Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

  1. Show KY, Lee DJ, Tay JH
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2012 Jul;167(6):1622-40.
    PMID: 22383048 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-012-9609-8
    Aerobic granulation was developed in overcoming the problem of biomass washout often encountered in activated sludge processes. The novel approach to developing fluffy biosolids into dense and compact granules offers a new dimension for wastewater treatment. Compared with conventional biological flocs, aerobic granules are characterized by well-defined shape and compact buildup, superior biomass retention, enhanced microbial functions, and resilient to toxicity and shock loading. This review provides an up-to-date account on development in aerobic granulation and its applications. Granule characterization, factors affecting granulation, and response of granules to various environmental and operating conditions are discussed. Maintaining granule of adequate structural stability is one of the main challenges for practical applications of aerobic granulation. This paper also reviews recent advances in addressing granule stability and storage for use as inoculums, and as biomass supplement to enhance treatment efficiency. Challenges and future work of aerobic granulation are also outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis*
  2. Gobi K, Vadivelu VM
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Nov;196:731-5.
    PMID: 26235884 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.07.083
    The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation dynamics in aerobic granules that undergo the growth-disintegration cycle were investigated. Four sequencing batch reactors (SBR) were inoculated with aerobic granules at different stages of development (different sizes). Different sizes of aerobic granules showed varying PHA contents. Thus, further study was conducted to investigate the diffusion of substrate and oxygen on PHA accumulation using various organic loading rates (OLR) and aeration rates (AR). An increase in OLR from 0.91 to 3.64kg COD/m(3)day increased the PHA content from 0.66 to 0.87g PHA/g CDW. Meanwhile, an AR increase from 1 to 4L/min only accelerated the maximum PHA accumulation without affecting the PHA content. However, the PHA composition only changes with AR, while the hydroxyvalerate (HV) content increased at a higher AR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  3. Hamiruddin NA, Awang NA, Mohd Shahpudin SN, Zaidi NS, Said MAM, Chaplot B, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2021 Nov;84(9):2113-2130.
    PMID: 34810301 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2021.415
    Currently, research trends on aerobic granular sludge (AGS) have integrated the operating conditions of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) towards the stability of AGS systems in various types of wastewater with different physical and biochemical characteristics. More attention is given to the stability of the AGS system for real site applications. Although recent studies have reported comprehensively the mechanism of AGS formation and stability in relation to other intermolecular interactions such as microbial distribution, shock loading and toxicity, standard operating condition control strategies for different types of wastewater have not yet been discussed. Thus, the dimensional multi-layer structural model of AGS is discussed comprehensively in the first part of this review paper, focusing on diameter size, thickness variability of each layer and diffusion factor. This can assist in facilitating the interrelation between disposition and stability of AGS structure to correspond to the changes in wastewater types, which is the main objective and novelty of this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  4. Dahalan FA, Abdullah N, Yuzir A, Olsson G, Salmiati, Hamdzah M, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Apr;181:291-6.
    PMID: 25661308 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.062
    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  5. Nor Anuar A, Ujang Z, van Loosdrecht MC, de Kreuk MK
    Water Sci Technol, 2007;56(7):55-63.
    PMID: 17951868
    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology has been extensively studied recently to improve sludge settling and behaviour in activated sludge systems. The main advantage is that aerobic granular sludge (AGS) can settle very fast in a reactor or clarifier because AGS is compact and has strong structure. It also has good settleability and a high capacity for biomass retention. Several experimental works have been conducted in this study to observe the settling behaviours of AGS. The study thus has two aims: (1) to compare the settling profile of AGS with other sludge flocs and (2) to observe the influence of mechanical mixing and design of the reactor to the settleability of AGS. The first experimental outcome shows that AGS settles after less than 5 min in a depth of 0.4 m compared to other sludge flocs (from sequencing batch reactor, conventional activated sludge and extended aeration) which takes more than 30 min. This study also shows that the turbulence from the mixing mechanism and shear in the reactor provides an insignificant effect on the AGS settling velocity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  6. We ACE, Aris A, Zain NAM, Muda K, Sulaiman S
    Chemosphere, 2021 Jan;263:128209.
    PMID: 33297168 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128209
    The present work investigates the feasibility of aerobic granulation for the treatment of low-medium strength domestic wastewater for long-term operation and effects of a static mixer on the properties and removal performances of the aerobic granules formed. The static mixer was installed in a sequential batch reactor to provide higher hydrodynamic shear force in enhancing the formation of the aerobic granules. Aerobic granules were successfully formed in the domestic wastewater, and the granulation treatment system was sustained for a period of 356 days without granules disintegration. Subsequent to the installation, aerobic granules with a low SVI30 of 41.37 mL/gTSS, average diameter 1.11 mm, granular strength with integrity coefficient 10.4% and regular shape with minimum filamentous outgrowth were formed. Mineral concentrations such as Fe, Mg, Ca and Na as well as composition of protein and polysaccharide in tightly bound-extracellular polymeric substance of the aerobic granules were found to be higher under the effect of the static mixer. However, no significant improvement was observed on the TCOD, NH4+-N and TSS removal performance. Good TCOD and TSS removal performance of above 85% and 90%, respectively and moderate NH4+-N removal performance of about 60% were observed throughout the study. Higher simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) efficiency of 56% was observed after the installation of the static mixer, as compared to 21% prior. Therefore, it may be concluded that the installation of the static mixer significantly improved the properties of aerobic granules formation and SND efficiency but not the TCOD, NH4+-N and TSS removal performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  7. Gobi K, Vadivelu VM
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Jun;161:441-5.
    PMID: 24725384 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.104
    Aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) strategy was applied in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in aerobic granules. The aerobic granules were able to remove 90% of the COD from palm oil mill effluent (POME). The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the POME are the sole source of the PHA accumulation. In this work, 100% removal of propionic and butyric acids in the POME were observed. The highest amount of PHA produced in aerobic granules was 0.6833mgPHA/mgbiomass. The PHA formed was identified as a P (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) P (HB-co-HV).
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  8. Rosman NH, Nor Anuar A, Chelliapan S, Md Din MF, Ujang Z
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Jun;161:155-61.
    PMID: 24704837 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.047
    The influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT, 24, 12, and 6h) on the physical characteristics of granules and performance of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating rubber wastewater was investigated. Results showed larger granular sludge formation at HRT of 6h with a mean size of 2.0±0.1mm, sludge volume index of 20.1mLg(-1), settling velocity of 61mh(-1), density of 78.2gL(-1) and integrity coefficient of 9.54. Scanning electron microscope analyses revealed different morphology of microorganisms and structural features of granules when operated at various HRT. The results also demonstrated that up to 98.4% COD reduction was achieved when the reactor was operated at low HRT (6h). Around 92.7% and 89.5% removal efficiency was noted for ammonia and total nitrogen in the granular SBR system during the treatment of rubber wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  9. Nor-Anuar A, Ujang Z, van Loosdrecht MC, de Kreuk MK, Olsson G
    Water Sci Technol, 2012;65(2):309-16.
    PMID: 22233910 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.837
    Aerobic granular sludge has a number of advantages over conventional activated sludge flocs, such as cohesive and strong matrix, fast settling characteristic, high biomass retention and ability to withstand high organic loadings, all aspects leading towards a compact reactor system. Still there are very few studies on the strength of aerobic granules. A procedure that has been used previously for anaerobic granular sludge strength analysis was adapted and used in this study. A new coefficient was introduced, called a stability coefficient (S), to quantify the strength of the aerobic granules. Indicators were also developed based on the strength analysis results, in order to categorize aerobic granules into three levels of strength, i.e. very strong (very stable), strong (stable) and not strong (not stable). The results indicated that aerobic granules grown on acetate were stronger (high density: >150 g T SSL(-1) and low S value: 5%) than granules developed on sewage as influent. A lower value of S indicates a higher stability of the granules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  10. Muda K, Aris A, Salim MR, Ibrahim Z, van Loosdrecht MC, Ahmad A, et al.
    Water Res, 2011 Oct 15;45(16):4711-21.
    PMID: 21714982 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.05.012
    The physical characteristics, microbial activities and kinetic properties of the granular sludge biomass were investigated under the influence of different hydraulic retention times (HRT) along with the performance of the system in removal of color and COD of synthetic textile wastewater. The study was conducted in a column reactor operated according to a sequential batch reactor with a sequence of anaerobic and aerobic reaction phases. Six stages of different HRTs and different anaerobic and aerobic reaction time were evaluated. It was observed that the increase in HRT resulted in the reduction of organic loading rate (OLR). This has caused a decrease in biomass concentration (MLSS), reduction in mean size of the granules, lowered the settling ability of the granules and reduction of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), overall specific biomass growth rate (ìoverall), endogeneous decay rate (kd) and biomass yield (Yobs, Y). When the OLR was increased by adding carbon sources (glucose, sodium acetate and ethanol), there was a slight increase in the MLSS, the granules mean size, ìoverall, and biomass yield. Under high HRT, increasing the anaerobic to aerobic reaction time ratio caused an increase in the concentration of MLSS, mean size of granules and lowered the SVI value and biomass yield. The ìoverall and biomass yield increased with the reduction in anaerobic/aerobic time ratio. The HRT of 24 h with anaerobic and aerobic reaction time of 17.8 and 5.8 h respectively appear to be the best cycle operation of SBR. Under these conditions, not only the physical properties of the biogranules have improved, the highest removal of color (i.e. 94.1±0.6%) and organics (i.e. 86.5±0.5%) of the synthetic textile dyeing wastewater have been achieved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis; Anaerobiosis
  11. Omar AH, Muda K, Majid ZA, Affam AC, Ezechi EH
    Water Environ Res, 2020 Jan;92(1):73-83.
    PMID: 31276251 DOI: 10.1002/wer.1177
    Biogranulation is an effective biological technology suitable for the treatment of various wastewaters. However, the major drawback of this technique is the long start-up period for biogranule development. Hence, the primary focus of this study was on cell surface hydrophobicity which is the main parameter that indicates cell agglomeration during the initial self-immobilization process of aerobic granulation. The effects of sludge concentration and magnetic activated carbon on cell surface hydrophobicity were investigated in this study. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design, analyze, and optimize the outcome of the study. Experiments were performed at sludge concentration of 1,000-3,000 mg/L and magnetic activated carbon mass of 1-5 g/L with 24 hr of aeration time. The results show that both variables yielded a positive significant effect on the initial development of aerobic granulation with 56% surface hydrophobicity. Interaction effects between variables on the responses were significant with positive estimated interaction effect at all different measured aeration time. The magnetic activated carbon acted as nuclei to induce bacterial attachment and further enhanced the initial process of biogranule development under optimal condition of 1:1.1 (sludge concentration: magnetic activated carbon). PRACTITIONER POINTS: Cell surface hydrophobicity was evaluated Magnetic activated carbon enhanced cell surface hydrophobicity Response surface methodology was employed for analyses Magnetic activate carbon mass and biomass concentration was significant Magnetic activated carbon acted as nuclei to improve biogranulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  12. Basri HF, Anuar AN, Halim MHA, Yuzir MA, Muda K, Omoregie AI, et al.
    Environ Monit Assess, 2023 Feb 21;195(3):420.
    PMID: 36809517 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-023-11028-9
    This paper presents an assessment of the start-up performance of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for the treatment of low-strength (chemical oxygen demand, COD 
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  13. Anwar MP, Juraimi AS, Samedani B, Puteh A, Man A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:603043.
    PMID: 22778701 DOI: 10.1100/2012/603043
    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7-49 days after seeding in off-season and 7-53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23-40 days in off-season and 21-43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21-43 days for better yield and higher economic return.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  14. Chong TL, Matsufuji Y, Hassan MN
    Waste Manag, 2005;25(7):702-11.
    PMID: 16009304
    Most of the existing solid waste landfill sites in developing countries are practicing either open dumping or controlled dumping. Proper sanitary landfill concepts are not fully implemented due to technological and financial constraints. Implementation of a fully engineered sanitary landfill is necessary and a more economically feasible landfill design is crucial, particularly for developing countries. This study was carried out by focusing on the economics from the development of a new landfill site within a natural clay area with no cost of synthetic liner up to 10 years after its closure by using the Fukuoka method semi-aerobic landfill system. The findings of the study show that for the development of a 15-ha landfill site in Malaysia with an estimated volume of 2,000,000 m(3), the capital investment required was about US 1,312,895 dollars, or about US 0.84 dollars/tonne of waste. Assuming that the lifespan of the landfill is 20 years, the total cost of operation was about US 11,132,536 dollars or US 7.15 dollars/tonne of waste. The closure cost of the landfill was estimated to be US 1,385,526 dollars or US 0.89 dollars/tonne of waste. Therefore, the total cost required to dispose of a tonne of waste at the semi-aerobic landfill was estimated to be US 8.89 dollars. By considering an average tipping fee of about US 7.89 dollars/tonne of waste in Malaysia in the first year, and an annual increase of 3% to about US 13.84 dollars in year-20, the overall system recorded a positive revenue of US 1,734,749 dollars. This is important information for the effort of privatisation of landfill sites in Malaysia, as well as in other developing countries, in order to secure efficient and effective landfill development and management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  15. Gobi K, Vadivelu VM
    Bioresour Technol, 2015;189:169-176.
    PMID: 25889804 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.04.023
    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) recovery from aerobic granules was investigated using four cell digestion agents, namely, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, acetone and sodium chloride. Simultaneously, the removal of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and its effect on PHA yield were investigated. The highest PHA recovery yield was obtained using sodium hypochlorite, accounting for 89% cell dry weight (CDW). The highest PHA was recovered after the sodium hypochlorite completely removed the EPS from the aerobic granules. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the PHA recovered using sodium hypochlorite was 5.31 × 10(5)g/mol with only 1.8% molecular weight degradation. The energy and duration analysis for PHA recovery revealed that the sodium hypochlorite method required the least amount of energy and time at 0.0561 MJ/g PHA and 26 h, respectively. The PHA that was recovered was a P3(HB-co-HV) co-polymer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  16. Nittami T, Mukai M, Uematsu K, Yoon LW, Schroeder S, Chua ASM, et al.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2017 Dec;101(23-24):8607-8619.
    PMID: 29063174 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-017-8571-3
    Previous studies have shown that enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) performance under continuous aerobic conditions always eventually deteriorates; however, the speed at which this happens depends on the carbon source supplied. The published data suggest that propionate is a better carbon source than acetate is for maintaining operational stability, although it is not clear why. A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor was run initially under conventional anaerobic/aerobic conditions with either acetate or propionate as the carbon source. Chemical and microbiological analyses revealed that both sources performed as expected for such systems. When continuous aerobic conditions were imposed on both these established communities, marked shifts of the "Candidatus Accumulibacter" clades were recorded for both carbon sources. Here, we discuss whether this shift could explain the prolonged EBPR stability observed with propionate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  17. Teh AHT, Lee SM, Dykes GA
    Food Microbiol., 2017 Feb;61:120-125.
    PMID: 27697161 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2016.09.008
    Campylobacter jejuni survival in aerobic environments has been suggested to be mediated by biofilm formation. Biofilm formation by eight C. jejuni strains under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions in different broths (Mueller-Hinton (MH), Bolton and Brucella) was quantified. The dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the broths under both incubation atmospheres was determined. Biofilm formation for all strains was highest in MH broth under both incubation atmospheres. Four strains had lower biofilm formation in MH under aerobic as compared to microaerobic incubation, while biofilm formation by the other four strains did not differ under the 2 atm. Two strains had higher biofilm formation under aerobic as compared to microaerobic atmospheres in Bolton broth. Biofilm formation by all other strains in Bolton, and all strains in Brucella broth, did not differ under the 2 atm. Under aerobic incubation DO levels in MH > Brucella > Bolton broth. Under microaerobic conditions levels in MH = Brucella > Bolton broth. Levels of DO in MH and Brucella broth were lower under microaerobic conditions but those of Bolton did not differ under the 2 atm. Experimental conditions and especially the DO of broth media confound previous conclusions drawn about aerobic biofilm formation by C. jejuni.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  18. Purba LDA, Zahra SA, Yuzir A, Iwamoto K, Abdullah N, Shimizu K, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2023 May 01;333:117374.
    PMID: 36758398 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.117374
    Despite various research works on algal-bacterial aerobic granular sludge for wastewater treatment and resource recovery processes, limited information is available on its application in real wastewater treatment in terms of performance, microbial community variation and resource recovery. This study investigated the performance of algal-bacterial aerobic granular sludge on real low-strength wastewater treatment in addition to the characterization of microbial community and fatty acid compositions for biodiesel production. The results demonstrated 71% COD, 77% NH4+-N and 31% phosphate removal efficiencies, respectively. In addition, all the water parameters successfully met the effluent standard A, imposed by the Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia. Core microbiome analyses revealed important microbial groups (i.e., Haliangium ochraceum, Burkholderiales and Chitinophagaceae) in bacterial community. Meanwhile the photosynthetic microorganisms, such as Oxyphotobacteria and Trebouxiophyceae dominated the algal-bacterial aerobic granular sludge, suggesting their important roles in granulation and wastewater treatment. Up to 12.51 mg/gSS lipid content was recovered from the granules. In addition, fatty acids composition showed high percetages of C16:0 and C18:0, demonstrating high feasibility to be used for biodiesel production application indicated by the cetane number, iodine value and oxidation stability properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
  19. Harun H, Anuar AN, Ujang Z, Rosman NH, Othman I
    Water Sci Technol, 2014;69(11):2252-7.
    PMID: 24901619 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2014.156
    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) has been applied to treat a broad range of industrial and municipal wastewater. AGS can be developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with alternating anaerobic-aerobic conditions. To provide anaerobic conditions, the mixed liquor is allowed to circulate in the reactor without air supply. The circulation flow rate of mixed liquor in anaerobic condition is the most important parameter of operation in the anaerobic-AGS processes. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of circulation rate on the performance of the SBR with AGS. Two identical reactors namely R1 and R2 were operated using fermented soy sauce wastewater at circulation rate of 14.4 and 36.0 l/h, respectively. During the anaerobic conditions, the wastewater was pumped out from the upper part of the reactor and circulated back into the bottom of the reactor for 230 min. A compact and dense AGS was observed in both reactors with a similar diameter of 2.0 mm in average, although different circulation rates were adopted. The best reactor performance was achieved in R2 with chemical oxygen demand removal rate of 89%, 90% total phosphorus removal, 79% ammonia removal, 10.1 g/l of mixed liquor suspended solids and a sludge volume index of 25 ml/g.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis; Anaerobiosis
  20. Panhwar QA, Radziah O, Zaharah AR, Sariah M, Razi IM
    J Environ Biol, 2011 Sep;32(5):607-12.
    PMID: 22319876
    Use of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) as inoculants has concurrently increased phosphorous uptake in plants and improved yields in several crop species. The ability of PSB to improve growth of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) through enhanced phosphorus (P) uptake from Christmas island rock phosphate (RP) was studied in glasshouse experiments. Two isolated PSB strains; Bacillus spp. PSB9 and PSB16, were evaluated with RP treatments at 0, 30 and 60 kg ha(-1). Surface sterilized seeds of aerobic rice were planted in plastic pots containing 3 kg soil and the effect of treatments incorporated at planting were observed over 60 days of growth. The isolated PSB strains (PSB9 and PSB16) solubilized significantly high amounts of P (20.05-24.08 mg kg(-1)) compared to non-inoculated (19-23.10 mg kg(-1)) treatments. Significantly higher P solubilization (24.08 mg kg(-1)) and plant P uptake (5.31 mg plant(-1)) was observed with the PSB16 strain at the highest P level of 60 kg ha(-1). The higher amounts of soluble P in the soil solution increased P uptake in plants and resulted in higher plant biomass (21.48 g plant(-1)). PSB strains also increased plant height (80 cm) and improved root morphology in aerobic rice. The results showed that inoculation of aerobic rice with PSB improved phosphate solubilizing activity of incorporated RP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aerobiosis
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