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  1. Razalee S, Poh BK, Ismail MN
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Aug;51(8):635-40.
    PMID: 20848060
    INTRODUCTION: The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is essential in deriving estimates of energy requirements for a population. The aim of this study was to measure the BMR in order to derive a predictive equation for the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) naval trainees.
    METHODS: A total of 79 naval trainees aged 18 to 25 years from a training centre (Group A) and on board a ship (Group B) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included height and weight. Body fat and free fat mass were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis method. BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry with a canopy system.
    RESULTS: The mean height, weight and body fat for Group A was 1.67 +/- 0.04 m, 61.0 +/- 3.9 kg and 12.7 percent +/- 2.5 percent, respectively, and 1.67 +/- 0.05 m, 62.3 +/- 6.2 kg and 14.0 percent +/- 3.5 percent, respectively, for Group B. The mean BMR for Group A (6.28 +/- 0.40 MJ/ day) did not differ significantly (p is more than 0.05) from that of Group B (6.16 +/- 0.67 MJ / day). The Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University and the Henry and Rees equations overestimated the measured BMR by 9 percent (p is less than 0.001) and 0.5 percent (p is more than 0.05), respectively, while the Ismail et al equation underestimated the measured BMR by 5.6 percent (p is less than 0.001). A predictive equation, BMR = 3.316 + 0.047 (weight in kg) expressed in MJ /day with weight as the only independent variable, was derived using regression analysis.
    CONCLUSION: We recommend that this predictive equation be used to estimate the energy requirements of MAF naval trainees.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism*
  2. Wong JE, Poh BK, Nik Shanita S, Izham MM, Chan KQ, Tai MD, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2012 Nov;53(11):744-9.
    PMID: 23192502
    This study aimed to measure the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of elite athletes and develop a gender specific predictive equation to estimate their energy requirements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism*
  3. Noor MI, Poh BK, Zawiah H, Henry CJ
    Forum Nutr, 2003;56:250-3.
    PMID: 15806886
    The energy and nutritional requirements of adolescents are influenced primarily by the growth spurt that occurs at puberty, and also by the need to maintain adequate levels of physical activity. Predictions of BMR have gained attention since the publication of the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) expert consultation report, which adopted the principle of relying on energy expenditure rather than energy intake to derive requirement of individuals. While the report predicts BMR accurately in many individuals from temperate climate, they are said to be less accurate in predicting BMR in populations living in the tropics. The collation of worldwide data on basal metabolism indicated that, relative to adults, there was a paucity of data in other age groups including the adolescents. Although several BMR studies among children had been reported in the 90's, the data in normal weight children are almost exclusively from small control groups in obesity studies. Furthermore, we know little as to whether BMR of children differs in differing climatic conditions. This paper presents predictive equations for estimating BMR from a two-centre study, Bangi (Malaysia) and Oxford (UK) and to compare the results with the currently used predictive equations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism/physiology*
  4. Foo FK, Othman AS, Lee CY
    J Insect Physiol, 2011 Nov;57(11):1495-500.
    PMID: 21840313 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2011.07.019
    The majority of true parasitoids manipulate their host's physiology for their own benefit. In this study, we documented the physiological changes that occurred in major soldiers of the subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Isoptera: Termitidae) parasitized by the koinobiont larval endoparasitoid Misotermes mindeni Disney and Neoh (Diptera: Phoridae). We compared the metabolic rate, body water content, body water loss rate, cuticular permeability, and desiccation tolerance between parasitized and unparasitized major soldiers. The metabolic rate of parasitized hosts was significantly higher than that of unparasitized termites. Mean total body water content of parasitized major soldiers (64.73±3.26%) was significantly lower than that of unparasitized termites (71.99±2.23%). Parasitized hosts also had significantly lower total body water loss rates (5.72±0.06%/h) and higher cuticular permeability (49.37±11.26 μg/cm/h/mmHg) than unparasitized major soldiers (6.75±0.16%/h and 60.76±24.98 μg/cm/h/mmHg, respectively). Parasitized major soldiers survived almost twice as long as unparasitized termites (LT(50)=6.66 h and LT(50)=3.40 h, respectively) and they had significantly higher tolerance to water loss compared to unparasitized termites (45.28±6.79% and 32.84±7.69%, respectively). Body lipid content in parasitized hosts (19.84±6.27%) was significantly higher than that of unparasitized termites (6.17±7.87%). Finally, parasitized hosts had a significantly lower percentage of cuticular water content than unparasitized major soldiers (10.97±1.84% and 13.17±2.21%, respectively). Based on these data, we conclude that the parasitism-induced physiological changes in the host are beneficial to the parasitoids as the alterations can clearly increase the parasite's chances of survival when exposed to extreme environmental conditions and ensure that the parasitoids are able to complete their larval development successfully before the host dies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism*
  5. Levesque DL, Tuen AA, Lovegrove BG
    PMID: 29623412 DOI: 10.1007/s00360-018-1160-7
    Much of our knowledge of the thermoregulation of endotherms has been obtained from species inhabiting cold and temperate climates, our knowledge of the thermoregulatory physiology of tropical endotherms is scarce. We studied the thermoregulatory physiology of a small, tropical mammal, the large treeshrew (Tupaia tana, Order Scandentia) by recording the body temperatures of free-ranging individuals, and by measuring the resting metabolic rates of wild individuals held temporarily in captivity. The amplitude of daily body temperature (~ 4 °C) was higher in treeshrews than in many homeothermic eutherian mammals; a consequence of high active-phase body temperatures (~ 40 °C), and relatively low rest-phase body temperatures (~ 36 °C). We hypothesized that high body temperatures enable T. tana to maintain a suitable gradient between ambient and body temperature to allow for passive heat dissipation, important in high-humidity environments where opportunities for evaporative cooling are rare. Whether this thermoregulatory phenotype is unique to Scandentians, or whether other warm-climate diurnal small mammals share similar thermoregulatory characteristics, is currently unknown.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism
  6. Welman S, Tuen AA, Lovegrove BG
    Front Physiol, 2017;8:745.
    PMID: 29018365 DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00745
    The observation of heterothermy in a single suborder (Strepsirrhini) only within the primates is puzzling. Given that the placental-mammal ancestor was likely a heterotherm, we explored the potential for heterothermy in a primate closely related to the Strepsirrhini. Based upon phylogeny, body size and habitat stability since the Late Eocene, we selected western tarsiers (Cephalopachus bancanus) from the island of Borneo. Being the sister clade to Strepsirrhini and basal in Haplorrhini (monkeys and apes), we hypothesized that C. bancanus might have retained the heterothermic capacity observed in several small strepsirrhines. We measured resting metabolic rate, subcutaneous temperature, evaporative water loss and the percentage of heat dissipated through evaporation, at ambient temperatures between 22 and 35°C in fresh-caught wild animals (126.1 ± 2.4 g). We also measured core body temperatures in free-ranging animals. The thermoneutral zone was 25-30°C and the basal metabolic rate was 3.52 ± 0.06 W.kg(-1) (0.65 ± 0.01 ml O2.g(-1).h(-1)). There was no evidence of adaptive heterothermy in either the laboratory data or the free-ranging data. Instead, animals appeared to be cold sensitive (Tb ~ 31°C) at the lowest temperatures. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent lack of heterothermy in tarsiers, and identify putative heterotherms within Platyrrhini. We also document our concern for the vulnerability of C. bancanus to future temperature increases associated with global warming.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism
  7. Malays J Nutr, 1998;4(1):-.
    MyJurnal
    In the field of human energy expenditure, the measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an essential element to derive energy requirement estimates for any given population. Besides basic anthropometrics data, this paper reports the generation of predictive equation for basal metabolic rates of healthy Malaysian adult from prospective measurements on 307 male and 349 females aged 18-60 years, using the Douglas bag technique. These new equations based on body-weight reveal that the current FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) predictive equations overestimate BMR of adult Malaysian by an average of 13% in males and 9% in female subjects while differences of between 4-5% were observed when compared to Henry & Rees (1991) equations for tropical people. There is a good reason to believe that the capacity to slow down metabolism amidst the hot and humid climate experience throughout the year as a genuine phenomenon for Malaysians. Similarly, these findings suggest that at equal energy intake recommendation for similar body weight, the lower energy needs of Malaysian could put them at greater risk for developing obesity. These observed deviations must be taken into account in formulating energy requirements of the population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism
  8. Malays J Nutr, 1999;5(1):-.
    MyJurnal
    A longitudinal study was conducted to relate basal metabolic rate (BMR) with growth during adolescence. Subjects comprise 70 boys and 69 girls aged between ten and thirteen years at the time of recruitment. Parameters studied include anthropometric measurements and BMR, which was measured by indirect calorimetry using the Deltatrac metabolic monitor. Measurements were carried out serially once every six months, with a total of 713 BMR data points collected over three years. Mean BMR of boys aged 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were 4.96 ± 0.63 MJ/day, 5.28 ± 0.71 MJ/day, 5.73 ± 0.68 MJ/day and 5.92 ± 0.63 MJ/day, respectively; while mean BMR of girls in the 10, 11, 12 and 13 year age groups were 4.96 ± 0.63 MJ/day, 4.85 ± 0.63 MJ/day, 5.05 ± 0.55 MJ/day and 4.94 ± 0.51 MJ/day, respectively. Comparison of measured BMR with BMR values predicted from the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) equations shows that the predictive equations overestimated the BMR of Malaysian boys by 3% and that of girls by 5%. The Henry & Rees (1991) equations for populations in the tropics underestimated BMR of boys and girls by 1% and 2%, respectively. Linear regression equations to predict BMR based on body weight were derived according to sex and age groups. It is recommended that these predictive equations be used for the estimation of BMR of Malaysian adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism
  9. Arshad A, Rashid R, Benjamin K
    Mod Rheumatol, 2007;17(6):470-5.
    PMID: 18084698 DOI: 10.1007/s10165-007-0628-1
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic joint disease of undetermined cause that is associated with significant disability. Low-grade fever, anemia, and weight loss are recognized extra-articular features associated with increased disease activity. Weight loss and cachexia are well-established features of RA. The mechanism behind weight loss in RA is not known and may be multifactorial. Reduced energy intake and hypermetabolism are the major two factors frequently implicated in the etiology of RA cachexia. One would expect the effect of the above two factors to be highest during increased disease activity and lowest during remission. The purpose of this study was: (a) to establish whether in RA patients changes in body composition mirror changes in disease activity, (b) to investigate the relation between the energy expenditures and weight loss, (c) to examine the dietary energy intake and its role in weight loss in RA patients, and (d) to investigate the relation between the cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and other variables including resting energy expenditure (REE), body composition, and acute phase reactants. Fourteen patients with RA were age-, sex-, and race-matched with 14 controls from patients with noninflammatory diseases/soft tissue rheumatism. The measurements included the following: disease activity assessment, anthropometric measurements, indirect calorimetry, and measurements of dietary intake. Blood was collected to measure the acute-phase reactants and IL-6 levels. We demonstrated that loss of fat-free mass (FFM) might accelerate during times of increased disease activity and is only partially restored during periods of reduced disease activity. This probably means that the extent of cachexia in RA patients is determined by the frequency and intensity of disease activity (flare) for a given disease duration. Hypermetabolism with increased REE was more evident during increased disease activity. Hypermetabolism in the face of increased energy intake continued to cause loss of the FFM. Interleukin-6 correlates with increased REE and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. There was no direct association between IL-6 level and low FFM. We conclude that loss of FFM is common in RA, cytokine production in RA is associated with altered energy metabolism, and preservation of FFM is important in maintaining good quality of life in patients with RA.
    Study site: Rheumatology clinic, Putra Specialist Centre, Kedah
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism*
  10. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A, Rahman ZA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(8):5238-54.
    PMID: 21954355 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12085238
    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata). The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha) was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe) under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM). The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism*
  11. Strickland SS, Duffield AE
    Ann. Hum. Biol., 1997 Sep-Oct;24(5):453-74.
    PMID: 9300122
    The areca nut is chewed by many of the world's population, mainly in South and Southeast Asia. Anthropometric data for 458 Sarawaki adults aged over 24 years, measured both in 1990 and in 1996, were examined in relation to use of tobacco and areca nut. Compared to non-smokers, smoking men were significantly taller and slightly (not significantly) thinner in both years, while smoking women were thinner in 1990 and slightly (not significantly) thinner in 1996. In both sexes there was an increase in the mean and range of body mass index (BMI, W/H2) over the 6-year interval. Smoking women showed a significantly smaller increment in BMI after allowing for areca nut use, which was associated with a similar trend, and this finding depended on including areca use in the model. The trend for men was similar. Possible effects of areca use could reflect variation in 'affluence' or conservatism, or appetite suppression. However, resting metabolic rate in 54 men and 70 women aged 24-60 years was associated with areca use. This association appeared to be mediated by the maximum room temperature of the 24 h preceding measurement. In women, a significant curvilinear association of RMR with maximum temperature was found in users of areca nut but not in non-users. In men, RMR was 7% higher (p < 0.05) in users of areca nut than in non-users, after allowing for age, height, weight, the sum of four skinfold thicknesses, and haemoglobin, but the association with maximum temperature was similar in both groups. It is speculated that constituents of areca nut modulate thermoregulatory pathways, resulting in prolonged temperature-dependent and hyperthermic heat production in this population; that males are more responsive to this effect than females; and that by this mechanism, and possibly also through centrally mediated effects on appetite for food, areca use could contribute to long-term variation in energy balance represented by change in BMI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism*
  12. Sampath Kumar A, Arun Maiya G, Shastry BA, Vaishali K, Maiya S, Umakanth S
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2018 10 10;13(1):344-348.
    PMID: 30641723 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.10.005
    BACKGROUND: Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) means the amount of energy utilized by body in physical and psychological resting rate, after a night sleep, awake without any previous physical activity post meal (10 h after last meal) & neutral environment. In people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) there is an increase in BMR which is said to be associated with the level of glycaemic control. So, the objective of the study was to find out the correlation between BMR, Insulin resistance and Visceral fat in T2DM with peripheral neuropathy.

    MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 50 participants with T2DM with peripheral neuropathy were included. Age group of 30-75 years were selected for the study. Participants with a known history of neurological disease, locomotor disability, and pregnancy were excluded from the study. Demographic details of the participants like duration of diabetes mellitus, age, Fasting Blood Glucose, Fasting Insulin, HOMA-IR, Glycated Haemoglobin (HBA1c), Neuropathy and Blood pressure values were noted. We measured Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) by using Mifflin-St Jeor predictive equation in T2DM with peripheral neuropathy.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the participants is 60.16 ± 10.62. The mean duration of T2DM 13.44 ± 11.92. In the present study we found a statistical significant correlation between BMR and HOMA IR (r = 0.913*; p = 0.000), BMR & Fasting blood sugar (FBS) (r = 0.281*; p = 0.048), BMR and Visceral fat (VF) (r = 0.332*; p = 0.018).

    CONCLUSION: Basal metabolic rate is correlated to Homa-IR, visceral fat, fasting blood sugar and musculoskeletal mass among T2DM with peripheral neuropathy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism*
  13. Kliemann N, Murphy N, Viallon V, Freisling H, Tsilidis KK, Rinaldi S, et al.
    Int J Cancer, 2020 08 01;147(3):648-661.
    PMID: 31652358 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32753
    Emerging evidence suggests that a metabolic profile associated with obesity may be a more relevant risk factor for some cancers than adiposity per se. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an indicator of overall body metabolism and may be a proxy for the impact of a specific metabolic profile on cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of predicted BMR with incidence of 13 obesity-related cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). BMR at baseline was calculated using the WHO/FAO/UNU equations and the relationships between BMR and cancer risk were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. A total of 141,295 men and 317,613 women, with a mean follow-up of 14 years were included in the analysis. Overall, higher BMR was associated with a greater risk for most cancers that have been linked with obesity. However, among normal weight participants, higher BMR was associated with elevated risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio per 1-standard deviation change in BMR [HR1-SD ]: 2.46; 95% CI 1.20; 5.03) and distal colon cancer (HR1-SD : 1.33; 95% CI 1.001; 1.77) among men and with proximal colon (HR1-SD : 1.16; 95% CI 1.01; 1.35), pancreatic (HR1-SD : 1.37; 95% CI 1.13; 1.66), thyroid (HR1-SD : 1.65; 95% CI 1.33; 2.05), postmenopausal breast (HR1-SD : 1.17; 95% CI 1.11; 1.22) and endometrial (HR1-SD : 1.20; 95% CI 1.03; 1.40) cancers in women. These results indicate that higher BMR may be an indicator of a metabolic phenotype associated with risk of certain cancer types, and may be a useful predictor of cancer risk independent of body fatness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism
  14. Tattersall GJ, Danner RM, Chaves JA, Levesque DL
    J Therm Biol, 2020 Jul;91:102611.
    PMID: 32716861 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2020.102611
    Infrared thermal imaging is a passive imaging technique that captures the emitted radiation from an object to estimate surface temperature, often for inference of heat transfer. Infrared thermal imaging offers the potential to detect movement without the challenges of glare, shadows, or changes in lighting associated with visual digital imaging or active infrared imaging. In this paper, we employ a frame subtraction algorithm for extracting the pixel-by-pixel relative change in signal from a fixed focus video file, tailored for use with thermal imaging videos. By summing the absolute differences across an entire video, we are able to assign quantitative activity assessments to thermal imaging data for comparison with simultaneous recordings of metabolic rates. We tested the accuracy and limits of this approach by analyzing movement of a metronome and provide an example application of the approach to a study of Darwin's finches. In principle, this "Difference Imaging Thermography" (DIT) would allow for activity data to be standardized to energetic measurements and could be applied to any radiometric imaging system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism
  15. Strickland SS, Duffield AE
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1998 Dec;7(3/4):300-6.
    PMID: 24393688
    The effects of population pressure on agricultural sustainability in the delicate tropical and subtropical ecosystems have often been thought to explain high prevalence rates of malnutrition in rural South-East Asia. However, recent studies in rural Sarawak suggest that processes of modernisation have resulted in increased variations in energy nutritional status in adults. A contributory factor may be consumption of the areca nut (Malay pinang, of the palm Areca catechu). This is thought to influence energy balance through effects on appetite and resting metabolic rate. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) data for 325 Iban men and 438 non-pregnant Iban women, measured in 1990 and again in 1996, have been analysed in relation to areca use, smoking behaviour, socio-economic status, and reported morbidity. Body composition derived from skinfold thickness measurements for 313 men and 382 women was also analysed. The results suggest that use of areca nut is associated with significantly lower age-related increments in BMI and percentage body fat in women after allowing for age, smoking, reported morbidity, and confounding socio-economic factors. Therefore, the impact of recent economic and social development seen in rising prevalences of 'over-nutrition' may be modulated by use of the areca nut.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism
  16. Reeves SL, Henry CJ
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000 Nov;51(6):429-38.
    PMID: 11271846 DOI: 10.1080/09637480050208044
    This study was conducted to examine how subjects modulate their food intake and energy balance when they migrate from a low energy density food intake pattern to one of high energy density. It was hypothesised that an increase in the energy density of food consumed would result in increased body weight of the migrating subjects unless food intake and energy balance could be modulated. Food selection, food intake, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and anthropometric measurements were made on 53 female and 56 male newly arrived overseas students. All subjects were from Malaysia, but the data was collected at Oxford Brookes University where the subjects were studying. Food intake using 3-day food diaries and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). BMR and anthropometric measurements including body weight were measured on arrival in the UK and after 3 and 6 months' stay. Student's t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the data. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found between the energy density of the foods consumed in Malaysia and after 3 and 6 months in the UK. There was also a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in protein consumed. However, there were no differences in total energy intake. From results of the FFQs, differences were found in food selection due mainly to the lack of availability of certain foods in UK supermarkets. No significant differences were found in the BMR and anthropometric measurements made at the start of the study and later assessments. It appears that Malaysian students are able to remain in energy balance and are weight stable at least during the first 6 months of residence in the UK, despite the wider choice of energy dense food available. This suggests that at least in the short term, subjects are able to modulate their food intake in response to changes in the energy densities and free choice of food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basal Metabolism
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