Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 99 in total

  1. Lina Izzati, A., Haszianaliza, H., Zar, C.T.
    Medicine & Health, 2018;13(1):49-70.
    Malaysia is blessed to have several natural products. Since past decades, studies have been carried out to discover the highly effective anti-atherosclerotic supplements. The phytoestrogens and soy proteins have gained much attention, over the years. Several literature highlighted the therapeutic effect of alternative medicines on atherosclerosis. However, the overall anti-atherosclerotic mechanism of isoflavones regardless of menopause or postmenopausal state was not discussed, to date. This review aimed to summarize the molecular mechanism of different types of alternative medicines for the treatment of atherosclerosis in general population. The herbs commonly used in the treatment of atherosclerosis are garlic (Allium sativum), pomegranate (Punica granatum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) and green tea (Camellia sinenses). Nevertheless, the palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil and omega-3 also plays significant role in attenuating the risk of atherosclerosis by decreasing the LDL level, increasing the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), scavenging the free radicals and also decreasing the inflammatory process. Daidzein improves atherosclerotic changes by activating the NF-ĸB pathway and regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Genistein reduces the monocyte-endothelial cell and adhesion molecules secretion via cAMP/PKA pathway, it decreases the inflammatory response via initiation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/ heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Conclusively, we recognized that alternative medicines demonstrate remarkable therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of atherosclerosis in patients of all ages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis*
  2. Leong XF, Ng CY, Jaarin K
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:528757.
    PMID: 26064920 DOI: 10.1155/2015/528757
    Hypertension and atherosclerosis are among the most common causes of mortality in both developed and developing countries. Experimental animal models of hypertension and atherosclerosis have become a valuable tool for providing information on etiology, pathophysiology, and complications of the disease and on the efficacy and mechanism of action of various drugs and compounds used in treatment. An animal model has been developed to study hypertension and atherosclerosis for several reasons. Compared to human models, an animal model is easily manageable, as compounding effects of dietary and environmental factors can be controlled. Blood vessels and cardiac tissue samples can be taken for detailed experimental and biomolecular examination. Choice of animal model is often determined by the research aim, as well as financial and technical factors. A thorough understanding of the animal models used and complete analysis must be validated so that the data can be extrapolated to humans. In conclusion, animal models for hypertension and atherosclerosis are invaluable in improving our understanding of cardiovascular disease and developing new pharmacological therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/genetics; Atherosclerosis/physiopathology*
  3. Ho CS, Horiuchi T, Taniguchi H, Umetsu A, Hagisawa K, Iwaya K, et al.
    Biomed Eng Online, 2016 Aug 20;15(1):98.
    PMID: 27542354 DOI: 10.1186/s12938-016-0220-z
    Composition of atherosclerotic arterial walls is rich in lipids such as cholesterol, unlike normal arterial walls. In this study, we aimed to utilize this difference to diagnose atherosclerosis via multispectral fluorescence imaging, which allows for identification of fluorescence originating from the substance in the arterial wall.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/diagnosis; Atherosclerosis/pathology
  4. Lee KG
    Med J Malaysia, 2017 06;72(3):195-196.
    PMID: 28733570
    Frank's sign, also known as diagonal earlobe crease (DELC), was observed to be an aural sign of coronary artery disease (CAD). Since then, there has been much interest in examining this unique and controversial association. This report describes a patient who has bilateral complete and deep diagonal ear lobe creases, presented with angina and diagnosed to have coronary artery disease on angiography. The characteristics of the sign and its association with atherosclerotic disease were discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/diagnosis; Atherosclerosis/pathology
  5. Salvamani S, Gunasekaran B, Shaharuddin NA, Ahmad SA, Shukor MY
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:480258.
    PMID: 24971331 DOI: 10.1155/2014/480258
    Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/drug therapy*
  6. Wisam, Nabil lbrahim, Norsidah KZ, Samsul D, Zamzila A, Rafidah HM
    Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disease. Many experimental studies have elucidated
    the role of oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Apolipoprotein
    E is a plasma protein that is found to have antioxidant properties, and it also protects against atherosclerosis.
    Interestingly, the biological function of apolipoprotein E is strongly affected by polymorphisms in its gene.
    Based on this evidence, our aim was to investigate the association of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms with
    essential hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis
  7. Afroz R, Cao Y, Rostam MA, Ta H, Xu S, Zheng W, et al.
    Pharmacol Ther, 2018 07;187:88-97.
    PMID: 29454855 DOI: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.02.005
    Atherosclerosis commences with the trapping of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) in blood vessels by modified proteoglycans (PGs) with hyperelongated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. GAG chain synthesis and growth factor mediated hyperelongation regulates the composition and size of PGs in a manner that would cause low density lipoprotein (LDLs) retention in vessel wall. Galactosaminoglycans are a class of GAGs, commonly observed on PGs. Multiple enzymes are involved in galactosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Galactosaminoglycan synthesis is regulated by various signalling pathways which are amenable to pharmacological manipulation to treat atherosclerosis. Receptor mediated signalling pathways including protein tyrosine kinase receptors (PTKRs), serine/threonine kinase receptors (S/TKRs) and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) pathways regulate galactosaminoglycan synthesizing enzyme expression. Increased expression of these enzymes modify galactosaminoglycan chain structure by making them hyperelongated. This review focuses on the signalling pathways regulating the expression of genes involved in galactosaminoglycan synthesis and modification. Furthermore, there are multiple other processes for inhibiting the interactions between LDL and galactosaminoglycans such as peptide mimetics of ApoB100 and anti-galactosaminoglycan antibodies and the therapeutic potential of these strategies is also addressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/drug therapy; Atherosclerosis/metabolism*; Atherosclerosis/prevention & control
  8. Jamil DF, Saleem S, Roslan R, Al-Mubaddel FS, Rahimi-Gorji M, Issakhov A, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2021 Mar 12;203:106044.
    PMID: 33756187 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106044
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Arterial diseases would lead to several serious disorders in the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis. These disorders are mainly caused by the presence of fatty deposits, cholesterol and lipoproteins inside blood vessel. This paper deals with the analysis of non-Newtonian magnetic blood flow in an inclined stenosed artery.

    METHODS: The Casson fluid was used to model the blood that flows under the influences of uniformly distributed magnetic field and oscillating pressure gradient. The governing fractional differential equations were expressed using the Caputo Fabrizio fractional derivative without singular kernel.

    RESULTS: The analytical solutions of velocities for non-Newtonian model were then calculated by means of Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. These velocities were then presented graphically. The result shows that the velocity increases with respect to Reynolds number and Casson parameter, while decreases when Hartmann number increases.

    CONCLUSIONS: Casson blood was treated as the non-Newtonian fluid. The MHD blood flow was accelerated by pressure gradient. These findings are beneficial for studying atherosclerosis therapy, the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of some medical problems.

    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis
  9. Hakim NA, Hafizan MT, Baizurah MH, Zainal AA
    Asian J Surg, 2008 Jan;31(1):11-5.
    PMID: 18334463 DOI: 10.1016/S1015-9584(08)60048-2
    The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease (PVD) who had elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels, as well as to determine the latter's significance as a risk factor for PVD in the local population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/blood*
  10. Stephens GA
    Lancet, 1931;218:1295.
    DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)99682-X
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis
  11. Sahari NS, Shaharir SS, Ismail MR, Rajalingham S, Mohamed Said MS
    Mod Rheumatol, 2014 Nov;24(6):920-5.
    PMID: 24645724 DOI: 10.3109/14397595.2014.891497
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the associated factors of subclinical atherosclerosis measured with carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients without any overt traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors.
    METHODS: Forty RA patients with matched age and gender healthy controls were recruited. Carotid ultrasound was performed to all subjects. CIMT was considered to be abnormally thickened if it was more than the 75th percentile matched for age and sex reference values. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between the sociodemographics and disease characteristics of RA with thickened CIMT.
    RESULTS: Abnormally thickened CIMT were observed in 11 RA patients (27.5%) and in 4 control subjects (10%), p = 0.04. It was highly prevalent among RA patients with active disease (54.5% vs 17.2%), p = 0.02. Patients with thickened CIMT also tend to have erosive disease, p = 0.06. Seropositive rheumatoid factor (RF) patients also had significantly higher CIMT values as compared with sero-negative patients, p = 0.03. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that active disease was independently associated with thickened CIMT.
    CONCLUSIONS: RA patients are at risk for subclinical atherosclerosis despite absence of traditional CV risk co morbidities and active disease was the independent factor associated with it.
    KEYWORDS: Atherosclerosis; Carotid intima media thickness; Disease activity; Rheumatoid arthritis
    Study site: Rheumatology Clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/complications*; Atherosclerosis/ultrasonography
  12. Wan Ab Naim WN, Ganesan P, Al Abed A, Lim E
    PMID: 23365977 DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346016
    The effects of curvature and tapering on the flow progression in the aorta were studied using numerical simulations on a realistic geometrical model of the aorta and three different versions of the ideal aorta models. The results showed that tapering increases velocity magnitude and wall shear stress while local curvatures affect the skewness of the velocity profile, the thickness of the boundary layer as well as the recirculation regions. Wall shear stress distribution in the aorta serves as an important determinant in the progression of arterial disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/etiology; Atherosclerosis/physiopathology
  13. Ellulu MS, Patimah I, Khaza'ai H, Rahmat A, Abed Y, Ali F
    Inflammopharmacology, 2016 Feb;24(1):1-10.
    PMID: 26750181 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-015-0255-y
    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a collective term comprising of a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels. These diseases are the largest cause of morbidity and premature death worldwide. Coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease (stroke) are the most frequently occurring diseases. The two major initiators involved in the development of atherosclerotic CVD are vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid oxidation. In atherosclerosis development, ROS is associated with rapid loss of anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activities of the endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO(·)) resulting in endothelial dysfunction. In part involving activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, ROS have been involved in signaling cascades leading to vascular pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic gene expression. ROS is also a potent activator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which indicate plaque destabilization and rupture. The second initiator involved in atherosclerotic CVD is the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Oxidation of LDL in vessel wall leads to an inflammatory cascade that activates atherogenic pathway leading to foam cell formation. The accumulation of foam cells leads to fatty streak formation, which is the earliest visible atherosclerotic lesion. In contrast, the cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) and hepatic apolipoprotein E (apoE) expression can improve cardiovascular function. SERCA2a regulates the cardiac contractile function by lowering cytoplasmic calcium levels during relaxation, and affecting NO(·) action in vascular cells, while apoE is a critical ligand in the plasma clearance of triglyceride- and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/etiology; Atherosclerosis/physiopathology*
  14. Hemn HO, Noordin MM, Rahman HS, Hazilawati H, Zuki A, Chartrand MS
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:4173-208.
    PMID: 26347047 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S76225
    Owing to the high incidence of cholesterol-induced cardiovascular disease, particularly atherosclerosis, the current study was designed to investigate the preventive and therapeutic efficacies of dietary zerumbone (ZER) supplementation on the formation and development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with a high cholesterol diet. A total of 72 New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly on two experimental studies carried out 8 weeks apart. The first experiment was designed to investigate the prophylactic efficacy of ZER in preventing early developed atheromatous lesion. The second experimental trial was aimed at investigating the therapeutic effect of ZER in reducing the atherosclerotic lesion progression and establishment. Sudanophilia, histopathological, and ultrastructural changes showed pronounced reduction in the plaque size in ZER-medicated aortas. On the other hand, dietary supplementation of ZER for almost 10 weeks as a prophylactic measure indicated substantially decreasing lipid profile values, and similarly, plaque size in comparison with high-cholesterol non-supplemented rabbits. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarker evaluation indicated that ZER is a potent antioxidant in suppressing the generation of free radicals in terms of atherosclerosis prevention and treatment. ZER significantly reduced the value of malondialdehyde and augmented the value of superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, our data indicated that dietary supplementation of ZER at doses of 8, 16, and 20 mg/kg alone as a prophylactic measure, and as a supplementary treatment with simvastatin, significantly reduced early plague formation, development, and establishment via significant reduction in serum lipid profile, together with suppression of oxidative damage, and therefore alleviated atherosclerosis lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/blood; Atherosclerosis/drug therapy*; Atherosclerosis/etiology; Atherosclerosis/pathology; Atherosclerosis/prevention & control*
  15. Rashid Jusoh A, Das S, Kamsiah J, Qodriyah HM, Faizah O
    Clin Ter, 2013;164(4):307-13.
    PMID: 24045513 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2013.1578
    Consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil has been linked with incidence of atherosclerosis particularly in oestrogen deficient states. In the present study, effect of curcumin extract on the prevention of atherosclerosis was evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/etiology; Atherosclerosis/prevention & control*
  16. Adam SK, Das S, Othman F, Jaarin K
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2009;64(11):1113-9.
    PMID: 19936186 DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322009001100012
    To observe the effects of consuming repeatedly heated soy oil on the aortic tissues of estrogen-deficient rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/pathology; Atherosclerosis/prevention & control*
  17. Adam SK, Das S, Soelaiman IN, Umar NA, Jaarin K
    Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2008 Jul;215(3):219-26.
    PMID: 18648182
    Repeated heating of soy oil may promote lipid peroxidation. Oxidized unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, especially in estrogen-deficient states. This study was performed to explore the deleterious effects of repeatedly heated soy oil on the development of atherosclerosis using ovariectomized rats, which represent an estrogen-deficient state. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and were divided equally into four groups. The control group was fed with 2% cholesterol diet without any oil. The three treatment groups each received 2% cholesterol diet fortified with fresh, once-heated or five-times-heated (repeatedly heated) soy oil, respectively. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid profile and homocysteine levels were measured prior to ovariectomy and at the end of four months. Ovariectomized rats treated with repeatedly heated soy oil showed significant increases in lipid peroxidation and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Treatment with once-heated or repeatedly heated soy oil caused a significant increase in total cholesterol, while fresh soy oil caused significant reduction in homocysteine level as compared to other groups. Repeatedly heated soy oil caused significant increases in TBARS and LDL as compared to fresh oil. The higher level of homocysteine in the ovariectomized rats fed with repeatedly heated oil, as compared to those fed with fresh oil, also suggests the repeatedly heated oil contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Importantly, the protective effect of the soy oil may be lost once it was being repeatedly heated. In conclusion, the consumption of repeatedly heated oil may predispose to atherosclerosis in estrogen-deficient states.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/blood*; Atherosclerosis/pathology*
  18. Sazliyana S, Mohd Shahrir MS, Kong NC, Tan HJ, Hamidon BB, Azmi MT
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2011 Aug;14(3):267-75.
    PMID: 21816023 DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2011.01638.x
    AIM: The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and atherosclerosis among lupus nephritis (LN) patients and to study their associated risk factors.
    METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, carotid ultrasonography was performed on consecutive LN patients to determine CIMT and presence of carotid plaques. CIMT was considered to be abnormally thickened if it was more than the 75th percentile matched for age and sex from the 'Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study'. The association between thickened CIMT with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and lupus characteristics were examined. A total of 83 patients with the mean age of 33.6 ± 10 years were recruited.
    RESULTS: Fourteen patients (16.9%) had thickened CIMT and three (3.6%) had carotid plaques. On univariate analysis, traditional risk factors significantly associated with thickened CIMT (P < 0.05) were patient's current age, diabetes mellitus and waist circumference. Meanwhile, a lower serum C4 levels and higher serum C-reactive protein levels were the lupus-specific factors associated with thickened CIMT (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of thickened CIMT were age of diagnosis, lower serum C4 levels and waist circumference (P < 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: More lupus specific factors were independently associated with thickened CIMT, suggesting that a multi-targeted approach of treatment addressing both the lupus and traditional cardiovascular risks are very important. Larger prospective studies of these special risk factors are indicated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/blood; Atherosclerosis/diagnosis*; Atherosclerosis/epidemiology
  19. Zulkhairi A, Zaiton Z, Jamaluddin M, Sharida F, Mohd TH, Hasnah B, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2008 Dec;62(10):716-22.
    PMID: 18538528 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2006.12.003
    There is accumulating data demonstrated hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a protective activity of alpha-lipoic acid; a metabolic antioxidant in hypercholesterolemic-induced animals was investigated. Eighteen adult male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit were segregated into three groups labelled as group K, AT and ALA (n=6). While group K was fed with normal chow and acted as a control, the rest fed with 100 g/head/day with 1% high cholesterol diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. 4.2 mg/body weight of alpha lipoic acid was supplemented daily to the ALA group. Drinking water was given ad-libitum. The study was designed for 10 weeks. Blood sampling was taken from the ear lobe vein at the beginning of the study, week 5 and week 10 and plasma was prepared for lipid profile estimation and microsomal lipid peroxidation index indicated with malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and the aortas were excised for intimal lesion analysis. The results showed a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation index indicated with low MDA level (p<0.05) in ALA group compared to that of the AT group. The blood total cholesterol (TCHOL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were found to be significantly low in ALA group compared to that of the AT group (p<0.05). Histomorphometric intimal lesion analysis of the aorta showing less of atheromatous plaque formation in alpha lipoic acid supplemented group (p<0.05) compared to that of AT group. These findings suggested that apart from its antioxidant activity, alpha lipoic acid may also posses a lipid lowering effect indicated with low plasma TCHOL and LDL levels and reduced the athero-lesion formation in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atherosclerosis/drug therapy*; Atherosclerosis/metabolism; Atherosclerosis/pathology
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