METHODS: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and two Chinese electronic databases were electronically searched to identify eligible studies that reported the correlates of stigma for patients with breast cancer from inception to July 2022. Two researchers independently performed literature screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. R4.1.1 software was used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: Twenty articles including 4161 patients were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Results showed that breast cancer stigma was positively correlated with working status, type of surgery, resignation coping, depression, ambivalence over emotional expression, and delayed help-seeking behavior and negatively correlated with age, education, income, quality of life, social support, confrontation coping, psychological adaptation, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Descriptive analysis showed that breast cancer stigma was positively correlated with intrusive thoughts, body image, anxiety, and self-perceived burden but negatively correlated with a sense of coherence, personal acceptance of the disease, sleep quality, cancer screening attendance and doctor's empathy.
CONCLUSION: Many demographic, disease-related, and psychosocial variables are related to breast cancer stigma. Our view can serve as a basis for health care professionals to develop health promotion and prevention strategies for patients with breast cancer.