Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 59 in total

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  1. Yoneda M
    Nippon Rinsho, 2016 12;74(12):1973-1978.
    PMID: 30550652
    Nipah and Hendra virus were first identified in mid 1990s in Australia and Malaysia, caus- ing epidemics with high mortality rate in affected animals and humans. Since their first emer- gence, they continued to re-emerge in Australia and South East Asia almost every year. Nipah and Hendra virus were classified in the new genus Henipavirus because of their un- common features amongst Paramyxoviridae. Henipaviruses are zoonotic paramyxoviruses with a broad tropism, and cause severe acute respiratory disease and encephalitis. Their high virulence and wide host range make them to be given Biosecurity Level 4 status. This review summarizes details of Henipavirus emergence, reservoir hosts and pathology, and introduce recent progress in vaccines and antivirals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
  2. Tan DS
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Sep;20(1):19-28.
    PMID: 4221407
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  3. Neoh CF, Kong DC
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2014 Jun;14(3):319-34.
    PMID: 24708054 DOI: 10.1586/14737167.2014.906306
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is costly to treat and, has high morbidity and mortality. The addition of new protease inhibitors (i.e., boceprevir, telaprevir), to the standard dual therapy with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin, for the treatment of HCV infection has demonstrated superior efficacy with shorter treatment duration, but at higher drug acquisition costs and incidence of adverse events. Robust economic data are required to inform healthcare decision for the optimal use of these expensive antiviral agents. Accordingly, this review will explore the clinical and economic aspects of boceprevir-based treatment strategies. Important considerations, challenges and gaps for future pharmacoeconomic research in this setting are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  4. Abd Kadir SL, Yaakob H, Mohamed Zulkifli R
    J Nat Med, 2013 Oct;67(4):677-89.
    PMID: 23591999 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-013-0767-y
    Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. Sixty-nine studies from 1997 to 2012 describe 31 different species from 24 families that are known for their anti-dengue activities. About ten phytochemicals have been isolated from 11 species, among which are compounds with the potential for development of dengue treatment. Crude extracts and essential oils obtained from 31 species showed a broad activity against Flavivirus. Current studies show that natural products represent a rich potential source of new anti-dengue compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed established the potential of identified species in contributing to dengue control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  5. Aguilar HC, Lee B
    Expert Rev Mol Med, 2011;13:e6.
    PMID: 21345285 DOI: 10.1017/S1462399410001754
    In recent years, several paramyxoviruses have emerged to infect humans, including previously unidentified zoonoses. Hendra and Nipah viruses (henipaviruses within this family) were first identified in the 1990s in Australia, Malaysia and Singapore, causing epidemics with high mortality and morbidity rates in affected animals and humans. Other paramyxoviruses, such as Menangle virus, Tioman virus, human metapneumovirus and avian paramyxovirus 1, which cause less morbidity in humans, have also been recently identified. Although the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses has been previously recognised as biomedically and veterinarily important, the recent emergence of these paramyxoviruses has focused our attention on this family. Antiviral drugs can be designed to target specific important determinants of the viral life cycle. Therefore, identifying and understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of viral entry, replication, assembly and budding will be critical in the development of antiviral therapeutic agents. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms discovered and the antiviral strategies pursued in recent years for emerging paramyxoviruses, with particular emphasis on viral entry and exit mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  6. Muhamad M, Kee LY, Rahman NA, Yusof R
    Int. J. Biol. Sci., 2010 May 23;6(3):294-302.
    PMID: 20567498
    Dengue viruses, mosquito-borne members of the Flaviviridae family, are the causative agents of dengue fever and its associated complications, dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. To date, more than 2.5 billion people in over 100 countries are at risk of infection, and approximately 20 million infections were reported annually. There is currently no treatment or vaccine available for dengue infection. This study employed a whole-cell organism model or in vitro methods to study the inhibitory property of the flavanoid-derived compounds against DENV2 activity. Results showed that at concentration not exceeding the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD), these compounds completely prevented DENV2 infection in HepG2 cells as indicated by the absence of cytophatic effects. The in vitro antiviral activity assessed in HepG2 cells employing virus inhibition assay showed high inhibitory activity in a dose dependent manner. At concentration below MNTD, compounds exhibited inhibitory activity against DENV2 with a range of potency strengths of 72% to 100%. The plaque forming unit per ml (pfu/ml) was reduced prominently with a maximum reduction of 98% when the infected HepG2 cells were treated with the highest non-toxic dose of compounds. The highly potent activity of the compounds against DENV2 infection strongly suggests their potential as a lead antiviral agent for dengue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
  7. Shahidah KN, Merican I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:35-8.
    PMID: 16108171
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
  8. Guan R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:28-33.
    PMID: 16108170
    Four to 6 months of conventional interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) (5MU daily or 10MU three times weekly) resulted in HBeAg loss in approximately 33% of HBeAg positive patients (controls: 12%). Longer treatment duration improved HBeAg seroconversion. Children with chronic HBV infection and high ALT respond to IFN-a at similar rates. Good end-of-treatment (ET) biochemical and virological response were also achieved with IFN-alpha in HBeAg negative, HBV-DNA positive hepatitis patients. Sustained response (SR) however, was disappointing, but improved with longer duration of treatment: (10-15% SR with 4/6 months treatment: 30% SR with 24 months treatment). Weekly pegylated IFN-alpha2a (PegIFN-alpha2a) for 24 weeks gave a significantly higher HBeAg conversion rate (33%) than conventional IFN-alpha2a (25%). Fifty-two weeks of PegIFN-alpha2b gave a sustained HBeAg loss in 35% patients and HBeAg seroconversion in 29% patients. Similar results were obtained with 48 weeks of weekly PegIFN-alpha2a. PegIFN-alpha2a monotherapy was found to be superior to lamivudine monotherapy in affecting a 6-month SR (normal ALTs and HBV DNA < 20,000 copies/mL) in HBeAg negative/anti-HBe positive chronic hepatitis B patients. There is a tendency for IFN-a and lamivudine combination to result in better sustained response than lamivudine monotherapy. This tendency is also observed with PegIFN-a and lamivudine combination although the combination did not appear to be better than PegIFN-alpha monotherapy. IFN induced HBeAg seroconversion is durable, could increase over time and resulted in better overall survival and survival free of hepatic decompensation or hepatocellular cancer. The main advantage of IFN-a therapy is that a course of finite duration may achieve sustained off-therapy response in a proportion of both HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients. However, IFN treatment is usually associated with side-effects, especially flu-like symptoms, fatigue, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and depression. These are usually tolerable but may require dose modification and premature cessation of treatment (5%). Interferon therapy induced hepatitis flares may lead to decompensation in patients with cirrhosis and can be dangerous in patients with decompensated liver function despite dose reduction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  9. Bukhsh A, Goh BH, Lee LH, Khan TM
    J Infect Public Health, 2017 02 10;10(5):692-693.
    PMID: 28209323 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.09.012
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  10. Ahola T, Couderc T, Courderc T, Ng LF, Hallengärd D, Powers A, et al.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., 2015 Apr;15(4):250-7.
    PMID: 25897811 DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2014.1681
    Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapies available against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and these were subjects discussed during a CHIKV meeting recently organized in Langkawi, Malaysia. In this review, we chart the approaches taken in both areas. Because of a sharp increase in new data in these fields, the present paper is complementary to previous reviews by Weaver et al. in 2012 and Kaur and Chu in 2013 . The most promising antivirals so far discovered are reviewed, with a special focus on the virus-encoded replication proteins as potential targets. Within the vaccines in development, our review emphasizes the various strategies in parallel development that are unique in the vaccine field against a single disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  11. Maaroufi A, Vince A, Himatt SM, Mohamed R, Fung J, Opare-Sem O, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 10;24 Suppl 2:8-24.
    PMID: 29105285 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12762
    Due to the introduction of newer, more efficacious treatment options, there is a pressing need for policy makers and public health officials to develop or adapt national hepatitis C virus (HCV) control strategies to the changing epidemiological landscape. To do so, detailed, country-specific data are needed to characterize the burden of chronic HCV infection. In this study of 17 countries, a literature review of published and unpublished data on HCV prevalence, viraemia, genotype, age and gender distribution, liver transplants and diagnosis and treatment rates was conducted, and inputs were validated by expert consensus in each country. Viraemic prevalence in this study ranged from 0.2% in Hong Kong to 2.4% in Taiwan, while the largest viraemic populations were in Nigeria (2 597 000 cases) and Taiwan (569 000 cases). Diagnosis, treatment and liver transplant rates varied widely across the countries included in this analysis, as did the availability of reliable data. Addressing data gaps will be critical for the development of future strategies to manage and minimize the disease burden of hepatitis C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
  12. Chan HLY, Chen CJ, Omede O, Al Qamish J, Al Naamani K, Bane A, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 10;24 Suppl 2:25-43.
    PMID: 29105283 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12760
    Factors influencing the morbidity and mortality associated with viremic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection change over time and place, making it difficult to compare reported estimates. Models were developed for 17 countries (Bahrain, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Colombia, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, Qatar and Taiwan) to quantify and characterize the viremic population as well as forecast the changes in the infected population and the corresponding disease burden from 2015 to 2030. Model inputs were agreed upon through expert consensus, and a standardized methodology was followed to allow for comparison across countries. The viremic prevalence is expected to remain constant or decline in all but four countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Jordan and Oman); however, HCV-related morbidity and mortality will increase in all countries except Qatar and Taiwan. In Qatar, the high-treatment rate will contribute to a reduction in total cases and HCV-related morbidity by 2030. In the remaining countries, however, the current treatment paradigm will be insufficient to achieve large reductions in HCV-related morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
  13. Hiebert L, Hecht R, Soe-Lin S, Mohamed R, Shabaruddin FH, Syed Mansor SM, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2019 May;18:112-120.
    PMID: 30921591 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2018.12.005
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, more than 330 000 individuals are estimated to be chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but less than 2% have been treated to date.

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the required coverage and costs of a national screening strategy to inform the launch of an HCV elimination program.

    METHODS: We designed an HCV screening strategy based on a "stepwise" approach. This approach relied on targeting of people who inject drugs in the early years, with delayed onset of widespread general population screening. Annual coverage requirements and associated costs were estimated to ensure that the World Health Organization elimination treatment targets were met.

    RESULTS: In total, 6 million individuals would have to be screened between 2018 and 2030. Targeting of people who inject drugs in the early years would limit annual screening coverage to less than 1 million individuals from 2018 to 2026. General population screening would have to be launched by 2026. Total costs were estimated at MYR 222 million ($58 million). Proportional to coverage targets, 60% of program costs would fall from 2026 to 2030.

    CONCLUSIONS: This exercise was one of the first attempts to conduct a detailed analysis of the required screening coverage and costs of a national HCV elimination strategy. These findings suggest that the stepwise approach could delay the onset of general population screening by more than 5 years after the program's launch. This delay would allow additional time to mobilize investments required for a successful general population screening program and also minimize program costs. This strategy prototype could inform the design of effective screening strategies in other countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
  14. Ong KC, Wong KT
    Brain Pathol., 2015 Sep;25(5):605-13.
    PMID: 26276024 DOI: 10.1111/bpa.12278
    The genus Henipavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae includes the Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) which were discovered in the 1990s in Australia and Malaysia, respectively, after emerging to cause severe and often fatal outbreaks in humans and animals. While HeV is confined to Australia, more recent NiV outbreaks have been reported in Bangladesh, India and the Philippines. The clinical manifestations of both henipaviruses in humans appear similar, with a predominance of an acute encephalitic syndrome. Likewise, the pathological features are similar and characterized by disseminated, multi-organ vasculopathy comprising endothelial infection/ulceration, vasculitis, vasculitis-induced thrombosis/occlusion, parenchymal ischemia/microinfarction, and parenchymal cell infection in the central nervous system (CNS), lung, kidney and other major organs. This unique dual pathogenetic mechanism of vasculitis-induced microinfarction and neuronal infection causes severe tissue damage in the CNS. Both viruses can also cause relapsing encephalitis months and years after the acute infection. Many animal models studied to date have largely confirmed the pathology of henipavirus infection, and provided the means to test new therapeutic agents and vaccines. As the bat is the natural host of henipaviruses and has worldwide distribution, spillover events into human populations are expected to occur in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
  15. Mehrbod P, Omar AR, Hair-Bejo M, Haghani A, Ideris A
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:872370.
    PMID: 25478576 DOI: 10.1155/2014/872370
    The influenza virus (IV) is known to be a resistant virus with frequent mutations, causing severe respiratory diseases in the upper respiratory system. Public health concerns about clinical efficacy of all conventional drugs are ambiguous; therefore, finding additional therapeutic agents is critical to prevent and control influenza outbreaks. Influenza is associated with the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Scientists have reported that anti-inflammatory drugs, with pleiotropic effects, reduce the burden of severe influenza diseases. Therefore, statins, which are cardioprotective drugs with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, may help patients suffering from influenza virus (IV). This review delineates the potential use of statins as an alternative therapy in treating influenza related illness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
  16. Tan CW, Lai JK, Sam IC, Chan YF
    J. Biomed. Sci., 2014;21:14.
    PMID: 24521134 DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-21-14
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  17. Baharuddin A, Hassan AA, Sheng GC, Nasir SB, Othman S, Yusof R, et al.
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2014;20(21):3428-44.
    PMID: 24001228
    Viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family primarily spread through arthropod vectors, and are the major causes of illness and death around the globe. The Flaviviridae family consists of 3 genera which include the Flavivirus genus (type species, yellow fever virus) as the largest genus, the Hepacivirus (type species, hepatitis C virus) and the Pestivirus (type species, bovine virus diarrhea). The flaviviruses (Flavivirus genus) are small RNA viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks that take over host cell machinery in order to propagate. However, hepaciviruses and pestiviruses are not antropod-borne. Despite the extensive research and public health concern associated with flavivirus diseases, to date, there is no specific treatment available for any flavivirus infections, though commercially available vaccines for yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-born encephalitis exist. Due to the global threat of viral pandemics, there is an urgent need for new drugs. In many countries, patients with severe cases of flavivirus infections are treated only by supportive care, which includes intravenous fluids, hospitalization, respiratory support, and prevention of secondary infections. This review discusses the strategies used towards the discovery of antiviral drugs, focusing on rational drug design against Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Only modified peptidic, nonpeptidic, natural compounds and fragment-based inhibitors (typically of mass less than 300 Da) against structural and non-structural proteins are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
  18. Wong MH, Sockalingam S, Zain A
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2011 Aug;14(3):e38-41.
    PMID: 21816012 DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2011.01602.x
    We report a 57-year-old woman with a 20-year history of hepatitis B presenting with progressive proximal lower limb weakness for the previous 1 month. Previous medical history included a pericardial and pleural effusion, of which no cause was found and pulmonary tuberculosis which has been adequately treated. Examination revealed multiple telangiactasia over face and nail beds and bilateral proximal lower limb weakness of power 4/5. Biochemical investigation revealed a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 36 mm/h, elevated creatinine kinase levels (14,363 IU/L) and raised liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase 445 IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase 606 IU/L) with high hepatitis B virus DNA (1,021,158 copies/mL). Nerve conduction tests and muscle biopsy were consistent with polymyositis. She received entacavir for hepatitis B treatment. Despite treatment with entacavir for 10 weeks, her weakness persisted and prednisolone was added. Upon commencement of prednisolone, her symptoms and biochemical profiles returned to normal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  19. Hamidah A, Thambidorai CR, Jamal R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Oct;60(4):517-9.
    PMID: 16570722
    We describe a patient with HbE-beta thalassaemia and chronic hepatitis C virus infection (genotype 1a) who was treated successfully with peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin, following failure to respond to standard interferon and ribavirin therapy. She had sustained virological response for nearly 24 months after completing peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin therapy. Transfusion requirements were significantly increased during combination therapy due to ribavirin-induced haemolysis. The adverse effects of interferon were well tolerated. Combination therapy with peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin maybe a feasible treatment option for a subset of thalassaemia/HCV infected non-responders to standard interferon-based therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  20. Gane E
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:72-6.
    PMID: 16108179
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
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