Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

  1. Khan MJ, Shameli K, Sazili AQ, Selamat J, Kumari S
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781541 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040719
    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is desirable practice. It is not only the required technique for industrial and biomedical purposes but also a promising research area. The aim of this study was to synthesize green curcumin silver nanoparticles (C-Ag NPs). The synthesis of C-Ag NPs was achieved by reduction of the silver nitrate (AgNO₃) in an alkaline medium. The characterizations of the prepared samples were conducted by ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and zeta potential (ZP) analyses. The formation of C-Ag NPs was evaluated by the dark color of the colloidal solutions and UV-vis spectra, with 445 nm as the maximum. The size of the crystalline nanoparticles, recorded as 12.6 ± 3.8nm, was confirmed by HRTEM, while the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystallographic structure was confirmed by PXRD and SAED. It is assumed that green synthesized curcumin silver nanoparticles (C-Ag NPs) can be efficiently utilized as a strong antimicrobial substance for food and meat preservation due to their homogeneous nature and small size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  2. Pathak M, Turner M, Palmer C, Coombes AG
    J Biomater Appl, 2014 Sep;29(3):354-63.
    PMID: 24682036 DOI: 10.1177/0885328214528256
    Microporous, poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) matrices loaded with the antibacterial, metronidazole were produced by rapidly cooling suspensions of drug powder in PCL solutions in acetone. Drug incorporation in the matrices increased from 2.0% to 10.6% w/w on raising the drug loading of the PCL solution from 5% to 20% w/w measured with respect to the PCL content. Drug loading efficiencies of 40-53% were obtained. Rapid 'burst release' of 35-55% of the metronidazole content was recorded over 24 h when matrices were immersed in simulated vaginal fluid (SVF), due to the presence of large amounts of drug on matrix surface as revealed by Raman microscopy. Gradual release of around 80% of the drug content occurred over the following 12 days. Metronidazole released from PCL matrices in SVF retained antimicrobial activity against Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro at levels up to 97% compared to the free drug. Basic modelling predicted that the concentrations of metronidazole released into vaginal fluid in vivo from a PCL matrix in the form of an intravaginal ring would exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration of metronidazole against G. vaginalis. These findings recommend further investigation of PCL matrices as intravaginal devices for controlled delivery of metronidazole in the treatment and prevention of bacterial vaginosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  3. Ismail NM, Mustapha MS, Megat R
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1997 Nov;26(6):754-7.
    PMID: 9522974
    The aim of this study was to investigate if colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) can penetrate the gastric mucus barrier to reach the different sites of the antral mucosa and to estimate the time course for CBS to reach and remain in the mucosa. A single dose of CBS was administered orally to rats that were sacrificed at different time intervals post treatment. The control group received gum acacia without CBS. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate, visualised as electron dense precipitate (EDP), was seen in the gastric mucus layer, intercellular spaces and intracellularly after 30 minutes and disappeared after 6 hours. Scant amounts of EDP were observed in the gastric crypts, confined only to the upper parts of these structures. We concluded that CBS can penetrate the mucus and has a wide but uneven distribution in the gastric mucosa. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate, in the concentration given only penetrated the upper two-thirds of gastric pits and not the lower one-third. We also concluded that CBS has to be given 6 hourly to ensure its continuous presence in the gastric mucosa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
  4. Osahor AN, Narayanan K
    Methods Mol Biol, 2021;2211:15-27.
    PMID: 33336267 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0943-9_2
    Gene delivery using invasive bacteria as vectors is a robust method that is feasible for plasmid and artificial chromosome DNA construct delivery to human cells presenting β1 integrin receptors. This technique is relatively underutilized owing to the inefficiency of gene transfer to targeted cell populations. Bacterial vectors must successfully adhere to the cell membrane, internalize into the cytoplasm, undergo lysis, and deliver DNA to the nucleus. There are limited studies on the use of exogenous reagents to improve the efficiency of bacteria-mediated gene delivery to mammalian cells. In this chapter, we describe how cationic lipids, conventionally used for DNA and protein transfection, as well as antimicrobial compounds, can be used to synergistically enhance the adherence of invasive bacterial vectors to the cell membrane and improve their predisposition to internalize into the cytoplasm to deliver DNA. Using simple combinatorial methods, functional DNA transfer can be improved by up to four-fold of invaded cell populations. These methods are easy to perform and are likely to be applicable for other bacterial vectors including Listeria and Salmonella.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  5. Majumder MAA, Singh K, Hilaire MG, Rahman S, Sa B, Haque M
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 2020 12;18(12):1245-1258.
    PMID: 32684048 DOI: 10.1080/14787210.2020.1796638
    INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance poses a serious threat to global health with significantly higher morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. This review aims to discuss the importance of the promotion of antimicrobial stewardship in medical and allied health professional curricula and training/educating tomorrow's doctors in combatting antimicrobial resistance. A narrative literature review was conducted to retrieve relevant information related to antimicrobial resistance and stewardship and their implications on medical and allied health professional education and training from searches of computerized databases, hand searches, and authoritative texts.

    AREAS COVERED: Antimicrobial stewardship programs improve rational antibiotic use, reduce antimicrobial resistance, decrease complications of antibiotic use, and improve patient outcomes. Though health professional students recognize the importance and impact of antibiotic prescribing knowledge, many studies have consistently demonstrated low levels of confidence and competencies amongst students, highlighting that health professional schools failed to prepare them to prescribe antibiotics accurately.

    EXPERT OPINION: There is an urgent call for the integration of antimicrobial stewardship teaching at the undergraduate level of medical education to train future prescribers on this critical aspect of public health. Proper undergraduate education on rational antibiotics use would enable health professional graduates to enter clinical practice with adequate competencies to become rational prescribers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  6. Dua K, Gupta G, Awasthi R, Chellappan DK
    Panminerva Med, 2018 09;60(3):136-137.
    PMID: 30176703 DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.18.03446-8
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  7. Hassan Y, Alfadly SO, Azmin MN, Peh KK, Tan TF, Noorizan AA, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Sep;48(9):819-23.
    PMID: 17728962
    A bioequivalence study of two oral formulations of 500 mg tablets of ciprofloxacin (RAZA Pharmaniaga, Malaysia) as test and Ciprobay (Bayer AG, Germany) as reference, was carried out in 24 healthy human volunteers. Each volunteer received a single dose of ciprofloxacin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
  8. Lai NM, Chaiyakunapruk N, Lai NA, O'Riordan E, Pau WS, Saint S
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016 Mar 16;3(3):CD007878.
    PMID: 26982376 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007878.pub3
    BACKGROUND: The central venous catheter (CVC) is essential in managing acutely ill patients in hospitals. Bloodstream infection is a major complication in patients with a CVC. Several infection control measures have been developed to reduce bloodstream infections, one of which is impregnation of CVCs with various forms of antimicrobials (either with an antiseptic or with antibiotics). This review was originally published in June 2013 and updated in 2016.

    OBJECTIVES: Our main objective was to assess the effectiveness of antimicrobial impregnation, coating or bonding on CVCs in reducing clinically-diagnosed sepsis, catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), all-cause mortality, catheter colonization and other catheter-related infections in adult participants who required central venous catheterization, along with their safety and cost effectiveness where data were available. We undertook the following comparisons: 1) catheters with antimicrobial modifications in the form of antimicrobial impregnation, coating or bonding, against catheters without antimicrobial modifications and 2) catheters with one type of antimicrobial impregnation against catheters with another type of antimicrobial impregnation. We planned to analyse the comparison of catheters with any type of antimicrobial impregnation against catheters with other antimicrobial modifications, e.g. antiseptic dressings, hubs, tunnelling, needleless connectors or antiseptic lock solutions, but did not find any relevant studies. Additionally, we planned to conduct subgroup analyses based on the length of catheter use, settings or levels of care (e.g. intensive care unit, standard ward and oncology unit), baseline risks, definition of sepsis, presence or absence of co-interventions and cost-effectiveness in different currencies.

    SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Anaesthesia, Critical and Emergency Care Review Group (ACE). In the updated review, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (OVID SP; 1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), and other Internet resources using a combination of keywords and MeSH headings. The original search was run in March 2012.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed any type of impregnated catheter against either non-impregnated catheters or catheters with another type of impregnation in adult patients cared for in the hospital setting who required CVCs. We planned to include quasi-RCT and cluster-RCTs, but we identified none. We excluded cross-over studies.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two authors independently assessed the relevance and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using risk ratio (RR), absolute risk reduction (ARR) and number need to treat to benefit (NNTB) for categorical data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data, where appropriate, with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    MAIN RESULTS: We included one new study (338 participants/catheters) in this update, which brought the total included to 57 studies with 16,784 catheters and 11 types of impregnations. The total number of participants enrolled was unclear, as some studies did not provide this information. Most studies enrolled participants from the age of 18, including patients in intensive care units (ICU), oncology units and patients receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition. There were low or unclear risks of bias in the included studies, except for blinding, which was impossible in most studies due to the catheters that were being assessed having different appearances. Overall, catheter impregnation significantly reduced catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), with an ARR of 2% (95% CI 3% to 1%), RR of 0.62 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.74) and NNTB of 50 (high-quality evidence). Catheter impregnation also reduced catheter colonization, with an ARR of 9% (95% CI 12% to 7%), RR of 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.76) and NNTB of 11 (moderate-quality evidence, downgraded due to substantial heterogeneity). However, catheter impregnation made no significant difference to the rates of clinically diagnosed sepsis (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.13; moderate-quality evidence, downgraded due to a suspicion of publication bias), all-cause mortality (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.07; high-quality evidence) and catheter-related local infections (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.07; 2688 catheters, moderate quality evidence, downgraded due to wide 95% CI).In our subgroup analyses, we found that the magnitudes of benefits for impregnated CVCs varied between studies that enrolled different types of participants. For the outcome of catheter colonization, catheter impregnation conferred significant benefit in studies conducted in ICUs (RR 0.70;95% CI 0.61 to 0.80) but not in studies conducted in haematological and oncological units (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.11) or studies that assessed predominantly patients who required CVCs for long-term total parenteral nutrition (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.34). However, there was no such variation for the outcome of CRBSI. The magnitude of the effects was also not affected by the participants' baseline risks.There were no significant differences between the impregnated and non-impregnated groups in the rates of adverse effects, including thrombosis/thrombophlebitis, bleeding, erythema and/or tenderness at the insertion site.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review confirms the effectiveness of antimicrobial CVCs in reducing rates of CRBSI and catheter colonization. However, the magnitude of benefits regarding catheter colonization varied according to setting, with significant benefits only in studies conducted in ICUs. A comparatively smaller body of evidence suggests that antimicrobial CVCs do not appear to reduce clinically diagnosed sepsis or mortality significantly. Our findings call for caution in routinely recommending the use of antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs across all settings. Further randomized controlled trials assessing antimicrobial CVCs should include important clinical outcomes like the overall rates of sepsis and mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  9. Basri DF, Xian LW, Abdul Shukor NI, Latip J
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:461756.
    PMID: 24783205 DOI: 10.1155/2014/461756
    Stilbenoids have been considered as an alternative phytotherapeutic treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The combined effect of ε-viniferin and johorenol A with the standard antibiotics, vancomycin and linezolid, was assessed against MRSA ATCC 33591 and HUKM clinical isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the individual tested compounds and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of the combined agents were, respectively, determined using microbroth dilution test and microdilution checkerboard (MDC) method. Only synergistic outcome from checkerboard test will be substantiated for its rate of bacterial killing using time-kill assay. The MIC value of ε -viniferin against ATCC 33591 and johorenol A against both strains was 0.05 mg/mL whereas HUKM strain was susceptible to 0.1 mg/mL of ε-viniferin. MDC study showed that only combination between ε-viniferin and vancomycin was synergistic against ATCC 33591 (FICI 0.25) and HUKM (FICI 0.19). All the other combinations (ε-viniferin-linezolid, johorenol A-vancomycin, and johorenol A-linezolid) were either indifferent or additive against both strains. However, despite the FICI value showing synergistic effect for ε-viniferin-vancomycin, TKA analysis displayed antagonistic interaction with bacteriostatic action against both strains. As conclusion, ε-viniferin can be considered as a bacteriostatic stilbenoid as it antagonized the bactericidal activity of vancomycin. These findings therefore disputed previous report that ε-viniferin acted in synergism with vancomycin but revealed that it targets similar site in close proximity to vancomycin's action, possibly at the bacterial membrane protein. Hence, this combination has a huge potential to be further studied and developed as an alternative treatment in combating MRSA in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  10. Shunmugaperumal T
    Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul, 2010 Jun;4(2):153-73.
    PMID: 20236065
    Upon implantation or insertion into patient's body for exerting the intended purpose like salvage of normal functions of vital organs, the medical devices are unfortunately becoming the sites of competition between host cell integration and microbial adhesion. Moreover, since there is an increased use of implanted medical devices, the incidence of biofilm-and medical devices-related nosocomial infections is also increasing progressively. To control microbial colonization and subsequent biofilm formation of the medical devices, different approaches either to enhance the efficiency of certain antimicrobial agents or to disrupt the basic physiology of the pathogenic microorganisms including novel small molecules and antipathogenic drugs are being explored. In addition, the various lipid-and polymer-based drug delivery carriers are also investigated for applying antibiofilm coating of the medical devices especially over catheters. The main intention of this review is therefore to summarize the major and/breakthrough inventions disclosed in patent literature as well as in research papers related to microbial colonization of medical devices and novel preventive strategies. This review starts with an overview of the preventive strategies followed by a short description about the potential of different lipidic-and polymeric-drug delivery carriers in eradicating the biofilm-associated infections from the medical devices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  11. Wahid WA, Selvaraja V, Bakiah S, Ibrahim M
    Cornea, 2008 Aug;27(7):837-9.
    PMID: 18650673 DOI: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e318169d6cc
    To describe recurrent peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) on the corneoscleral graft in a young man treated successfully with oral corticosteroids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
  12. Wiart C, Hannah NA, Yassim M, Hamimah H, Sulaiman M
    Phytother Res, 2004 Sep;18(9):783-4.
    PMID: 15478188
    The ethanol extract of leaves of Piper porphyrophyllum N.E. Br. showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The activity was increased on fractionation (hexane, dichloromethane and aqueous), particularly in the aqueous fraction. No activity was shown against tested Candida albicans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
  13. Biswal BM, Zakaria A, Ahmad NM
    Support Care Cancer, 2003 Apr;11(4):242-8.
    PMID: 12673463
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pure natural honey on radiation-induced mucositis.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer requiring radiation to the oropharyngeal mucosal area were divided in to two groups to receive either radiation alone or radiation plus topical application of pure natural honey. Patients were treated using a 6-MV linear accelerator at a dose rate of 2 Gy per day five times a week up to a dose of 60-70 Gy. In the study arm, patients were advised to take 20 ml of pure honey 15 min before, 15 min after and 6 h post-radiation therapy. Patients were evaluated every week for the development of radiation mucositis using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading system.

    MAIN RESULTS: There was significant reduction in the symptomatic grade 3/4 mucositis among honey-treated patients compared to controls; i.e. 20% versus 75% ( p 0.00058). The compliance of honey-treated group of patients was better than controls. Fifty-five percent of patients treated with topical honey showed no change or a positive gain in body weight compared to 25% in the control arm ( p 0.053), the majority of whom lost weight.

    CONCLUSIONS: Topical application of natural honey is a simple and cost-effective treatment in radiation mucositis, which warrants further multi-centre randomised trials to validate our finding.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  14. Liam CK, Aziah AM, Lim KH, Wong CMM
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Sep;55(3):304-7.
    PMID: 11200708
    Forty patients were treated with ofloxacin for community acquired lower respiratory tract infections. Eighteen pathogens were isolated in sputum; Streptococcus pneumoniae (4) and Haemophilus influenzae (4) were the most common, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (3), Klebsiella spp. (2), Staphylococcus anreus (2), Pseudomonas spp. (2), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). Ofloxacin 200 mg every 12 hours was administered for an average of 3.7 days intravenously followed by 5.4 days orally. Response to therapy was judged to be cure in 38 (95%; 95% C.I., 85%-95%) patients, failure in one (2.5%) and "indeterminate" in one (2.5%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  15. Saleh MS, Hong YH, Muda MR, Dali AF, Hassali MA, Khan TM, et al.
    Eur J Hosp Pharm, 2020 05;27(3):173-177.
    PMID: 32419939 DOI: 10.1136/ejhpharm-2018-001679
    Objective: The increase in antimicrobial resistance and the lack of new antimicrobial agents in drug discovery pipelines have called for global attention to mitigate the problem of antimicrobial misuse. While an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programme has been implemented in Malaysia, the perception and practices of public hospital pharmacists remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the perception and practices of Malaysian public hospital pharmacists towards the AMS programme in the state of Selangor, Malaysia.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study, using a validated 23-item self-administered questionnaire, was conducted among pharmacists from 11 public hospitals in the State of Selangor, Malaysia, from December 2016 to January 2017. All public hospital pharmacists (n=432) were invited to participate in the survey. A 5-point Likert scale was employed in the questionnaire; the perception section was scored from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) while the practice section was scored from 1 (never) to 5 (always). Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were used to analyse data.

    Results: Of the 432 pharmacists surveyed, 199 responded, giving a response rate of 46.0%. The majority of the respondents agreed (n=190, 95.5%) that the AMS programme improves patient care at their hospitals (median=5; IQR=1). Slightly less than half of the respondents indicated that a local antibiotic guideline was established in their hospitals (median=3, IQR=2.5), and had taken part in antimicrobial awareness campaigns to promote optimal use of antimicrobials in hospitals (median=3, IQR=1).

    Conclusions: Overall, the perception and practices of the surveyed hospital pharmacists towards AMS programme were positive. National antibiotic guidelines, which take into consideration local antimicrobial resistance patterns, should be used fully to improve antimicrobial usage and to reduce practice variation. Collaboration among healthcare professionals should be strengthened to minimise the unfavourable consequences of unintended use of antimicrobial agents while optimising clinical outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
  16. Ahmed AS, Mandal UK, Taher M, Susanti D, Jaffri JM
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2018 Oct;23(8):751-760.
    PMID: 28378604 DOI: 10.1080/10837450.2017.1295067
    The development of hydrogel films as wound healing dressings is of a great interest owing to their biological tissue-like nature. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene glycol (PVA/PEG) hydrogels loaded with asiaticoside, a standardized rich fraction of Centella asiatica, were successfully developed using the freeze-thaw method. Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the hydrogels. The hydrogels were characterized and optimized by gel fraction, swelling behavior, water vapor transmission rate and mechanical strength. The formulation with 8% PVA, 5% PEG 400 and five consecutive freeze-thaw cycles was selected as the optimized formulation and was further characterized by its drug release, rheological study, morphology, cytotoxicity and microbial studies. The optimized formulation showed more than 90% drug release at 12 hours. The rheological properties exhibited that the formulation has viscoelastic behavior and remains stable upon storage. Cell culture studies confirmed the biocompatible nature of the optimized hydrogel formulation. In the microbial limit tests, the optimized hydrogel showed no microbial growth. The developed optimized PVA/PEG hydrogel using freeze-thaw method was swellable, elastic, safe, and it can be considered as a promising new wound dressing formulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  17. Abd Jalil MA, Kasmuri AR, Hadi H
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol, 2017;30(2):66-75.
    PMID: 28291965 DOI: 10.1159/000458416
    BACKGROUND: The stingless bee is a natural type of bee that exists in almost every continent. The honey produced by this bee has been widely used across time and space. The distinctive feature of this honey is that it is stored naturally in the pot (cerumen), thus contributing to its beneficial properties, especially in the wound healing process.

    METHODS: In this article, several studies on stingless bee honey that pointed out the numerous therapeutic profiles of this honey in terms of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, as well as moisturizing properties are reviewed. All of these therapeutic properties are related to wound healing properties.

    RESULTS: Antioxidant in stingless bee honey could break the chain of free radicals that cause a detrimental effect to the wounded area. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of stingless bee honey could overcome the bacterial contamination and thus improve the healing rate. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory attribute in this honey could protect the tissue from highly toxic inflammatory mediators. The moisturizing properties of the honey could improve wound healing by promoting angiogenesis and oxygen circulation.

    CONCLUSION: The application of honey to the wound has been widely used since ancient times. As a result, it is essential to understand the pharmacological mechanism of the honey towards the physiology of the wounded skin in order to optimize the healing rate in the future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
  18. AlMatar M, Makky EA, Var I, Koksal F
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2018;15(4):470-484.
    PMID: 29219055 DOI: 10.2174/1567201815666171207163504
    BACKGROUND: Until recently, one of the main reasons for mortality has been infectious diseases, and bacteria that are drug-resistant have emerged as a result of the wide application, as well as the misuse of antibacterial medications. Having multidrug-resistance, bacteria present a great problem for the efficient management of bacterial infections and this challenge has resulted in the creation of other means of dealing with bacterial diseases. Of late, metallic nanoparticles (NPs), employed as antibacterial agents, have the potential for use against resistance to bacterial drugs.

    OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of bacterial resistance are described in this review and this is followed by an outline of the features and uses of metallic NPs as antibiotic agents to address bacteria that are antibiotic- sensitive and resistant. Additionally, a general impression of metallic NPs as antibiofilm bactericidal agents is presented.

    CONCLUSION: Biofilms and bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics present a grave public health challenge and this has enhanced the need to develop new bactericidal agents. Therefore, nanomaterials are considered as a potential platform for managing bacterial infections.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
  19. Rudramurthy GR, Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Ghasemzadeh A
    Molecules, 2016 Jun 27;21(7).
    PMID: 27355939 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21070836
    Antimicrobial substances may be synthetic, semisynthetic, or of natural origin (i.e., from plants and animals). Antimicrobials are considered "miracle drugs" and can determine if an infected patient/animal recovers or dies. However, the misuse of antimicrobials has led to the development of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, which is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare practitioners and is a significant global threat. The major concern with the development of antimicrobial resistance is the spread of resistant organisms. The replacement of conventional antimicrobials by new technology to counteract antimicrobial resistance is ongoing. Nanotechnology-driven innovations provide hope for patients and practitioners in overcoming the problem of drug resistance. Nanomaterials have tremendous potential in both the medical and veterinary fields. Several nanostructures comprising metallic particles have been developed to counteract microbial pathogens. The effectiveness of nanoparticles (NPs) depends on the interaction between the microorganism and the NPs. The development of effective nanomaterials requires in-depth knowledge of the physicochemical properties of NPs and the biological aspects of microorganisms. However, the risks associated with using NPs in healthcare need to be addressed. The present review highlights the antimicrobial effects of various nanomaterials and their potential advantages, drawbacks, or side effects. In addition, this comprehensive information may be useful in the discovery of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs for use against multi-drug-resistant microbial pathogens in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage*
  20. Chaudhuri JD
    Med Sci Monit, 2000 Nov-Dec;6(6):1213-22.
    PMID: 11208482
    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a highly dynamic structure and consists of endothelial cells, which are characterized by the presence of tight junctions and relative lack of endocytic vesicles. The tight junctions are reinforced by the foot processes of the astrocytes. The BBB functions through these specialised structures, to maintain the environment of the brain in a steady state by regulating the influx and efflux of substances. The protective effect of the BBB is however, lost during bacterial and viral infections. The primary mechanism operative are an increase in the permeability of the BBB and/or direct invasion of the brain by microorganisms. Since the BBB is relatively impermeable to chemotherapeutic agents the treatment of CNS infections is difficult. This paper aims to examine the various mechanisms by which infection spreads to the brain, and suggest measures for successful drug delivery into the brain during infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links