flavonoid content (TFC) were measured. According to the findings, both whipping duration and EA concentration had a substantial effect on the foam forming characteristics. Foam expansion increased significantly with EA concentration and whipping time increase, but foam density exhibited an inverse relationship as expected. Increases in EA concentration and whipping duration both raised pH values whereas titratable acidity exhibited an inverse tendency as variable quantity rose. The browning index dropped as EA concentration increased. Antioxidant qualities were retained in dried sample powder as compared with the fresh sample, and they were also altered by variable changes. Overall, a 4% EA concentration for 10 to 15 minutes produced the best dehydration effects with the most antioxidant retention.
  11. Zzaman W, Bhat R, Yang TA, Easa AM
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Oct;97(13):4429-4437.
    PMID: 28251656 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8302
    BACKGROUND: Roasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa-based industries in order to develop unique flavour in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roasting at different temperatures and times using superheated steam. The influence of roasting temperature (150-250°C) and time (10-50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavouring compounds were investigated.

    RESULTS: The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced by up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. A number of pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. Formation of the most flavour active compounds, pyrazines, were the highest concentration (2.96 mg kg-1 ) at 200°C for 10 min.

    CONCLUSION: The superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Idrus NFM, Zzaman W, Yang TA, Easa AM, Sharifudin MS, Noorakmar BW, et al.
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2017;26(4):911-920.
    PMID: 30263619 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-017-0132-0
    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important source of protein and lipid globally. The effect of superheated-steam roasting on quality of peanut oil was evaluated based on physicochemical quality parameters. Three roasting temperatures (150, 200, and 250 °C) were used for different periods of roasting time and the obtained results were compared with those of conventional roasting. At 250 °C, superheated-steam roasted peanuts yielded more oil (26.84%) than conventionally roasted peanuts (24.85%). Compared with conventional roasting, superheated-steam roasting resulted in lower oil color, peroxide, p-anisidine, free fatty acid, conjugated diene and triene, and acid values and higher viscosity and iodine values in the roasted peanut oil. These values were significantly different from each other (p 
  13. Trisha AT, Shakil MH, Talukdar S, Rovina K, Huda N, Zzaman W
    Foods, 2022 Oct 25;11(21).
    PMID: 36359962 DOI: 10.3390/foods11213349
    Cancer is exerting an immense strain on the population and health systems all over the world. Green tea because of its higher simple catechin content (up to 30% on dry weight basis) is greatly popular as an anti-cancer agent which is found to reduce the risks of cancer as well as a range of other diseases. In addition, several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that green tea possesses copious health benefits like anti-diabetic, anti-obese, anti-inflammatory, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, etc. This review highlights the anti-carcinogenic effects of green tea catechins integrating the recent information to gain a clear concept. Special emphasis was given to the effectiveness of green tea polyphenols (GTP) in the prevention of cancer. Overall, green tea has been found to be effective to reduce the risks of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, skin cancer, prostate cancer, oral cancer, etc. However, sufficient information was not found to support that green tea consumption reduces the risk of lung cancer, esophageal cancer, or stomach cancer. The exciting data integrated into this article will increase interest in future researchers to garner more fruitful information on the relevant topics.
  14. Shakil MH, Trisha AT, Rahman M, Talukdar S, Kobun R, Huda N, et al.
    Foods, 2022 Oct 25;11(21).
    PMID: 36359973 DOI: 10.3390/foods11213355
    Nitrite is one of the most widely used curing ingredients in meat industries. Nitrites have numerous useful applications in cured meats and a vital component in giving cured meats their unique characteristics, such as their pink color and savory flavor. Nitrites are used to suppress the oxidation of lipid and protein in meat products and to limit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as Clostridium botulinum. Synthetic nitrite is frequently utilized for curing due to its low expenses and easier applications to meat. However, it is linked to the production of nitrosamines, which has raised several health concerns among consumers regarding its usage in meat products. Consumer desire for healthier meat products prepared with natural nitrite sources has increased due to a rising awareness regarding the application of synthetic nitrites. However, it is important to understand the various activities of nitrite in meat curing for developing novel substitutes of nitrites. This review emphasizes on the effects of nitrite usage in meat and highlights the role of nitrite in the production of carcinogenic nitrosamines as well as possible nitrite substitutes from natural resources explored also.
  15. Abedin MZ, Karim AA, Latiff AA, Gan CY, Ghazali FC, Barzideh Z, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2014;28(16):1302-5.
    PMID: 24670209 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.900617
    The molecular mass distribution, amino acid composition and radical-scavenging activity of collagen hydrolysates prepared from collagen isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus vastus were investigated. β and α1 chains of the collagen were successfully hydrolysed by trypsin. The molecular mass distribution of the hydrolysates ranged from 5 to 25 kDa, and they were rich in glycine, alanine, glutamate, proline and hydroxyproline residues. The hydrolysates exhibited excellent radical-scavenging activity. These results indicate that collagen hydrolysates from S. vastus can be used as a functional ingredient in food and nutraceutical products.
  16. Rosmawati, Tawali AB, Said MI, Sari SF, Anwar LO, Nurdin IN, et al.
    Int J Food Sci, 2023;2023:6877904.
    PMID: 36779082 DOI: 10.1155/2023/6877904
    This study is aimed at determining the functional effect of snakehead fish gelatin as a binder on the characteristics and shelf life of beef cheek-based emulsion sausage compared with bovine commercial gelatin. The level of snakehead fish gelatin used was 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%, while that of bovine commercial gelatin was 2% with a storage time of 0 to 28 days in the refrigerator (4 ± 2°C). Emulsion stability, cooking loss, proximate composition, texture profile, and microstructure of sausage were initially determined before storage; then, observations were made every seven days to determine the shelf life of sausages based on pH, antioxidant activity, and TBA reactivity. Characteristics such as emulsion stability, proximate composition, and texture profile were influenced by the treatment (p < 0.05). The gelatin level significantly affected the water holding capacity of sausages (p < 0.05), but the storage time did not (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the pH, TBA reactivity, and antioxidant activity of sausages were not only affected by gelatin level (p < 0.05) but also by storage time (p < 0.05). The sausage microstructure confirms the use of 2% snakehead fish gelatin to make sausages with properties similar to 2% commercial bovine gelatin. The byproduct of the snakehead fish industry can be used as a gelatin alternative to produce sausages. This gelatin has the potential as a binder, which can functionally improve sausage characteristics. This effectiveness can boost the water holding capacity of sausages, although it has not been effective in inhibiting fat oxidation which causes an increase in malonaldehyde levels.
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