MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study, enrolling patients with superficial gastric neoplasms that underwent EFB followed by ESD. We divided cases to concordant or discordant group according to the histopathologic diagnosis of EFB and ESD specimens. We also analyzed the features that may have influenced the occurrence of histopathologic discordance and the association between discordant samples of adenocarcinoma and neoplastic invasion to deeper layers.
RESULTS: A total of 115 gastric ESD procedures were performed with 84 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. Histopathologic discordance between EFB and ESD specimens were observed in 35.8% of cases (30/84 lesions). The univariant-bivariant analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that histologic discordance was closely related to the size of the lesions ( P =0.028).
CONCLUSION: Histopathologic discrepancy between EFB and ESD specimens may occur in approximately one-third of cases, particularly for lesions over 20 mm, which may lead to crucial delays in gastric cancer precise diagnosis and treatment.
METHODS: All patients with suspected ITB or CD were prospectively recruited. A standardized protocol was applied, and the diagnosis was made accordingly. The protocol consists of history and examination, ileocolonoscopy with biopsies, and tuberculosis workup. The diagnosis of probable ITB was made based on at least one positive finding. All other patients were diagnosed as probable CD. Patients were treated either with anti-tubercular therapy or steroids. Reassessment was then carried out clinically, biochemically, and endoscopically. In patients with suboptimal response, the treatment was either switched or escalated depending on the reassessment.
RESULTS: 164 patients were recruited with final diagnosis of 30 (18.3%) ITB and 134 (81.7%) CD. 1 (3.3%) out of 30 patients with ITB was initially treated as CD. 16 (11.9%) out of 134 patients with CD were initially treated as ITB. The initial overall accuracy for the protocol was 147/164 (89.6%). All patients received the correct diagnosis by 12 weeks after reassessment.
CONCLUSION: In our population, most patients had CD rather than ITB. The standardized protocol had a high accuracy in differentiating CD from ITB.
METHODS: The international experts reviewed the evidence and modified the statements using a three-step modified Delphi method. Each statement achieves consensus when it has at least 80% agreement.
RESULTS: Nine final statements were formulated. An indeterminate biliary stricture is defined as that of uncertain etiology under imaging or tissue diagnosis. When available, cholangioscopic assessment and guided biopsy during the first round of ERCP may reduce the need to perform multiple procedures. Cholangioscopy are helpful in diagnosing malignant biliary strictures by both direct visualization and targeted biopsy. The absence of disease progression for at least 6 months is supportive of non-malignant etiology. Direct per-oral cholangioscopy provides the largest accessory channel, better image definition, with image enhancement but is technically demanding. Image enhancement during cholangioscopy may increase the diagnostic sensitivity of visual impression of malignant biliary strictures. Cholangioscopic imaging characteristics including tumor vessels, papillary projection, nodular or polypoid mass, and infiltrative lesions are highly suggestive for neoplastic/malignant biliary disease. The risk of cholangioscopy related cholangitis is higher than in standard ERCP, necessitating prophylactic antibiotics and ensuring adequate biliary drainage. Per-oral cholangioscopy may not be the modality of choice in the evaluation of distal biliary strictures due to inherent technical difficulties.
CONCLUSION: Evidence supports that cholangioscopy has an adjunct role to abdominal imaging and ERCP tissue acquisition in order to evaluate and diagnose indeterminate biliary strictures.