To suffice the escalating global energy demand, microalgae are deemed as high potential surrogate feedstocks for liquid fuels. The major encumbrance for the commercialization of microalgae cultivation is due to the high costs of nutrients such as carbon, phosphorous, and nitrogen. Meanwhile, the organic-rich anaerobic digestate which is difficult to be purified by conventional techniques is appropriate to be used as a low-cost nutrient source for the economic viability and sustainability of microalgae production. This option is also beneficial in terms of reutilize the organic fraction of solid waste instead of discarded as zero-value waste. Anaerobic digestate is the side product of biogas production during anaerobic digestion process, where optimum nutrients are needed to satisfy the physiological needs to grow microalgae. Besides, the turbidity, competing biological contaminants, ammonia and metal toxicity of the digestate are also potentially contributing to the inhibition of microalgae growth. Thus, this review is aimed to explicate the feasibility of utilizing the anaerobic digestate to cultivate microalgae by evaluating their potential challenges and solutions. The proposed potential solutions (digestate dilution and pre-treatment, microalgae strain selection, extra organics addition, nitrification and desulfurization) corresponding to the state-of-the-art challenges are applicable as future directions of the research.
The application of the anammox process has great potential in treating nitrogen-rich wastewater. The presence of Fe (II) is expected to affect the growth and activity of anammox bacteria. Short-term (acute) and long-term effects (chronic) of Fe (II) on anammox activity were investigated. In the short-term study, results demonstrated that the optimum concentration of Fe (II) that could be added to anammox is 0.08 mM, at which specific anammox activity (SAA) improved by 60% compared to the control assay, 0.00 mM. The inhibition concentration, IC50, of Fe (II) was found to be 0.192 mM. Kinetics of anammox specific growth rate were estimated based on results of the batch test and evaluated with Han-Levenspiel's substrate inhibition kinetics model. The optimum concentration and IC50 of Fe (II) predicted by the Han-Levenspiel model was similar to the batch test, with values of 0.07 mM and 0.20 mM, respectively. The long-term effect of Fe (II) on the performance of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was evaluated. Results showed that an appropriate Fe (II) addition enhanced anammox activity, achieving 85% NH4+-N and 96% NO2--N removal efficiency when 0.08 mM of Fe (II) was added. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was adopted to detect and identify the anammox bacteria.
The UASB process among other treatment methods has been recognized as a core method of an advanced technology for environmental protection. This paper highlights the treatment of seven types of wastewaters i.e. palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillery wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, piggery wastewater, dairy wastewater, fishery wastewater and municipal wastewater (black and gray) by UASB process. The purpose of this study is to explore the pollution load of these wastewaters and their treatment potential use in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process. The general characterization of wastewater, treatment in UASB reactor with operational parameters and reactor performance in terms of COD removal and biogas production are thoroughly discussed in the paper. The concrete data illustrates the reactor configuration, thus giving maximum awareness about upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for further research. The future aspects for research needs are also outlined.
Desulfotomaculum copahuensis strain CINDEFI1 is a novel spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the Copahue volcano area, Argentina. Here, we present its draft genome in which we found genes related with the anaerobic respiration of sulfur compounds similar to those present in the Copahue environment.
The anaerobic treatment of leachate from a municipal waste transfer station in Malaysia was tested using a pilot scale anaerobic biofilm digester system that was operated under HRT sequence of 30-day, 25-day, 20-day and 10-day for 163 days under mesophilic conditions. Despite the leachate's complex characteristics, the system showed great performance given its maximum COD, BOD5 and total phosphorus removal efficiencies of 98 ± 1%, 99 ± 1% and 92 ± 9% respectively. The system was stable throughout its operation and showed optimal average values for the monitored parameters such as pH (7.53 ± 0.14), total VFA (79 ± 66 mg HOAc/L), alkalinity (10,919 ± 1556 mg CaCO3/L) and a non-toxic value for accumulated ammonia (960 ± 106 mg NH3-N/L). Measurement of the average daily biogas production yielded a value of 25 ± 1 m3/day throughout the system's operation with a composition of 57 ± 12% methane and 26 ± 6% carbon dioxide.
Two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a promising method for converting the waste from the largest agricultural industry in Southeast Asia into a clean and sustainable energy. This study investigates the degradation of acid-rich effluent from the dark fermentation stage for the production of biomethane (BioCH4) in a 30-L continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). The continuous methanogenic process was operated with varied HRTs (10 - 1 day) and OLRs (4.6-40.6 gCOD/L.d-1) under thermophilic conditions. Methanothermobacter sp. was the dominant thermophilic archaea that was responsible for the production rate of 4.3 LCH4/LPOME.d-1 and methane yield of 256.77 LCH4kgCOD at HRT of 2 d, which is the lowest HRT reported in the literature. The process was able to digest 85% and 64% of the initial POME's COD and TSS, respectively. The formation of methane producing granules (MPG) played a pivotal role in sustaining the efficient and productive anaerobic system. We report herein that the anaerobic digestion was not only beneficial in reducing the contaminants in the liquid effluent, but generating BioCH4 gas with a positive net energy gain of 7.6 kJ/gCOD.
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes is among the most promising approaches used for the simultaneous treatment of various waste streams, environment conservation, and renewable bioenergy generation (biomethane). Among the latest innovations investigated to enhance the overall performance of this process both qualitatively and quantitatively, the application of some nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted a great deal of attention. Typically, the NPs of potential benefit to the AD process could be divided into three groups: (i) zero-valent iron (ZVI) NPs, (ii) metallic and metal oxides NPs, and (iii) carbon-based NPs. The present review focuses on the latest findings reported on the application of these NPs in AD process and presents their various mechanisms of action leading to higher or lower biogas production rates. Among the NPs studies, ZVI NPs could be regarded as the most promising nanomaterials for enhancing biogas production through stabilizing the AD process as well as by stimulating the growth of beneficial microorganisms to the AD process and the enzymes involved. Future research should focus on various attributes of NPs when used as additives in biogas production, including facilitating mixing and pumping operations, enriching the population and diversity of beneficial microorganisms for AD, improving biogas release, and inducing the production and activity of AD-related enzymes. The higher volume of methane-enriched biogas would be translated into higher returns on investment and could therefore, result in further growth of the biogas production industry. Nevertheless, efforts should be devoted to decreasing the price of NPs so that the enhanced biogas and methane production (by over 90%, compared to control) would be more economically justified, facilitating the large-scale application of these compounds. In addition to economic considerations, environmental issues are also regarded as major constraints which should be addressed prior to widespread implementation of NP-augmented AD processes. More specifically, the fate of NPs augmented in AD process should be scrutinized to ensure maximal beneficial impacts while adverse environmental/health consequences are minimized.
Anaerobic digestion is a promising way for resource recovery from waste cooking oil (WCO) due to its high bio-methanation potential. In-situ mild alkaline (pH 8) enhanced two-stage continuous stirred tank reactors (ALK-2-CSTRs) were implemented to explore its efficiency in co-digesting WCO and sewage sludge with stepwise increase of WCO in the co-substrates. Results demonstrate that the ALK-2-CSTRs effectively promoted methane yield from the co-substrates via promoting hydrolysis, long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) degradation and protecting methanogens from exposure to high concentration of LCFAs directly. The maximum methane yield of the ALK-2-CSTRs is 39.2% higher than that of a single stage CSTR system at the optimal feed mixture of 45:55 (WCO:SS [VS]). The thermophilic operation applied to the stage-1 of the ALK-2-CSTRs failed to improve the methane yield when the methanogenic performance was stable; while upon WCO overloaded, the elevated temperature mitigated the deterioration of methanogenesis by stimulating the bioconversion of the toxic LCFAs, especially the unsaturated oleic acid. Microbial community analysis reveals the ALK-2-CSTRs stimulated the growth of lipolytic bacteria and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which suggests the hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway was promoted. Cost evaluation demonstrates the economical superiority of the ALK-2-CSTR over the prevailing strategies developed for enhancing methane yield from the co-substrates.
A novel coupling process using an aerobic bacterial reactor with nitrification and sulfur-oxidization functions followed by a microalgal reactor was proposed for simultaneous biogas desulfurization and anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) treatment. ADE nitrified by bacteria has a potential to be directly used as a culture medium for microalgae because ammonium nitrogen, including inhibitory free ammonia (NH3), has been converted to harmless NO3-. To demonstrate this hypothesis, Chlorella sorokiniana NIES-2173, which has ordinary NH3 tolerance; that is, 1.6 mM of EC50 compared with other species, was cultivated using untreated/treated ADE. Compared with the use of a synthetic medium, when using ADE with 1-10-fold dilutions, the specific growth rate and growth yield maximally decreased by 44% and 88%, respectively. In contrast, the algal growth using undiluted ADE treated by nitrification-desulfurization was almost the same as with using synthetic medium. It was also revealed that 50% of PO43- and most metal concentrations of ADE decreased following nitrification-desulfurization treatment. Moreover, upon NaOH addition for pH adjustment, the salinity increased to 0.66%. The decrease in metals mitigates the bioconcentration of toxic heavy metals from wastewater in microalgal biomass. Meanwhile, salt stress in microalgae and limiting nutrient supplementation, particularly for continuous cultivation, should be of concern.
A comprehensive exergoeconomic performance analysis of a municipal solid waste digestion plant integrated with a biogas genset was conducted throughout this study in order to highlight its bottlenecks for further improvements. Exergoeconomic performance parameters of each component of the plant were determined by solving exergy and cost balance equations based on Specific Exergy Costing (SPECO) approach. The analysis was conducted to reveal the cost structure of the plant based on actual operating information and economic data. The exergy unitary cost of two main products of the plant, i.e., bioelectricity and biofertilizer were determined at 26.27 and 2.27 USD/GJ, respectively. The genset showed the highest overall cost rate (101.27 USD/h) followed by digester (68.41 USD/h). Furthermore, the net bioelectricity amounted to 67.81% of the overall cost rate of the products, while this value was 32.19% for both liquid and dewatered digestates. According to the results obtained, efforts should mainly focus on enhancing the efficiency of the genset in order to boost the overall performance of the system exergoeconomically. In addition, minimizing the investment-related cost of the digester could also substantially enhance the exergoeconomic performance of the plant.
Oil and grease, carbohydrate, protein, and lignin are the main constituents of high strength wastewaters such as dairy wastewater, cheese whey wastewater, distillery wastewater, pulp and paper mill wastewater, and slaughterhouse wastewaters. These constituents have contributed to various operational problems faced by the high-rate anaerobic bioreactor (HRAB). During the hydrolysis stage of anaerobic digestion (AD), these constituents can be hydrolyzed. Since hydrolysis is known to be the rate-limiting step of AD, the overall AD can be enhanced by improving the hydrolysis stage. This can be done by introducing pretreatment that targets the degradation of these constituents. This review mainly focuses on the biological pretreatment on various high-strength wastewaters by using different types of enzymes namely lipase, amylase, protease, and ligninolytic enzymes which are responsible for catalyzing the degradation of oil and grease, carbohydrate, protein, and lignin respectively. This review provides a summary of enzymatic systems involved in enhancing the hydrolysis stage and consequently improve biogas production. The results show that the use of enzymes improves the biogas production in the range of 7 to 76%. Though these improvements are highly dependent on the operating conditions of pretreatment and the types of substrates. Therefore, the critical parameters that would affect the effectiveness of pretreatment are also discussed. This review paper will serve as a useful piece of information to those industries that face difficulties in treating their high-strength wastewaters for the appropriate process, equipment selection, and design of an anaerobic enzymatic system. However, more intensive studies on the optimum operating conditions of pretreatment in a larger-scale and synergistic effects between enzymes are necessary to make the enzymatic pretreatment economically feasible.
In the current scenario, alternative energy sources are the need of the hour. Organic wastes having a larger fraction of biodegradable constituents present a sustainable bioenergy source. It has been reported that the calorific value of biogas generated by anaerobic digestion (AD) is 21-25 MJ/m3 with the treatment which makes it an excellent replacement of natural gas and fossil fuels and can reduce more than 80% greenhouse gas emission to the surroundings. However, there are some limitations associated with the AD process for instance ammonia build-up at the first stage reduces the rate of hydrolysis of biomass, whereas, in the last stage it interferes with methane formation. Owing to special physicochemical properties such as high activity, high reactive surface area, and high specificity, tailor-made conductive nanoparticles can improve the performance of the AD process. In the AD process, H2 is used as an electron carrier, referred as mediated interspecies electron transfer (MIET). Due to the diffusion limitation of these electron carriers, the MIET efficiency is relatively low that limits the methanogenesis. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET), which enables direct cell-to-cell electron transport between bacteria and methanogen, has been considered an alternative efficient approach to MIET that creates metabolically favorable conditions and results in faster conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane. This paper discusses in detail the application of conductive nanoparticles to enhance the AD process efficiency. Interaction between microbes in anaerobic conditions for electron transfer with the help of CNPs is discussed. Application of a variety of conductive nanomaterials as an additive is discussed with their potential biogas production and treatment enhancement in the anaerobic digestion process.
A pilot scale anaerobic degradation of sugarcane vinasse was carried out at various hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the Anaerobic Suspended Growth Closed Bioreactor (ASGCB) under thermophilic temperature. The performance and kinetics were evaluated through the Haldane-Andrews model to investigate the substrate inhibition potential of sugarcane vinasse. All parameters show great performance between HRT 35 and 25 days: chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction efficiency (81.6 to 86.8%), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reduction efficiency (92.4 to 98.5%), maximum methane yield (70%) and maximum biogas production (19.35 L/day). Furthermore, steady state values from various HRT were obtained in the kinetic evaluation for: rXmax (1.20 /day), Ks (19.95 gCOD/L), Ki (7.00 gCOD/L) and [Formula: see text] (0.33 LCH4/gCOD reduction). This study shows that anaerobic degradation of sugarcane vinasse through ASGCB could perform well at high HRT and provides a low degree of substrate inhibition as compared to existing studies from literature.
Landfill leachate can threaten the environment and human life. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the efficiency of ozone (O3 ), O3 with zirconium tetrachloride (O3 /ZrCl4 ), and O3 with tin tetrachloride (O3 /SnCl4 ) in remediating the stabilized anaerobic landfill leachate (SAL) from Alor Pongsu, Perak. Hydroxyl radical (OH•) is an important oxidizing agent in the ozonation process. Its presence was tested using tert-butyl alcohol. Results showed that using ZrCl4 and SnCl4 in ozonation boosted the generation of hydroxyl radical, thereby enhancing the oxidation process and pollutant removal inside the sample. The O3 /ZrCl4 mix at chemical oxygen demand (COD) to ZrCl4 ratio of 1:1.5, pH 8-9, and 90-min reaction time resulted in the highest reduction rates of COD and color at 91.9% and 99.6%, respectively. All results demonstrated that the optimum performance occurred at alkaline conditions (pH > 8), proving that OH radicals primarily oxidized the pollutants through an indirect reaction pathway. The biodegradability (biochemical oxygen demand/COD) ratio was also considerably improved from 0.02 (raw) to 0.37 using O3 /ZrCl4 , compared with using O3 alone and using O3 /SnCl4 , which only recorded 0.23 and 0.28, respectively, after the treatment. The study demonstrated that O3 /ZrCl4 was the most efficient combination. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The O3 /ZrCl4 recorded the highest COD and color removals. The O3 /ZrCl4 combination also recorded higher OH• concentrations. The biodegradability of leachate (BOD5 /COD ratio) improved from 0.02 to 0.37.
In this study, the interactive effects of feed flow rate (QF) and up-flow velocity (V up) on the performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed film (UASFF) reactor treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) were investigated. Long-term performance of the UASFF reactor was first examined with raw POME at a hydraulic loading rate (HRT) of 3 d and an influent COD concentration of 44300 mg/l. Extreme reactor instability was observed after 25 d. Raw POME was then chemically pretreated and used as feed. Anaerobic digestion of pretreated POME was modeled and analyzed with two operating variables, i.e. feed flow rate and up-flow velocity. Experiments were conducted based on a central composite face-centered design (CCFD) and analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). The region of exploration for digestion of the pretreated POME was taken as the area enclosed by the feed flow rate (1.01, 7.63 l/d) and up-flow velocity (0.2, 3 m/h) boundaries. Twelve dependent parameters were either directly measured or calculated as response. These parameters were total COD (TCOD) removal, soluble COD (SCOD) removal, effluent pH, effluent total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), effluent bicarbonate alkalinity (BA), effluent total suspended solids (TSS), CH4 percentage in biogas, methane yield (Y M), specific methanogenic activity (SMA), food-to-sludge ratio (F/M), sludge height in the UASB portion and solid retention time (SRT). The optimum conditions for POME treatment were found to be 2.45 l/d and 0.75 m/h for QF and V up, respectively (corresponding to HRT of 1.5 d and recycle ratio of 23.4:1). The present study provides valuable information about interrelations of quality and process parameters at different values of the operating variables.
Selecting a suitable Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method is a crucial stage to establish a Solid Waste Management (SWM) system. Main objective of the current study is to demonstrate and evaluate a proposed method using Multiple Criteria Decision Making methods (MCDM). An improved version of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) applied to obtain the best municipal solid waste management method by comparing and ranking the scenarios. Applying this method in order to rank treatment methods is introduced as one contribution of the study. Besides, Viekriterijumsko Kompromisno Rangiranje (VIKOR) compromise solution method applied for sensitivity analyses. The proposed method can assist urban decision makers in prioritizing and selecting an optimized Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) treatment system. Besides, a logical and systematic scientific method was proposed to guide an appropriate decision-making. A modified TOPSIS methodology as a superior to existing methods for first time was applied for MSW problems. Applying this method in order to rank treatment methods is introduced as one contribution of the study. Next, 11 scenarios of MSW treatment methods are defined and compared environmentally and economically based on the waste management conditions. Results show that integrating a sanitary landfill (18.1%), RDF (3.1%), composting (2%), anaerobic digestion (40.4%), and recycling (36.4%) was an optimized model of integrated waste management. An applied decision-making structure provides the opportunity for optimum decision-making. Therefore, the mix of recycling and anaerobic digestion and a sanitary landfill with Electricity Production (EP) are the preferred options for MSW management.
The treatment of high-strength organic brewery wastewater with added acetaminophen (AAP) by an anaerobic digester was investigated. An anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) was operated as a continuous process with an organic loading rate of 1.5-g COD per litre per day and a hydraulic retention time of three days. The results of steady-state analysis showed that the greatest APBR performances for removing COD and TOC were as high as 98 and 93%, respectively, even though the anaerobic digestibility after adding the different AAP concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mg L(-1) into brewery wastewater can affect the efficiency of organic matter removal. The average CH4 production decreased from 81 to 72% is counterbalanced by the increased CO2 production from 11 to 20% before and after the injection of AAP, respectively. The empirical kinetic models for substrate utilisation and CH4 production were used to predict that, under unfavourable conditions, the performance of the APBR treatment process is able to remove COD with an efficiency of only 6.8%.
The current study investigated the effects of S2O8(2-) and S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation processes on the biodegradable characteristics of an anaerobic stabilized leachate. Total COD removal efficiency was found to be 46% after S2O8(2-) oxidation (using 4.2 g S2O8(2-)/1g COD0, at pH 7, for 60 min reaction time and at 350 rpm shaking speed), and improved to 81% following S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation process (using 5.88 g S2O8(2-) dosage, 8.63 g H2O2 dosage, at pH 11 and for 120 min reaction time at 350 rpm). Biodegradability in terms of BOD5/COD ratio of the leachate enhanced from 0.09 to 0.1 and to 0.17 following S2O8(2-) and S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation processes, respectively. The fractions of COD were determined before and after each oxidation processes (S2O8(2-) and S2O8(2-)/H2O2). The fraction of biodegradable COD(bi) increased from 36% in raw leachate to 57% and 68% after applying S2O8(2-) and S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation, respectively. As for soluble COD(s), its removal efficiency was 39% and 78% following S2O8(2-) and S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation, respectively. The maximum removal for particulate COD was 94% and was obtained after 120 min of S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation. As a conclusion, S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation could be an efficient method for improving the biodegradability of anaerobic stabilized leachate.
Anaerobic co-digestion has made a greater impact on the biogas production from mixing different type of waste. In this research, sewage sludge (SS) and cow manure (CM), was used as a primary waste along with kitchen waste (KW), yard waste (YW), floral waste (FW) and dairy wastewater (DWW) as co-substrate for anaerobic digestion. Mixtures with a ratio of 1:2 ratio is fed into a single stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Digestion was carried out in a mesophilic temperature range for 20 days. pH and VFA were measured and ranged from 5 to 7.5 and 3500-500 mg/L, respectively, for all the mixtures throughout the digestion period. Percentage of COD removal efficiency after 20 days was found to be in the range of 76-86%. The maximum biogas production rate was found to be 4500 mL/day. Characterization of the final residue from each of the digesters was carried out by Scanning Electron microscope, Energy dispersive, thermogravimetric, FTIR Spectra, and Atomic microscope. Thermal analysis reveals that spent sludge can be potential waste energy sources.
Anaerobic digestion (AD) serves as a promising alternative for waste treatment and a potential solution to improve the energy supply security. The feasibility of AD has been proven in some of the technologically and agriculturally advanced countries. However, development is still needed for worldwide implementation, especially for AD process dealing with municipal solid waste (MSW). This paper reviews various approaches and stages in the AD of MSW, which used to optimise the biogas production and quality. The assessed stages include pre-treatment, digestion process, post-treatment as well as the waste collection and transportation. The latest approaches and integrated system to improve the AD process are also presented. The stages were assessed in a relatively quantitative manner. The range of energy requirement, carbon emission footprint and the percentage of enhancement are summarised. Thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment is identified to be less suitable for MSW (-5% to +15.4% enhancement), unless conducted in the two-phase AD system. Microwave pre-treatment shows consistent performance in elevating the biogas production of MSW, but the energy consumption (114.24-8,040 kWeh t-1) and carbon emission footprint (59.93-4,217.78 kg CO2 t-1 waste) are relatively high. Chemical (∼0.43 kWeh m-3) and membrane-based (∼0.45 kWeh m-3) post-treatments are suggested to be a lower energy consumption approach for upgrading the biogas. The feasibility in terms of cost (scale up) and other environmental impacts (non-CO2 footprint) needs to be further assessed. This study provides an overview to facilitate further development and extended implementation of AD.