Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 79 in total

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  1. Wong SL, Nyakuma BB, Nordin AH, Lee CT, Ngadi N, Wong KY, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Mar;28(11):13842-13860.
    PMID: 33196996 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11643-w
    The anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere is recognized as the main contributor to global climate change. To date, scientists have developed various strategies, including CO2 utilization technologies, to reduce global carbon emissions. This paper presents the global scientific landscape of the CO2 utilization research from 1995 to 2019 based on a bibliometric analysis of 1875 publications extracted from Web of Science. The findings indicate a major increase in the number of publications and citations received from 2015 to 2019, denoting a fast-emerging research trend. The dynamics of global CO2 utilization research is partly driven by China's policies and research funding to promote low-carbon economic development. Applied Energy is recognized as a core journal in this research topic. The utilization of CO2 is a multidisciplinary topic that has progressed by multidimensional collaborations at the country and organizations levels, while the formation of co-authorship networks at the individual level is mostly influenced by the authors' affiliations. Keyword co-occurrence analysis reveals a rapid evolution in the CO2 utilization strategies from chemical fixation in carbonates and epoxides to pilot-scale testing of power-to-gas technologies in Europe and the USA. The development of efficient power-to-fuel technologies and biological utilization routes (using microalgae and bacteria) will probably be the next research priorities in CO2 utilization research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere*
  2. Tang ACI, Stoy PC, Hirata R, Musin KK, Aeries EB, Wenceslaus J, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2019 Sep 15;683:166-174.
    PMID: 31132697 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.217
    Tropical rainforests control the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere near the equator and thus play an important role in the global climate system. Measurements of latent (LE) and sensible heat exchange (H) have not been synthesized across global tropical rainforests to date, which can help place observations from individual tropical forests in a global context. We measured LE and H for four years in a tropical peat forest ecosystem in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo using eddy covariance, and hypothesize that the study ecosystem will exhibit less seasonal variability in turbulent fluxes than other tropical ecosystems as soil water is not expected to be limiting in a tropical forested wetland. LE and H show little variability across seasons in the study ecosystem, with LE values on the order of 11 MJ m-2 day and H on the order of 3 MJ m-2 day-1. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) did not differ among years and averaged 1579 ± 47 mm year-1. LE exceeded characteristic values from other tropical rainforest ecosystems in the FLUXNET2015 database with the exception of GF-Guy near coastal French Guyana, which averaged 8-11 MJ m-2 day-1. The Bowen ratio (Bo) in tropical rainforests in the FLUXNET2015 database either exhibited little seasonal trend, one seasonal peak, or two peaks. Volumetric water content (VWC) and VPD explained a trivial amount of the variability of LE and Bo in some of the tropical rainforests including the study ecosystem, but were strong controls in others, suggesting differences in stomatal regulation and/or the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Results demonstrate important differences in the seasonal patterns in water and energy exchange across different tropical rainforest ecosystems that need to be understood to quantify how ongoing changes in tropical rainforest extent will impact the global climate system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere*
  3. Radzi Abas M, Ahmad-Shah A, Nor Awang M
    Environ Pollut, 1992;75(2):209-13.
    PMID: 15092035
    A study was carried out to determine the chemical composition of bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow in an urban forest in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean weekly rainfall recorded during the period of study was 63.2 mm. Throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception of incident precipitation were 77.1%, 1.2% and 21.7% respectively. Bulk precipitation, througfall and stemflow were acidic, the pH recorded being 4.37, 4.71 and 4.15 respectively. In all cases the dominant ions were NO3, SO4, Cl, NH4, K, Ca and Na. Of the ions studied Ca, K, Cl, SO4, Mg and Mn showed net increases in passing through the forest canopy, while NH4, Na, NO3, Zn, H and Fe showed net retention. This study shows that the urban environment of Kuala Lumpur contributes considerable amounts of materials to the atmosphere, as reflected by the high ionic contents in bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
  4. Nakamura A, Kitching RL, Cao M, Creedy TJ, Fayle TM, Freiberg M, et al.
    Trends Ecol Evol, 2017 06;32(6):438-451.
    PMID: 28359572 DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.02.020
    Forest canopies are dynamic interfaces between organisms and atmosphere, providing buffered microclimates and complex microhabitats. Canopies form vertically stratified ecosystems interconnected with other strata. Some forest biodiversity patterns and food webs have been documented and measurements of ecophysiology and biogeochemical cycling have allowed analyses of large-scale transfer of CO2, water, and trace gases between forests and the atmosphere. However, many knowledge gaps remain. With global research networks and databases, and new technologies and infrastructure, we envisage rapid advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the spatial and temporal dynamics of forests and their canopies. Such understanding is vital for the successful management and conservation of global forests and the ecosystem services they provide to the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
  5. Uemura Y, Sellappah V, Trinh TH, Hassan S, Tanoue KI
    Bioresour Technol, 2017 Nov;243:107-117.
    PMID: 28810504 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.06.057
    Torrefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) under combustion gas atmosphere was conducted in a batch reactor at 473, 523 and 573K in order to investigate the effect of real combustion gas on torrefaction behavior. The solid mass yield of torrefaction in combustion gas was smaller than that of torrefaction in nitrogen. This may be attributed to the decomposition enhancement effect by oxygen and carbon dioxide in combustion gas. Under combustion gas atmosphere, the solid yield for torrefaction of EFB became smaller as the temperature increased. The representative products of combustion gas torrefaction were carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (gas phase) and water, phenol and acetic acid (liquid phase). By comparing torrefaction in combustion gas with torrefaction in nitrogen gas, it was found that combustion gas can be utilized as torrefaction gas to save energy and inert gas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
  6. Tang ACI, Melling L, Stoy PC, Musin KK, Aeries EB, Waili JW, et al.
    Glob Chang Biol, 2020 Dec;26(12):6931-6944.
    PMID: 32881141 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15332
    Tropical peat forests are a globally important reservoir of carbon, but little is known about CO2 exchange on an annual basis. We measured CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia using the eddy covariance technique over 4 years from 2011 to 2014. The CO2 fluxes varied between seasons and years. A small carbon uptake took place during the rainy season at the beginning of 2011, while a substantial net efflux of >600 g C/m2 occurred over a 2 month period in the middle of the dry season. Conversely, the peat ecosystem was a source of carbon during both the dry and rainy seasons in subsequent years and more carbon was lost during the rainy season relative to the dry season. Our results demonstrate that the forest was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere during every year of measurement with annual efflux ranging from 183 to 632 g C m-2  year-1 , noting that annual flux values were sensitive to gap filling methodology. This is in contrast to the typical view of tropical peat forests which must have acted as net C sinks over time scales of centuries to millennia to create the peat deposits. Path analyses revealed that the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were primarily affected by vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Results suggest that future increases in VPD could further reduce the C sink strength and result in additional net CO2 losses from this tropical peat swamp forest in the absence of plant acclimation to such changes in atmospheric dryness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
  7. Fediuk R, Mugahed Amran YH, Mosaberpanah MA, Danish A, El-Zeadani M, Klyuev SV, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Oct 22;13(21).
    PMID: 33105753 DOI: 10.3390/ma13214712
    The incessant demand for concrete is predicted to increase due to the fast construction developments worldwide. This demand requires a huge volume of cement production that could cause an ecological issue such as increasing the rates of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. This motivated several scholars to search for various alternatives for cement and one of such alternatives is called sulfur-based concrete. This concrete composite contributes to reduce the amount of cement required to make conventional concrete. Sulfur can be used as a partial-alternate binder to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) to produce sulfur-based concrete, which is a composite matrix of construction materials collected mostly from aggregates and sulfur. Sulfur modified concrete outperforms conventional concrete in terms of rapid gain of early strength, low shrinkage, low thermal conductivity, high durability resistance and excellent adhesion. On the basis of mentioned superior characteristics of sulfur-based concrete, it can be applied as a leading construction material for underground utility systems, dams and offshore structures. Therefore, this study reviews the sources, emissions from construction enterprises and compositions of sulfur; describes the production techniques and properties of sulfur; and highlights related literature to generate comprehensive insights into the potential applications of sulfur-based concrete in the construction industry today.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
  8. Adcock KE, Ashfold MJ, Chou CC, Gooch LJ, Mohd Hanif N, Laube JC, et al.
    Environ Sci Technol, 2020 04 07;54(7):3814-3822.
    PMID: 32126759 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.9b06433
    Recent findings of an unexpected slowdown in the decline of CFC-11 mixing ratios in the atmosphere have led to the conclusion that global CFC-11 emissions have increased over the past decade and have been attributed in part to eastern China. This study independently assesses these findings by evaluating enhancements of CFC-11 mixing ratios in air samples collected in Taiwan between 2014 and 2018. Using the NAME (Numerical Atmospheric Modeling Environment) particle dispersion model, we find the likely source of the enhanced CFC-11 observed in Taiwan to be East China. Other halogenated trace gases were also measured, and there were positive interspecies correlations between CFC-11 and CHCl3, CCl4, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, CH2Cl2, and HCFC-22, indicating co-location of the emissions of these compounds. These correlations in combination with published emission estimates of CH2Cl2 and HCFC-22 from China, and of CHCl3 and CCl4 from eastern China, are used to estimate CFC-11 emissions. Within the uncertainties, these estimates do not differ for eastern China and the whole of China, so we combine them to derive a mean estimate that we term as being from "(eastern) China". For 2014-2018, we estimate an emission of 19 ± 5 Gg year-1 (gigagrams per year) of CFC-11 from (eastern) China, approximately one-quarter of global emissions. Comparing this to previously reported CFC-11 emissions estimated for earlier years, we estimate CFC-11 emissions from (eastern) China to have increased by 7 ± 5 Gg year-1 from the 2008-2011 average to the 2014-2018 average, which is 50 ± 40% of the estimated increase in global CFC-11 emissions and is consistent with the emission increases attributed to this region in an earlier study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
  9. Hector A, Fowler D, Nussbaum R, Weilenmann M, Walsh RP
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2011 Nov 27;366(1582):3165-7.
    PMID: 22006959 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0174
    With a focus on the Danum Valley area of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this special issue has as its theme the future of tropical rainforests in a changing landscape and climate. The global environmental context to the issue is briefly given before the contents and rationale of the issue are summarized. Most of the papers are based on research carried out as part of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme. The issue is divided into five sections: (i) the historical land-use and land management context; (ii) implications of land-use change for atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (iii) impacts of logging, forest fragmentation (particularly within an oil palm plantation landscape) and forest restoration on ecosystems and their functioning; (iv) the response and resilience of rainforest systems to climatic and land-use change; and (v) the scientific messages and policy implications arising from the research findings presented in the issue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  10. Tan KC, Lim HS, Matjafri MZ, Abdullah K
    Environ Monit Assess, 2012 Jun;184(6):3813-29.
    PMID: 21755424 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2226-0
    Atmospheric corrections for multi-temporal optical satellite images are necessary, especially in change detection analyses, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) rationing. Abrupt change detection analysis using remote-sensing techniques requires radiometric congruity and atmospheric correction to monitor terrestrial surfaces over time. Two atmospheric correction methods were used for this study: relative radiometric normalization and the simplified method for atmospheric correction (SMAC) in the solar spectrum. A multi-temporal data set consisting of two sets of Landsat images from the period between 1991 and 2002 of Penang Island, Malaysia, was used to compare NDVI maps, which were generated using the proposed atmospheric correction methods. Land surface temperature (LST) was retrieved using ATCOR3_T in PCI Geomatica 10.1 image processing software. Linear regression analysis was utilized to analyze the relationship between NDVI and LST. This study reveals that both of the proposed atmospheric correction methods yielded high accuracy through examination of the linear correlation coefficients. To check for the accuracy of the equation obtained through linear regression analysis for every single satellite image, 20 points were randomly chosen. The results showed that the SMAC method yielded a constant value (in terms of error) to predict the NDVI value from linear regression analysis-derived equation. The errors (average) from both proposed atmospheric correction methods were less than 10%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  11. Lai SO, Huang J, Hopke PK, Holsen TM
    Sci Total Environ, 2011 Mar 1;409(7):1320-7.
    PMID: 21257194 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.12.032
    In this project, several surrogate surfaces designed to directly measure Hg dry deposition were investigated. Static water surrogate surfaces (SWSS) containing deionized (DI), acidified water, or salt solutions, and a knife-edge surrogate surface (KSS) using quartz fiber filters (QFF), KCl-coated QFF and gold-coated QFF were evaluated as a means to directly measure mercury (Hg) dry deposition. The SWSS was hypothesized to collect deposited elemental mercury (Hg⁰), reactive gaseous/oxidized mercury (RGM), and mercury associated with particulate matter (Hg(p)) while the QFF, KCl-coated QFF, and gold-coated QFF on the KSS were hypothesized to collect Hg(p), RGM+Hg(p), and Hg⁰+RGM+Hg(p), respectively. The Hg flux measured by the DI water was significantly smaller than that captured by the acidified water, probably because Hg⁰ was oxidized to Hg²+ which stabilized the deposited Hg and decreased mass transfer resistance. Acidified BrCl, which efficiently oxidizes Hg⁰, captured significantly more Hg than other solutions. However, of all collection media, gold-coated QFFs captured 6 to 100 times greater Hg mass than the other surfaces, probably because there is no surface resistance for Hg⁰ deposition to gold surfaces. In addition, the Hg⁰ concentration is usually 100-1000 times higher than RGM and Hg(p). For all other media, co-located samples were not significantly different, and the combination of daytime plus nighttime results were comparable to 24-h samples, implying that Hg⁰, RGM and Hg(p) were not released after they deposited nor did the surfaces reach equilibrium with the atmosphere. Based on measured Hg ambient air concentrations and fluxes, dry deposition velocities of RGM and Hg⁰ to DI water and other surfaces were 5.6±5.4 and 0.005-0.68 cm s⁻¹ in this study, respectively. These results suggest surrogate surfaces can be used to measure Hg dry deposition; however, extrapolating the results to natural surface can be challenging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  12. Roslan RN, Hanif NM, Othman MR, Azmi WN, Yan XX, Ali MM, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2010 Sep;60(9):1584-90.
    PMID: 20451220 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.04.004
    A study was done to determine the concentrations of surfactants on the sea-surface microlayer and in atmospheric aerosols in several coastal areas around the Malaysian peninsula. The concentrations of surfactants from the sea-surface microlayer (collected using rotation drum) and from aerosols (collected using HVS) were analyzed as methylene blue active substances and disulphine blue active substances through the colorimetric method using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The results of this study showed that the average concentrations of surfactants in the sea-surface microlayer ranged between undetected and 0.36+/-0.34 micromol L(-1) for MBAS and between 0.11+/-0.02 and 0.21+/-0.13 micromol L(-1) for DBAS. The contribution of surfactants from the sea-surface microlayer to the composition of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols appears to be very minimal and more dominant in fine mode aerosols.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/analysis*
  13. Cracknell AP, Varotsos CA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2007 Sep;14(6):384-7.
    PMID: 17993221
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  14. Cui J, Zhou J, Peng Y, Chan A, Mao J
    Environ Sci Process Impacts, 2015 Dec;17(12):2082-91.
    PMID: 26515781 DOI: 10.1039/c5em00383k
    A detailed study on the solution chemistry of red soil in South China is presented. Data are collected from two simulated column-leaching experiments with an improved setup to evaluate the effects of atmospheric N deposition (ADN) composition and ADN flux on agricultural soil acidification using a (15)N tracer technique and an in situ soil solution sampler. The results show that solution pH values decline regardless of the increase of the NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio in the ADN composition or ADN flux, while exchangeable Al(3+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) concentrations increase at different soil depths (20, 40, and 60 cm). Compared with the control, ADN (60 kg per ha per year N, NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio of 2 : 1) decreases solution pH values, increases solution concentrations of NO3(-)-N, Al(3+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) at the middle and lower soil depths, and promotes their removal. NH4(+)-N was not detected in red soil solutions of all the three soil layers, which might be attributed to effects of nitrification, absorption and fixation in farmland red soil. Some of the NO3(-)-N concentrations at 40-60 cm soil depth exceed the safe drinking level of 10 mg L(-1), especially when the ADN flux is beyond 60 kg ha(-1) N. These features are critical for understanding the ADN agro-ecological effects, and for future assessment of ecological critical loads of ADN in red soil farmlands.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  15. Hafiz AFA, Keat YW, Ali A
    J Food Sci Technol, 2017 Jun;54(7):2181-2185.
    PMID: 28720977 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-2645-1
    The shelf life of rambutan is often limited due to rapid water loss from the spinterns and browning of the pericarp. An integrated approach, which combined hot water treatment (HWT) (56 °C for 1 min), oxalic acid (OA) dip (10% for 10 min) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), was used to study their effectiveness on the quality of rambutan during storage (10 °C, 90-95% relative humidity). Significant differences were observed in rambutan quality with the combination of MAP + HWT + OA after 20 days of storage. This treatment combination resulted into better retention of firmness and colour (L and a* values) than in the control. Change in the total soluble solid content was significantly delayed however the titratable acidity showed no significant change in comparison to the control at the end of storage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
  16. Lange E, Lozano AI, Jones NC, Hoffmann SV, Kumar S, Śmiałek MA, et al.
    J Phys Chem A, 2020 Sep 30.
    PMID: 32941031 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.0c06615
    We investigate the methanol absorption spectrum in the range 5.5-10.8 eV to provide accurate and absolute cross-sections values. The main goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of methanol electronic-state spectroscopy by employing high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoabsorption measurements together with state-of-the-art quantum chemical calculation methods. The VUV spectrum reveals several new features that are not previously reported in literature, for n > 3 in the transitions (nsσ(a') ← (2a″)) (1A' ← X̃1A') and (nsσ, npσ, npσ', ndσ ← (7a')) (1A' ← X̃1A'), and with particular relevance to vibrational progressions of the CH3 rocking mode, v11'(a″), mode in the (3pπ(a″) ← (2a″)) (21A' ← X̃1A') absorption band at 8.318 eV. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross-sections have subsequently been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of methanol in the Earth's atmosphere from the ground level up to the limit of the stratosphere (50 km altitude). This shows that solar photolysis plays a negligible role in the removal of methanol from the lower atmosphere compared with competing sink mechanisms. Torsional potential energy scans, as a function of the internal rotation angle for the ground and first Rydberg states, have also been calculated as part of this investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
  17. Ayavoo T, Murugesan K, Gnanasekaran A
    PMID: 33829056 DOI: 10.21037/sci-2020-027
    Wound healing phases comprise of highly synchronized process that begins due to a damage and restores the integrity of the injured tissues. Wound healing reduces the damage in tissue and supply sufficient oxygen and tissue perfusion, provide proper nourishment and humid wound healing atmosphere to re-establish the essential status of exaggerated parts. The untreated wound becomes susceptible for pus development, bacterial infection and complications like sepsis. Traditional and modern approaches are in practice to treat acute, open and chronic injuries, however, present wound care management has met with challenges and minimal positive effects. Stem cells have possible wound healing capability to overwhelm restrictions of the current wound care practices as it produces faster tissue regeneration in wound repair. Stem cells are unspecialized cells derived from adult body tissues and embryos that differentiate into any cell of an organism and capable of self-regeneration. The understanding on molecular mechanisms of stem cells has become the central and promising field in scientific study. This review focuses on the pre-existing traditional and modern treatments for wound healing, and types and roles of stem cells in wound care management. This review also focuses on the fundamental molecular characterization and factors influencing the molecular mechanisms of stem cells in wound healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
  18. Anita Ramli, Sohail Ahmed, Suzana Yusup
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:253-259.
    Siliceous mesoporous molecular sieve (Si-MCM-41) material with highly ordered hexagonal pore arrangement was synthesized at 373 K for 8-days duration by hydrothermal method, dried at 393 K and calcined at 823 K in N2 atmosphere. The calcined Si-MCM-41 was later functionalized with 10-50 wt. % monoethanolamine (MEA) by impregnation method and dried in vacuum at 343 K. The MEA-Si-MCM-41 samples were characterized for their physicochemical properties with FTIR, XRD, TGA, HRTEM, FESEM, BET and elemental analysis. XRD results showed that the intensity of the characteristic peaks of Si-MCM-41 reduces with increasing loading of MEA indicating that the MEA molecules are loaded in the pores as well as on the surface of Si-MCM-41. The appearance of FTIR peaks corresponding to N-H, C-N and C-H bonds suggested that Si-MCM-41 has been functionalized with MEA. The presence of Si-O-Si peaks in FTIR spectra of MEA-Si-MCM-41 samples indicates that the hexagonal pore arrangement remains intact and this is supported by HRTEM images. FESEM images show that MEA-Si-MCM-41 samples became agglomerated with increase loading of MEA. TGA analyses show that the MEA-Si-MCM-41 samples are thermally stable up to 528 K. N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms show that the textural properties of Si-MCM-41 material slowly change from a mesoporous material to non-porous material as the MEA loading increases due to pore filling effect during functionalization with MEA. Detection of N, C and H by elemental analysis confirms the presence of MEA in MEA-Si-MCM-41 samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
  19. Chee Guan Ng, Sumiani Yusoff
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:517-527.
    The main objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive LCI of medium scale composting of food waste
    and yard waste at institutional level, based on substance flow analysis (SFA). A secondary objective was to present the
    composition and assess the quality of the final compost product from composting of typical Asian organic waste (food
    waste and yard waste). The experiments were designed to represent a batch situation in an institutional medium size
    composting scenario with input material of food waste mixed with grass clippings and dried leaves. Two composting
    runs were carried out with the intention to showcase the heterogeneity of organic waste and study the effect of windrow
    size on the performance of the process. The input and output material were sampled and characterized in order to
    quantify the substance balance of the process. SFA was performed by means of the mass balance model STAN 2.5 to
    compute unknown parameters (gaseous emissions). SFAs have been performed for C, N, K, P, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb. The
    composting windrows were fed with 212.4 and 393 kg, respectively. VS content reduction is greater in composting pile
    with larger size (Run 2). The loss of C during composting was recorded in the range of 0.146-0.166 kg/kg ww. The C
    losses via leachate were insignificant (0.02% of the total input C). The total N loss during the process was 0.005-0.012
    kg/kg ww. The leachate generation was measured as 0.012-0.013 kg/kg ww. The flows of selected heavy metals were
    assessed. Heavy metals were of minor significance due to low concentrations in the inputs (food waste and yard waste).
    Heavy metals were found to be released to the atmosphere. However, majority of heavy metals remain in the finished
    compost. The C/N reduction during the process was in the range of 10-23%. In general, the compost composition was
    considered to be within the ranges previously reported in literature and thus ready for application in gardening. The LCI
    presented in the present study can be used as a starting point for making environmental assessments of medium-scale
    co-composting of food waste and yard waste in tropical environment. No major environmental problems were identified
    from the process, except for the emissions of GHGs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere
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