Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

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  1. Saad LB, Hwi KK, Quah T
    PMID: 25371587
    BACKGROUND: There are severe adverse effects of analgesic drugs on human body. Extraction of analgesic drugs from natural products has therefore become the prime objective of the study. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the pomegranate fruit.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antinociceptive activity of ethanol pomegranate extract was examined using three models of pain: the writhing test, the hot tail flick test and the plantar test. The ethanolic extract of pomegranate was administered by oral gavages in doses of (100,150 and 200mg/kg, p.o (orally)), for all the tests and compared with aspirin (100mg/kg, p.o.) which was considered as the standard drug. Phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis of the plant species was carried out.

    RESULTS: In the writhing test, the index of pain inhibition (IPI) was 37% for ethanolic extract of pomegranate (200mg/kg, p.o.), and 59% for aspirin. In the hot tail flick test, the ethanolic extract of pomegranate (200mg/kg, p.o.), has shown significant analgesia reaching its peak at 60 min maximum possible analgesia (MPA), was 24.1% as compared with aspirin 37.5%. Hyperalgesia was successfully induced by the plantar test and the ethanol extract of pomegranate (100,150,200mg/kg, p.o.), reduced the hyperalgesia in a dose dependent manner comparable to aspirin at (100mg/kg, p.o.). HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, ellagic acid and Punicalagins A&B.

    CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that ethanol pomegranate extract has an antinociceptive effect that may be related to the presence of identified phytochemicals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage*
  2. Rus-Anida A, Quah BS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Sep;53(3):204-8.
    PMID: 10968154
    There appears to be a general tendency towards under-usage of analgesics not only in children but also in adults. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of analgesic usage in adults and children admitted for major intra-abdominal surgery. All patients who had intra-abdominal surgery at University Science Malaysia Hospital (USM Hospital) from 1st January to 31st March 1995 were included in the study. Children were patients of 12 years and below and adults were patients above 12 years of age. Data including age, sex, weight, type of analgesics used, the number of patients who had analgesics ordered and administered post-operatively were obtained from the patients' medical record. A total of 48 children and 67 adults were studied. Narcotic analgesics were the most common analgesics ordered both in adults (95.5%) and in children (97%). Post-operative analgesics were ordered significantly more often for adults 67 (100%) than for children 33 (69%) (p < 0.0001). In adults, 70% of patients who had analgesics ordered post-operatively had their analgesics administered, but in children only 39.4% of patients had their analgesics administered (p < 0.001). The most common route of administration was intramuscular in both adults (95.5%) and children (88%). Analgesics were more likely to be administered in the intensive care units (100%) than in the surgical wards (60%) (p = 0.049). Elective or emergency surgery and the time of day when surgery was performed did not affect the frequency of analgesics ordered or administered. In summary, children in this hospital had less analgesics ordered and administered following intra-abdominal surgery compared to adults. The results of this study imply that increased attention should be given to relieve postoperative pain with analgesic drugs in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  3. Delilkan AE
    Med J Malaya, 1970 Jun;24(4):273-7.
    PMID: 4248348
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  4. Menon R
    Med J Malaya, 1970 Sep;25(1):17-20.
    PMID: 4249487
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  5. Chellappan DK, Ng ZY, Wong JY, Hsu A, Wark P, Hansbro N, et al.
    Future Med Chem, 2018 04 01;10(8):839-844.
    PMID: 29620416 DOI: 10.4155/fmc-2017-0245
    Several vesicular systems loaded with curcumin have found their way in the therapeutic applications of several diseases, primarily acting through their immunological pathways. Such systems use particles at a nanoscale range, bringing about their intended use through a range of complex mechanisms. Apart from delivering drug substances into target tissues, these vesicular systems also effectively overcome problems like insolubility and unequal drug distribution. Several mechanisms are explored lately by different workers, and interest over vesicular curcumin has been renewed in the past decade. This commentary discusses several immunological targets in which curcumin is employed in a vesicular form.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage*
  6. Yam MF, Ang LF, Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Aziz HA, Asmawi MZ
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2009 Dec;2(4):280-7.
    PMID: 20633503 DOI: 10.1016/S2005-2901(09)60069-8
    Elephantopus tomentosus is widely used in Asia, especially in Malaysia, for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a 95% ethanol extract of E. tomentosus were investigated in different experimental models. In the anti-inflammation study, 1000 mg/kg of extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema (p < 0.05) and inhibited abdominal permeability compared with control (p < 0.01). The analgesic activity was assayed in several experimental models in mice: (1) hot plate, (2) tail flick, (3) writhing test; and rats: carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test. However, at the doses tested, no significant activity was found in the hot plate test and the tail flick test. E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) increased hyperalgesia pain threshold and inhibited writhing activity. The results suggest that E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg dose is effective in anti-inflammatory and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug type anti-nociception activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage*
  7. Devaraj S, Esfahani AS, Ismail S, Ramanathan S, Yam MF
    Molecules, 2010 Apr;15(4):2925-34.
    PMID: 20428088 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15042925
    Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was used to evaluate the analgesic and toxicity effects in vivo. The extract was standardized using GC-MS, which showed that 1 mg of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract contains 0.1238 mg of xanthorrhizol. The analgesic activity was studied in rats using three different models, namely the hot plate test, tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. The acute oral toxicity was examined by the oral administration of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in mice at doses ranging from 300-5,000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days. Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show significant analgesic effect in the hot plate and tail flick tests. However, in the formalin-induced pain test, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the paw licking time of rats in both early and late phases at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. In the acute oral toxicity study, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show any toxic effects in mice at 5 g/kg. These experimental results suggest that the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract showed peripheral and central antinociceptive activity associated with neurogenic pain as well as a relative absence of toxic effects which could compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage*
  8. Mahadeva S, Yadav H, Rampal S, Goh KL
    Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2010 Apr;105(4):904-12.
    PMID: 20179699 DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2010.26
    The epidemiology and impact of dyspepsia in rural Asia remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the prevalence epidemiology and impact of dyspepsia in a rural Malaysian community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  9. Vijayan R, Tay KH, Tan LB, Loganathan
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Oct;35(5):502-4.
    PMID: 7701371
    One hundred and eighty-three patients undergoing surgery were interviewed twenty-four hours following surgery to assess the quality of pain relief they received in the immediate postoperative period. Interviews were conducted using a standard questionnaire for all patients. They were asked to (1) rate the quality of pain relief they obtained on a Visual Pain Analogue Scale (VPAS-0 being no pain and 10 being the worst imaginable pain); (2) state whether they were happy and satisfied with the pain relief they received; (3) if dissatisfied, they were asked to give their reasons. 37.7% (69 patients) had moderate to severe pain--pain score greater than 6 on the VPAS. Most of these patients had undergone abdominal or major orthopaedic surgery. 32.7% (60 patients) were unhappy with their postoperative pain control. The main reasons for complaint from the patients were that analgesic injections were either not given promptly or were not given at all. The survey also highlighted the inadequate under-administration of narcotic injections in the postoperative period despite orders being written up. It showed there is an urgent need for setting up an Acute Pain Service for better postoperative pain control. An anaesthesiology based Acute Pain Service was started in October 1992.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  10. Chongmelaxme B, Sruamsiri R, Dilokthornsakul P, Dhippayom T, Kongkaew C, Saokaew S, et al.
    Complement Ther Med, 2017 Dec;35:70-77.
    PMID: 29154071 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2017.09.009
    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. known locally as "Plai" in Thai, has been used for treating bruise, sprain and musculoskeletal pain. Several pre-clinical studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of Plai. However, current evidence of clinical effects of Plai is still unclear. This study aimed to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of Plai among all identified indications. Of the 808 articles identified by a systematic review, six studies were included. Four studies were randomized controlled trials, while two studies were quasi-experimental studies involving 178 patients in intervention group and 177 patients in control group. Duration of treatment ranged from 7days to 2 months. Our findings showed that 14% Plai cream had a strong trend of benefits in pain reduction for muscle pain and ankle sprain. However, evidence supporting the effects of Plai on acne vulgaris treatment and anti-histamine effect are still unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  11. Cheng V, Abdul-Aziz MH, Roberts JA, Shekar K
    Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 2019 Feb;15(2):103-112.
    PMID: 30582435 DOI: 10.1080/17425255.2019.1563596
    INTRODUCTION: One major challenge to achieving optimal patient outcome in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is the development of effective dosing strategies in this critically ill patient population. Suboptimal drug dosing impacts on patient outcome as patients on ECMO often require reversal of the underlying pathology with effective pharmacotherapy in order to be liberated of the life-support device. Areas covered: This article provides a concise review of the effective use of antibiotics, analgesics, and sedative by characterizing the specific changes in PK secondary to the introduction of the ECMO support. We also discuss the barriers to achieving optimal pharmacotherapy in patients on ECMO and also the current and potential research that can be undertaken to address these clinical challenges. Expert opinion: Decreased bioavailability due to sequestration of drugs in the ECMO circuit and ECMO induced PK alterations are both significant barriers to optimal drug dosing. Evidence-based drug choices may minimize sequestration in the circuit and would enable safety and efficacy to be maintained. More work to characterize ECMO related pharmacodynamic alterations such as effects of ECMO on hepatic cytochrome system are still needed. Novel techniques to increase target site concentrations should also be explored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage*
  12. Mani V, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB
    Food Funct, 2013 Apr 25;4(4):557-67.
    PMID: 23360913 DOI: 10.1039/c3fo30356j
    The fresh leaves of Murraya koenigii are often added to various dishes in Asian countries due to the delicious taste and flavour that they impart. In the present study, the effect of the total alkaloidal extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (MKA) with respect to anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using different experimental animal models. Oral supplementation of MKA at 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) body weight successfully and dose-dependently reduced the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan, histamine and serotonin as well as formaldehyde-induced arthritis. In addition, the extract (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o.) attenuated the writhing responses induced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and late phase of pain response induced by a subplantar injection of formalin in mice. MKA at higher doses (20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o) reduced the early phase response induced by formalin as well as reaction time on hot plate models. Interestingly, there was no ulcer score with the ulcerogenic effect of MKA. Moreover, all the doses of MKA (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o) showed promising anti-ulcerogenic activity with protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by ethanol plus hydrochloric acid and aspirin models in a dose dependent manner.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage*
  13. Kamaldin MN, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Lajis N, Perimal EK, Akira A, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Apr 10;18(4):4209-20.
    PMID: 23612473 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18044209
    Previous studies have shown that systemic administration of 6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone (flavokawin B, FKB) exerts significant peripheral and central antinociceptive effects in laboratory animals. However, the mechanisms underlying these peripheral and central antinociceptive effects have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the participation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/potassium (K+) channels pathway in the peripheral antinociception induced by FKB. It was demonstrated that intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of FKB (150, 250, 375 and 500 µg/paw) resulted in dose-dependent peripheral antinociception against mechanical hyperalgesia in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia test model in rats. The possibility of FKB having either a central or a systemic effect was excluded since administration of FKB into the right paw did not elicit antinociception in the contralateral paw. Furthermore, peripheral antinociception induced by FKB (500 µg/paw) was significantly reduced when L-arginine (25 µg/paw, i.pl.), Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 50 µg/paw, i.pl.), glibenclamide (300 µg/paw, i.pl.), tetraethylammonium (300 µg/paw, i.pl.) and charybdotoxin (3 µg/paw, i.pl.) were injected before treatment. Taken together, our present data suggest that FKB elicits peripheral antinociception when assessed in the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. In addition, it was also demonstrated that this effect was mediated through interaction of the NO/cGMP/K+ channels signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  14. Ming-Tatt L, Khalivulla SI, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Perimal EK, Khalid MH, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2012 Mar;110(3):275-82.
    PMID: 21967232 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00804.x
    This study investigated the potential antinociceptive efficacy of a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue, 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (BHMC), using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception test models in mice. BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) administered via intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced significant dose-related inhibition in the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test in mice with an ID(50) of 0.15 (0.13-0.18) mg/kg. It was also demonstrated that BHMC produced significant inhibition in both neurogenic (first phase) and inflammatory phases (second phase) of the formalin-induced paw licking test with an ID(50) of 0.35 (0.27-0.46) mg/kg and 0.07 (0.06-0.08) mg/kg, respectively. Similarly, BHMC also exerted significant increase in the response latency period in the hot-plate test. Moreover, the antinociceptive effect of the BHMC in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot-plate test was antagonized by pre-treatment with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Together, these results indicate that the compound acts both centrally and peripherally. In addition, administration of BHMC exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociception induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin with ID(50) of 0.66 (0.41-1.07) mg/kg and 0.42 (0.38-0.51) mg/kg, respectively. Finally, it was also shown that BHMC-induced antinociception was devoid of toxic effects and its antinociceptive effect was associated with neither muscle relaxant nor sedative action. In conclusion, BHMC at all doses investigated did not cause any toxic and sedative effects and produced pronounced central and peripheral antinociceptive activities. The central antinociceptive activity of BHMC was possibly mediated through activation of the opioid system as well as inhibition of the glutamatergic system and TRPV1 receptors, while the peripheral antinociceptive activity was perhaps mediated through inhibition of various inflammatory mediators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  15. Abdulkarim MF, Abdullah GZ, Chitneni M, Salman IM, Ameer OZ, Yam MF, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2010 Nov 04;5:915-24.
    PMID: 21116332 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S13305
    INTRODUCTION: During recent years, there has been growing interest in use of topical vehicle systems to assist in drug permeation through the skin. Drugs of interest are usually those that are problematic when given orally, such as piroxicam, a highly effective anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and analgesic, but with the adverse effect of causing gastrointestinal ulcers. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic activity of a newly synthesized palm oil esters (POEs)-based nanocream containing piroxicam for topical delivery.

    METHODS: A ratio of 25:37:38 of POEs: external phase: surfactants (Tween 80:Span 20, in a ratio 80:20), respectively was selected as the basic composition for the production of a nanocream with ideal properties. Various nanocreams were prepared using phosphate-buffered saline as the external phase at three different pH values. The abilities of these formulae to deliver piroxicam were assessed in vitro using a Franz diffusion cell fitted with a cellulose acetate membrane and full thickness rat skin. These formulae were also evaluated in vivo by comparing their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with those of the currently marketed gel.

    RESULTS: After eight hours, nearly 100% of drug was transferred through the artificial membrane from the prepared formula F3 (phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4 as the external phase) and the marketed gel. The steady-state flux through rat skin of all formulae tested was higher than that of the marketed gel. Pharmacodynamically, nanocream formula F3 exhibited the highest anti- inflammatory and analgesic effects as compared with the other formulae.

    CONCLUSION: The nanocream containing the newly synthesized POEs was successful for trans-dermal delivery of piroxicam.

    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage*
  16. Mohamad AS, Akhtar MN, Zakaria ZA, Perimal EK, Khalid S, Mohd PA, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2010 Nov 25;647(1-3):103-9.
    PMID: 20826146 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.08.030
    The present study examined the potential antinociceptive activity of flavokawin B (6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone), a synthetic chalcone using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models in mice. It was demonstrated that flavokawin B (FKB; 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) administered via both oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition in the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid, with the i.p. route producing antinociception of approximately 7-fold more potent than the p.o. route. It was also demonstrated that FKB produced significant inhibition in the two phases of the formalin-induced paw licking test. In addition, the same treatment of flavokawin B (FKB) exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociceptive induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin. Likewise, this compound also induced a significant increase in the response latency period to thermal stimuli in the hot plate test and its antinociceptive effect was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative action. Moreover, the antinociception effect of the FKB in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot plate test was not affected by pretreatment of non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. The present results indicate that FKB produced pronounced antinociception effect against both chemical and thermal models of pain in mice that exhibited both peripheral and central analgesic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  17. Goh JZ, Tang SN, Chiong HS, Yong YK, Zuraini A, Hakim MN
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:297-303.
    PMID: 25678786 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S75545
    Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities. Liposomes have been shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated drugs. The present study was conducted to compare the antinociceptive properties between liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in vivo via different nociceptive assay models. Liposome-encapsulated diclofenac was prepared using the commercialized proliposome method. Antinociceptive effects of liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac were evaluated using formalin test, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and plantar test. The results of the writhing test showed a significant reduction of abdominal constriction in all treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. The 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac demonstrated the highest antinociceptive effect at 78.97% compared with 55.89% in the free-form group at equivalent dosage. Both liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac produced significant results in the late phase of formalin assay at a dose of 20 mg/kg, with antinociception percentages of 78.84% and 60.71%, respectively. Significant results of antinociception were also observed in both hyperalgesia assays. For Randall-Sellito assay, the highest antinociception effect of 71.38% was achieved with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, while the lowest antinociceptive effect of 17.32% was recorded with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation, whereas in the plantar test, the highest antinociceptive effect was achieved at 56.7% with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, and the lowest effect was shown with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation of 8.89%. The present study suggests that liposome-encapsulated diclofenac exhibits higher antinociceptive efficacy in a dose-dependent manner in comparison with free-form diclofenac.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  18. Yam MF, Asmawi MZ, Basir R
    J Med Food, 2008 Jun;11(2):362-8.
    PMID: 18598181 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2006.065
    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a standardized Orthosiphon stamineus methanol:water (50:50 vol/vol) leaf extract (SEOS) were evaluated in animal models. Oral administration of SEOS at doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg significantly reduced the hind paw edema in rats at 3 and 5 hours after carrageenan administration (P < .01 and P < .01; P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). SEOS (1,000 mg/kg, p.o.) also produced significant (P < .05) analgesic activity in both the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the formalin-induced licking test (late phase) in mice and rats, respectively. However, SEOS showed no effect on the tail flick and hot plate tests in mice. The results of the present study support the proposal that O. stamineus has anti-inflammatory and non-narcotic analgesic activities. These findings justify the traditional use of the plant for treating pain and inflammation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage*
  19. Sulaiman MR, Somchit MN, Israf DA, Ahmad Z, Moin S
    Fitoterapia, 2004 Dec;75(7-8):667-72.
    PMID: 15567242
    The antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Melastoma malabathricum (MME) was investigated using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and hot-plate test in mice. It was demonstrated that the extract (30-300 mg/kg, i.p.) strongly and dose-dependently inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing with an ED(50) of 100 (78-160) mg/kg i.p. It also significantly increased the response latency period to thermal stimuli. Furthermore, the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone blocked the antinociceptive effect of the extract in both tests, suggesting that M. malabathricum may act both at peripheral and central levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
  20. Rahman A, Segasothy M, Samad SA, Zulfiqar A, Rani M
    Headache, 1993 Sep;33(8):442-5.
    PMID: 8262786
    The pattern of analgesic use, abuse and incidence of analgesic-associated nephropathy in 79 patients with chronic headache was studied. Sixty-eight of these patients had migraine. Most patients had consumed a combination of analgesics (81%) while 19% had taken single analgesics for their headache. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the most commonly used analgesics (96.2%) followed by paracetamol (70.9%) and aspirin, phenacetin and caffeine compounds (5.1%). Mefenamic acid was the commonest nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug consumed (97.4%). Analgesic abuse which was defined as a minimum total of 1 kg of analgesics such as paracetamol or aspirin, phenacetin and caffeine compounds or 400 capsules/tablets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was noted in 65 patients. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the most commonly abused analgesics (89.2%) followed by paracetamol (38.5%). Forty-five of the 65 analgesic abusers had an intravenous urogram or ultrasound performed and renal papillary necrosis was documented in one patient. Three (4.6%) of the analgesic abusers had mildly raised serum creatinine levels. Mild proteinuria of less than 1 gm/litre was present in 27.7% of abusers. In conclusion, although analgesic use and abuse is common in patients with chronic headache, the short term incidence of analgesic-associated nephropathy (2.2%) and renal impairment (4.6%) was low. Prolonged observations will be necessary to ascertain the safety of these drugs for long term use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/administration & dosage
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