Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 87 in total

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  1. Baird AH, Guest JR, Edwards AJ, Bauman AG, Bouwmeester J, Mera H, et al.
    Sci Data, 2021 01 29;8(1):35.
    PMID: 33514754 DOI: 10.1038/s41597-020-00793-8
    The discovery of multi-species synchronous spawning of scleractinian corals on the Great Barrier Reef in the 1980s stimulated an extraordinary effort to document spawning times in other parts of the globe. Unfortunately, most of these data remain unpublished which limits our understanding of regional and global reproductive patterns. The Coral Spawning Database (CSD) collates much of these disparate data into a single place. The CSD includes 6178 observations (3085 of which were unpublished) of the time or day of spawning for over 300 scleractinian species in 61 genera from 101 sites in the Indo-Pacific. The goal of the CSD is to provide open access to coral spawning data to accelerate our understanding of coral reproductive biology and to provide a baseline against which to evaluate any future changes in reproductive phenology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/physiology*
  2. Amir F, Yam WS, Koay YC
    Pharmacogn Rev, 2012 Jan;6(11):74-80.
    PMID: 22654408 DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.95894
    The genus Subergorgia (coelenterata, Gorgonacea, Subergorgiidae) is distributed in the Indo-pacific region. Previous investigations on the various species of the genus have revealed the presence of a number of new compounds including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and steroids. Certain biological activities particularly cytotoxic activity have been observed for the isolated constituents and compositions derived from the coral. This review covers the secondary metabolites reported from the genus Subergorgia and their biological properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa
  3. Ishii T, Zhaoqi Z, Vairappan CS
    Molecules, 2010 May 26;15(6):3857-62.
    PMID: 20657412 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15063857
    A new cembrane diterpene, 6-acetoxy-7,8-epoxynephthenol acetate (1) was isolated along with a known compound, epoxynephthenol acetate (2), from the organic extract of a Bornean soft coral Nephthea sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and comparison with those previous literature data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/chemistry*
  4. Robert R, Lee DJ, Rodrigues KF, Hussein MA, Waheed Z, Kumar SV
    Zootaxa, 2016 Nov 29;4200(2):zootaxa.4200.2.2.
    PMID: 27988618 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4200.2.2
    Acropora is the most biologically diverse group of reef-building coral, and its richness peaks at the Indo-Malay-Philippine Archipelago, the centre of global coral reef biodiversity. In this paper, we describe the species richness of Acropora fauna of North Borneo, East Malaysia, based on review of literature and as corroborated by voucher specimens. Eighty-three species of Acropora are reported here; four species are literature based and 79 are supported by voucher specimens that were subsequently photographed. New records for North Borneo were recorded for 12 species, including Acropora suharsonoi Wallace 1994 that was previously thought to be confined to a few islands along Lombok Strait, Indonesia. The diversity of Acropora in North Borneo is comparable to that of Indonesia and the Philippines, despite the area's smaller reef areas. This further reinforces its inclusion as part the global hotspot of coral biodiversity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/classification*
  5. Sharifinia M, Afshari Bahmanbeigloo Z, Smith WO, Yap CK, Keshavarzifard M
    Glob Chang Biol, 2019 Dec;25(12):4022-4033.
    PMID: 31436851 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14808
    Due to extremely high rates of evaporation and low precipitation in the Persian Gulf, discharges from desalination plants (DPs) can lead to ecological stresses by increasing water temperatures, salinities, and heavy metal concentrations, as well as decreasing dissolved oxygen levels. We discuss the potential ecological impacts of DPs on marine organisms and propose mitigating measures to reduce the problems induced by DPs discharges. The daily capacity of DPs in the Persian Gulf exceeds 11 million m3 per day, which is approximately half of global daily freshwater production; multistage flash distillation (MSF) is the dominant desalination process. Results from field and laboratory studies indicate that there are potentially serious and chronic threats to marine communities following exposure to DP discharges, especially within the zoobenthos, echinodermata, seagrasses, and coral reefs. DP discharges can lead to decreases in sensitive species, plankton abundance, hard substrate epifauna, and growth rates of seagrasses. However, the broad applicability of any one of these impacts is currently hard to scale because of the limited number of studies that have been conducted to assess the ecological impacts of DP discharge on Persian Gulf organisms. Even so, available data suggest that appropriately sited, designed, and operated DPs combined with current developments in impingement and entrainment reduction technology can mitigate many of the negative environmental impacts of DPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa*
  6. Ohara T, Hoeksema BW, Wee HB, Reimer JD
    Mar Environ Res, 2021 Aug;170:105445.
    PMID: 34392055 DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2021.105445
    Offshore Onna Village, Okinawa Island, Japan, there is a large and densely covered coral assemblage of free-living mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) on a reef slope at depths from 20 m to 32 m, covering an area of approximately 350 × 40 m2. From previous research, it is known that migration distances of mushroom corals may depend on coral shapes, coral sizes, substrate, and bottom inclination. However, until now there have been no published examples of regular Fungiidae movement and behavior from typhoon-exposed coastlines, such as those in the western Pacific Ocean. Our surveys across three years offshore Onna Village show that mushroom corals always move in down-slope direction from shallow to deeper reef zones. The results indicated that mushroom corals migrated faster in autumn than in other seasons, and that oval-elongate fungiids, and particularly those with a smooth underside, migrated more quickly than species with other shapes. Surprisingly, we observed a negative relationship between the presence of typhoons and migration rates. We also observed active migration by fungiid individuals to escape situations in which they were threatened to become overgrown by Acropora corals, or when they needed to escape from burial underneath coral debris.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa*
  7. Guest JR, Tun K, Low J, Vergés A, Marzinelli EM, Campbell AH, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 11 08;6:36260.
    PMID: 27824083 DOI: 10.1038/srep36260
    Coral cover on reefs is declining globally due to coastal development, overfishing and climate change. Reefs isolated from direct human influence can recover from natural acute disturbances, but little is known about long term recovery of reefs experiencing chronic human disturbances. Here we investigate responses to acute bleaching disturbances on turbid reefs off Singapore, at two depths over a period of 27 years. Coral cover declined and there were marked changes in coral and benthic community structure during the first decade of monitoring at both depths. At shallower reef crest sites (3-4 m), benthic community structure recovered towards pre-disturbance states within a decade. In contrast, there was a net decline in coral cover and continuing shifts in community structure at deeper reef slope sites (6-7 m). There was no evidence of phase shifts to macroalgal dominance but coral habitats at deeper sites were replaced by unstable substrata such as fine sediments and rubble. The persistence of coral dominance at chronically disturbed shallow sites is likely due to an abundance of coral taxa which are tolerant to environmental stress. In addition, high turbidity may interact antagonistically with other disturbances to reduce the impact of thermal stress and limit macroalgal growth rates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/microbiology; Anthozoa/physiology*
  8. Ishii T, Matsuura H, Zhaoqi Z, Vairappan CS
    Molecules, 2009;14(11):4591-6.
    PMID: 19924087 DOI: 10.3390/molecules14114591
    A new germacrane-type norsesquiterpenoid, 1-acetoxy-germacra-5E,10(14)-diene-4-one (1), as well as three known compounds, were isolated from the organic extracts of a Bornean soft coral Nephthea sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/chemistry*
  9. Ishii T, Matsuura H, Zhaoqi Z, Vairappan CS
    Molecules, 2009;14(9):3360-6.
    PMID: 19783930 DOI: 10.3390/molecules14093360
    A new 4alpha-methyl sterol, 4alpha-methyl-ergosta-6,8(14),22E-triene-3beta-ol (1), was isolated along with cholesterol from a Nephthea sp. Bornean soft coral The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the data with those of the related compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/chemistry*
  10. Guest JR, Low J, Tun K, Wilson B, Ng C, Raingeard D, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 Feb 15;6:20717.
    PMID: 26876092 DOI: 10.1038/srep20717
    While many studies of coral bleaching report on broad, regional scale responses, fewer examine variation in susceptibility among coral taxa and changes in community structure, before, during and after bleaching on individual reefs. Here we report in detail on the response to bleaching by a coral community on a highly disturbed reef site south of mainland Singapore before, during and after a major thermal anomaly in 2010. To estimate the capacity for resistance to thermal stress, we report on: a) overall bleaching severity during and after the event, b) differences in bleaching susceptibility among taxa during the event, and c) changes in coral community structure one year before and after bleaching. Approximately two thirds of colonies bleached, however, post-bleaching recovery was quite rapid and, importantly, coral taxa that are usually highly susceptible were relatively unaffected. Although total coral cover declined, there was no significant change in coral taxonomic community structure before and after bleaching. Several factors may have contributed to the overall high resistance of corals at this site including Symbiodinium affiliation, turbidity and heterotrophy. Our results suggest that, despite experiencing chronic anthropogenic disturbances, turbid shallow reef communities may be remarkably resilient to acute thermal stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/physiology*
  11. Chan BKK, Xu G, Kim HK, Park JH, Kim W
    PLoS One, 2018;13(5):e0196309.
    PMID: 29715264 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196309
    Corals and their associated fauna are extremely diverse in tropical waters and form major reefs. In the high-latitude temperate zone, corals living near their distribution limit are considered marginal communities because they are particularly extremely sensitive to environmental and climatic changes. In this study, we examined the diversity and host usage of coral-associated barnacles on Jeju Island, Korea, the northern coral distribution limit in the East China Sea. In this study, only three coral-associated barnacles-from two genera in two subfamilies-were collected. The Pyrgomatinid barnacles Cantellius arcuatus and Cantellius cf. euspinulosum were found only on the corals Montipora millepora and Alveopora japonica, respectively. The Megatrematinid barnacle Pyrgomina oulastreae, relatively a generalist, was found on Psammocora spp. (both profundacella and albopicta) and Oulastrea crispata corals. The host usage of these three barnacles does not overlap. DNA barcode sequences of the C. arcuatus specimens collected in the present study matched those collected in Kochi in Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea, suggesting that this species has a wide geographical distribution. C. arcuatus covers a wider host range in Taiwan waters, inhabiting Montipora spp. and Porites spp., which suggests that the host specificity of coral-associated barnacles varies with host availability. C. cf. euspinulosum probably has a very narrow distribution and host usage. The sequences of C. cf. euspinulosum on Jeju Island do not match those of any known sequences of Cantellius barnacles in the Indo-Pacific region. P. oulastreae probably prefers cold water because it has been reported in temperate regions. Coral-associated barnacles in marginal communities have considerably lower diversity than their subtropical and tropical counterparts. When host availability is limited, marginal coral-associated barnacles exhibit higher host specificity than those in subtropical and tropical reef systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa*
  12. Krawczyk H, Zinke J, Browne N, Struck U, McIlwain J, O'Leary M, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 02 28;10(1):3678.
    PMID: 32111903 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60525-1
    Extreme climate events, such as the El Niños in 1997/1998 and 2015/16, have led to considerable forest loss in the Southeast Asian region following unprecedented drought and wildfires. In Borneo, the effects of extreme climate events have been exacerbated by rapid urbanization, accelerated deforestation and soil erosion since the 1980s. However, studies quantifying the impact of interannual and long-term (>3 decades) climatic and anthropogenic change affecting Borneo's coastal and coral reef environments are lacking. Here, we used coral cores collected in Miri-Sibuti Coral Reefs National Park, Sarawak (Malaysia) to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dynamics of sea surface temperature and oxygen isotopic composition of seawater from 1982 to 2016, based on paired oxygen isotope and Sr/Ca measurements. The results revealed rising sea surface temperatures of 0.26 ± 0.04 °C per decade since 1982. Reconstructed δ18Osw displayed positive excursion during major El Niño events of 1983, 1997/98 and 2015/16, indicating drought conditions with less river runoff, rainfall and higher ocean salinities. La Niñas were generally associated with lower δ18Osw. We observed a long-term shift from more saline conditions between 1982 and 1995 towards less saline conditions after 1995, which are in agreement with the regional freshening trend, punctuated by saline excursion during El Niños. The decadal shifts were found to be driven by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). This study provides the first long-term data on El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven synchrony of climate impacts on both terrestrial and marine ecosystems in northern Borneo. Our results suggest that coral records from northern Borneo are invaluable archives to detect regional ENSO and PDO impacts, and their interaction with the Asian-Australian monsoon, on the hydrological balance in the southern South China Sea beyond the past three decades.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa*
  13. Flot JF, Blanchot J, Charpy L, Cruaud C, Licuanan WY, Nakano Y, et al.
    BMC Ecol., 2011 Oct 04;11:22.
    PMID: 21970706 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6785-11-22
    BACKGROUND: Morphological data suggest that, unlike most other groups of marine organisms, scleractinian corals of the genus Stylophora are more diverse in the western Indian Ocean and in the Red Sea than in the central Indo-Pacific. However, the morphology of corals is often a poor predictor of their actual biodiversity: hence, we conducted a genetic survey of Stylophora corals collected in Madagascar, Okinawa, the Philippines and New Caledonia in an attempt to find out the true number of species in these various locations.

    RESULTS: A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial ORF and putative control region concurs with a haploweb analysis of nuclear ITS2 sequences in delimiting three species among our dataset: species A and B are found in Madagascar whereas species C occurs in Okinawa, the Philippines and New Caledonia. Comparison of ITS1 sequences from these three species with data available online suggests that species C is also found on the Great Barrier Reef, in Malaysia, in the South China Sea and in Taiwan, and that a distinct species D occurs in the Red Sea. Shallow-water morphs of species A correspond to the morphological description of Stylophora madagascarensis, species B presents the morphology of Stylophora mordax, whereas species C comprises various morphotypes including Stylophora pistillata and Stylophora mordax.

    CONCLUSIONS: Genetic analysis of the coral genus Stylophora reveals species boundaries that are not congruent with morphological traits. Of the four hypotheses that may explain such discrepancy (phenotypic plasticity, morphological stasis, morphological convergence, and interspecific hybridization), the first two appear likely to play a role but the fourth one is rejected since mitochondrial and nuclear markers yield congruent species delimitations. The position of the root in our molecular phylogenies suggests that the center of origin of Stylophora is located in the western Indian Ocean, which probably explains why this genus presents a higher biodiversity in the westernmost part of its area of distribution than in the "Coral Triangle".

    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/anatomy & histology; Anthozoa/genetics*; Anthozoa/growth & development
  14. Fadhlia Zafarina Zakaria, Julynnie Wajir, Fauziah Abdul Aziz
    MyJurnal
    This study was designed to investigate the crystallite sizes of Porites species. A set of 9 Porites skeletons i.e. Porites australiensis, Porites cylindrica, Porites lutea, Porites lichen, Porites digitata, Porites nigrescens, Porites rus, Porites annae and Porites sp. were studied by using XRay Diffraction method. The values of FWHM and theta (θ) are used in Scherrer equation to determine the crystallite sizes of all Porites samples. It was found that the crystallite sizes were in the range of 1007.78 Ǻ – 1706.04 Ǻ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa
  15. Lau YW, Reimer JD
    Zookeys, 2019;872:127-158.
    PMID: 31528119 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.872.36288
    Sabah, Malaysia, is well known for its extensive and diverse coral reefs. It is located on the northwestern edge of the Coral Triangle, the region with the highest marine biodiversity. Much of the marine fauna here is still unknown, especially inconspicuous animals, such as small stoloniferous octocorals, which are common on coral reefs. Here, we describe two new monospecific genera of the family Arulidae found off the coast of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, East Malaysia; Bunga payunggen. nov. et sp. nov. and Laeta waheedaegen. nov. et sp. nov. As well, the stoloniferan genus Phenganax Alderslade & McFadden, 2011 belonging to the family Clavulariidae is expanded with three new species, P. marumisp. nov., P. subtilissp. nov., and P. stokvisisp. nov., which are all sclerite-free. Additionally, we report a possibly undescribed species, closely related to the clavulariid genera Azoriella Lopez-Gonzalez & Gili, 2001 and Cervera Lopez-Gonzalez et al., 1995. As this and other recent studies have shown, discoveries of small stoloniferous octocorals are helping to fill gaps in our knowledge of the overall systematics of Octocorallia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa
  16. Rahman I, Al-Bar AA, Richard FS, Müller M, Mujahid A
    Can J Microbiol, 2021 Jul;67(7):548-552.
    PMID: 33417515 DOI: 10.1139/cjm-2020-0287
    Vibrio coralliilyticus, a prominent pathogenic bacteria, is known to cause tissue damage in the coral Pocillopora damicornis and is attracted towards the coral via chemotaxis. However, the potential of V. coralliilyticus to infect most of the other coral hosts via chemotaxis is unknown. In this study, we used capillary assays to quantify the chemotactic response of V. coralliilyticus to the mucus of four tank-cultivated coral species (Cataphyllia jardine, Mussidae sp., Nemenzophyllia turbida, and Euphyllia ancora), and mucus from three wild coral species (Acropora sp., Porites sp., and Montipora sp.). The bacteria showed a positive chemotactic response to each coral mucus tested, with the highest response recorded to the mucus of Acropora sp. and the lowest response to the mucus of Montipora sp. A microfluidic chip was then used to assess the chemotactic preference of V. coralliilyticus to the mucus of the tank cultivated corals. Here too, the bacterium showed positive response, but with a slightly different ranking order. The strong chemotactic response of V. coralliilyticus towards the mucus tested could indicate a broader host range of V. coralliilyticus, and by extension, indicate a threat to weakened coral reefs worldwide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/classification; Anthozoa/metabolism; Anthozoa/microbiology*
  17. Oscar Crehan, James Mair, Siang Hii Yii, Che Din Mohd Safuan, Zainudin Bachok
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2019;30(2):1-18.
    MyJurnal
    Terumbu karang adalah ekosistem yang paling mempunyai kepelbagaian biologi di planet ini. Terumbu karang hanya dijumpai dalam lingkungan pengecilan parameter julat yang sempit, yang meletakkan terumbu karang berisiko di seluruh dunia. Terumbu karang dipengaruhi oleh kesan antropogenik dan alam sekitar yang mengubah taburan genera karang. Memahami di mana jenis karang yang berbeza terletak dan bagaimana setiap genus terjejas oleh tekanan tempatan dan global adalah penting untuk pemuliharaan. Teknik coral video transect mula digunakan pada bulan Mei 2016 untuk membandingkan taburan genera karang di tapak yang dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor yang berbeza. Tapak yang mempunyai impak paling sedikit mencatatkan pelitupan karang yang paling tinggi, tapak yang berkaitan dengan sedimen mencatatkan pelitupan yang paling rendah, dan tapak yang mempunyai aktiviti pelancongan yang tinggi mempunyai pelitupan alga yang paling besar. Acropora didapati dominan di Kepulauan Bidong dan Pulau Redang, manakala Favia, Fungia dan Porites mempunyai perlindungan karang yang agak tinggi di setiap tapak
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa
  18. Fadilah A, Zuki AB, Loqman MY, Zamri-Saad M, Al-Salihi KA, Norimah Y, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:127-8.
    PMID: 15468851
    The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate natural coral (Porites spp.) implanted in sheep femur microscopically. Twelve adult, male sheep were used in this study. The defect area was implanted with coral and monitored for up to 12 weeks. The sheep were euthanased at 2,4,8, and 12 weeks post-implantation. Microscopically, natural coral implanted into bone tissue have shown gradual resorption and progressively replaced by new bone. At 12 weeks post-implantation, the implanted site was almost completely surrounded by mature bone. The results showed that natural coral was found to be a biodegradable and osteo-conductive biomaterial, which acted as a scaffold for a direct osteoblastic apposition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa*
  19. Phan CS, Kamada T, Ishii T, Hamada T, Vairappan CS
    Nat Prod Res, 2019 Mar;33(6):808-813.
    PMID: 29202596 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1410812
    One new compound, 12-epi-9-deacetoxyxenicin (1) along with a hydroperoxide product, 12-epi-9-deacetoxy-8-hydroperoxyxenicin (2) and two known sesquiterpenoids (3-4) were isolated from a population of Bornean soft coral Xenia sp. The structures of these secondary metabolites were elucidated based on their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed cytotoxic activity against ATL cell line, S1T. In addition, compound 3 exhibited hyphal inhibition of Lagenidium thermophilum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/chemistry*
  20. Robert R, Rodrigues KF, Waheed Z, Kumar SV
    PMID: 29521145 DOI: 10.1080/24701394.2018.1448080
    This study is aimed at establishing a baseline on the genetic diversity of the Acropora corals of Sabah, North Borneo based on variations in the partial COI and CYB nucleotide sequences. Comparison across 50 shallow-water Acropora morphospecies indicated that the low substitution rates in the two genes were due to negative selection and that rate heterogeneity between them was asymmetric. CYB appeared to have evolved faster than COI in the Acropora as indicated by differences in the rate of pairwise genetic distance, degrees of transition bias (Ts/Tv), synonymous-to-nonsynonymous rate ratio (dN/dS), and substitution patterns at the three codon positions. Despite the relatively high haplotype diversity (Hd), nucleotide diversity (π) of the haplotype datasets was low due to stringent purifying selection operating on the genes. Subsequently, we identified individual COI and CYB haplotypes that were each extensively shared across sympatrically and allopatrically distributed Indo-Pacific Acropora. These reciprocally common mtDNA types were suspected to be ancestral forms of the genes whereas other haplotypes have mostly evolved from autoapomorphic mutations which have not been fixed within the species even though they are selectively neutral. To our knowledge, this is the first report on DNA barcodes of Acropora species in North Borneo and this understanding will play an important role in the management and conservation of these important reef-building corals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthozoa/genetics*
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