Data on blood cholinesterase levels in the Malaysian population is lacking. The spectrophotometric method of Ellman was used to determine the red cell, plasma and whole blood cholinesterase (ChE) levels in 407 Malaysian blood donors. The mean+1SD for plasma ChE in females (n = 48) was 2.37 + 0.70 umol/min/ml and 2.76 + 0.75 umol/min/ml in males (n = 359). The mean plasma ChE in males was higher than in females (p < 0.001). The mean+1SD for red cell ChE in females was 9.01 + 1.20 umol/min/ml whereas in males it was 7.69 +1.30 umol/min/ml (the mean red cell ChE in females was higher than in males, p < 0.0001). The mean+1SD for whole blood ChE for females was 4.31+ 0.58 umol/min/ml and for males it was 4.95 + 0.71 umol/min/ml. The mean whole blood ChE in males was higher than in females (p < 0.0001). Sex influenced the plasma, red cell and whole blood ChE. In males the plasma ChE was affected by the race factor. The mean+1SD plasma ChE for the Malay, Chinese and Indian were 2.92 + 0.80, 2.73 + 0.71 and 2.61+ 0.73 respectively (p < 0.002). The age factor in males affected the red cell ChE with 7.88 + 1.32 in the (30-69) age group and 7.47 + 1.23 in the (15-29) age group (p < 0.005). The whole blood ChE in females was affected by blood groups. The mean+1SD whole blood ChE for blood groups A,B and O were 4.19 + 0.42, 3.93 + 0.46 and 4.49 + 0.62 respectively (p < 0.03). The significant difference is between the ChE of group B and O, but the ChE of group A could not be determined to be different from group B or O. These results serve as guidelines for our local population in the evaluation of cholinesterase levels with regard to pesticide poisoning, liver biosynthetic capacity and unusual sensitivity to succinylcholine.
The huge population of persuadable, active, healthy and young students is the potential as blood donors to meet safe blood donation. This study focused on the existing level of knowledge regarding voluntary blood donation among medical (Faculty of Medicine and Health Science) and nonmedical students with science background (Faculty of Engineering) at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah. Four hundred and fifty-five students consisting of medical (231) and nonmedical (224) were selected through stratified random sampling to participate in the study. Data was collected using validated structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by structural equation modelling using SPSS AMOS Graphics version 22 and SPSS version16. The results showed a significant (pp
Plateletpheresis is a method used to remove platelet from the body either from random volunteer donors, patient's family members or HLA matched donors. A cross sectional study was carried out on 59 plateletpheresis donors aged between 18 and 55 years at National Blood Center (NBC), Kuala Lumpur. We compared the blood parameters before and after plateletpheresis and we found that the platelet count, FVIII, fibrinogen and thrombophilia markers anti-thrombin (AT), protein C and protein S were significantly reduced (p<0.05) with prolonged PT and APTT. There were significant changes in blood coagulation parameters but it is within acceptable range.
Blood donor selection contributes to the safety of both the donor and the recipient. The objective of this study was to identify the number and causes of blood pre-donation deferrals at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). A retrospective study was carried out to retrieve data regarding deferred blood donors at the HUSM in the year 2006. A total of 4,138 blood donors donated blood at the Transfusion Medicine Unit, of whom 231 were deferred or rejected as donors. The percentage of deferred donors was 5.6%. The main reason for deferral was a low hemoglobin (40.7%), with females constituting the majority of those deferred. This was followed by high blood pressure (29.4%) and male donors were predominant in this group. Medical illness caused 15.6% of donor deferrals. The majority of deferred donors were regular donors (64.1%). We recommend setting new hemoglobin criteria for donor deferral according to the reference range obtained for the particular population. Most of the other deferrals were preventable by proper health care education and awareness.
The aim of this study was to screen and identify the types of thalassemia among blood donors at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Thalassemia screening was performed by hemoglobin electrophoresis. A total number of 80 blood samples were obtained from donors at the Transfusion Medicine Unit, HUSM. The ethnic origins of the donors were Malays (n=73, 91.3%) and non-Malays (n=7, 8.75%). Males comprised 88.1% of the donors. Thalassemia was detected in 16.25% (n=13) of the blood donors. Of those with thalassemia, 46.2% (6/13) were anemic. Microcytosis and hypochromia were detected in 84.6% (n=l1) and 84.6% (n=l1) of these donors, respectively. The types of thalassemias detected were Hb E, 11.25% (n=9/80) and beta thalassemia trait, 5% (n=4/80). Among the thalassemias detected, the Hb E hemoglobinopathy was comprised of Hb E/ alpha-thalassemia (38.5%: n=5), Hb E /beta-thalassemia (23.1%: n=3), Hb E trait (7.6%: n=1) and beta-thalassemia (30.8%: n=4). In conclusion, screening for thalassemia trait should be included as part of a standard blood testing before blood donation. Further studies are required to look at the effects of donated thalassemic blood.
The screening for anti-amoebic antibody among a group of donors was to obtain negative control serum samples for an on-going antigen development assay in diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess. Out of 200 samples, 125 (62.5%) were negative, whereas 44 (21.5%) had IHA titer of less than 1:128 and 31 (16.0%) of the samples had significant IHA titers of 1:128 or more, in which 2 serum samples gave titers of 1:4096.
Serum ferritin and haemoglobin estimates were carried out on 78 first time blood donors with a view to determining iron store status. Of these 30 were Malays, 20 were Chinese and 28 were Indians. The ferritin level in Malay donors ranged from 16-160 mg/ml (mean 83 +/- 49.4 mg/ml in chinese donors is ranged from 36-500 mg/ml (mean 242.8 +/- 132 mg/ml), and in the Indian donors it ranged from 5 - 270 mg/ml (mean 94.6 +/- 67.9 mg/ml). The haemoglobin concentration for the whole group was 14.9 +/- 1.49 g/dl. There was no correlation of haemoglobin concentration with serum ferritin levels.
Seroreactivity to syphilis is high among Malaysian blood donors and expectant mothers indicating a high degree of treponemal infection. Further epidemiological studies are required to ascertain what proportion of these could be syphilis and what porportion yaws. Blood donors hava a higher reactivity rate than expectant mothers, the reasons probably being soical. The titres obtained in the VDRL test appear to have a relation to FTA-ABS reactivity although this is not to say treponematosis can be excluded on the basis of low titre VDRL results.
According to the class of hypovolaemic shock, a blood loss less than 750 ml is not associated with the physiological changes. As a result it may cause a delay in fluid resuscitation. We postulate inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter reduction in inspiration and expiration may resemble the significant volume of blood loss in a healthy adult. We conducted a study to examine the changes of the IVC diameter pre and post blood donation.The inferior vena cava diameter during inspiration (IVCi) and expiration (IVCe) were measured using ultrasound (GE HEALTH) in supine position before and after blood donation of 450 ml. Paired t-test and Wilcoxin rank test were used to analyse the data. Forty two blood donors enrolled during the study period. The mean age of blood donors was 32.3 +/- 8.9 and mainly male blood donors. The mean IVCe of pre and post blood donation was 18.5 +/- 6.2 mm (95%CI 18.23, 18.74) and 16.6 +/- 6.6 mm (95%CI 16.35, 16.76) respectively. Meanwhile, the mean IVCi of pre and post blood donation was 17.1 +/- 8.6 mm (95%CI 16.89,17.30) and 15.6 +/- 6.6 mm (95%CI 15.43,15.81) respectively. The mean difference of IVCe pre and post blood donation was 1.9 +/- 0.5 mm (95%CI 1.75, 2.13) (p<0.001). In contrast, the mean difference of IVCi pre and post blood donation was 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm (95%CI 1.34, 1.68) (p<0.001). As a conclusion, the measurement of IVC diameter by ultrasound can predict the volume of blood loss in simulated type 1 hypovolaemia patient.
Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn (HDFN) and Haemolytic Transfusion Reaction (HTR) may occur due to antibodies against Kidd antigen. In Malaysia, the prevalence of RBC alloimmunization due to Kidd antibody for cases of HDFN and HTR have been reported [1-2] however there is insufficient data in Hospital Umum Sarawak (HUS).The aim of this study is to determine whether Kidd alloimmunization causes HDFN and HTR. Indirectly categorize Kidd phenotype blood in regular blood donors.
Blood donation is important for lives saving and the need is unceasing. However, the shortage of blood supply
is a common issue. While the public is the main source of blood donation, it is unknown whether they are
aware about it. This study was carried out to determine the public's knowledge, perceptions and barriers
towards blood donation. Atotal of 384 male and female respondents were conveniently selected to participate
in this study. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software
version 22.0. Most of the respondents (60.9%) had never donated blood but their knowledge towards blood
donation was high (79.9%). Some misconceptions were indicated among respondents. Afraid of the needle
prick, pain or discomfort were the top barriers among non-donors respondents (45.3%). The majority of the
respondents believed that blood donation is a practice or selfless concern for the well-being of others (98.7%).
A significant relationship was indicated between age and level of education with status of blood donation
We studied the knowledge, attitude and practice of 27 parents of children with Thalassaemia towards their children's disease. The parents' knowledge was satisfactory. Most of them did not reveal details of the disease to their affected children. Some of them had further children despite being explained the risk of recurrence. Parents found it difficult to obtain regular blood donors and some had to resort to 'buying' blood. The Malaysian Association of Thalassaemia has a role to play in the education of patients, their parents and the public.
The objective of this study was to identify haematological parameters useful in screening for iron deficiency among blood donors. Iron deficiency is a common complication of blood donation and often goes unrecognized until anaemia develops. Biochemical markers such as soluble transferrin receptor (TfR), ferritin and log(TfR/F) have been proposed as more valid indicators of body iron status. Red blood cell (RBC) parameters are, however, more easily measured and have also been proposed as indicators of iron depletion. We measured ferritin and TfR in 192 blood donors together with RBC analysis, performed on two haematology analysers. Thirteen donors had parameters suggestive of haemoglobinopathy and were excluded from further analysis. Overall, 10% (18/179) of the remaining donors had iron deficiency, as defined by log(TfR/F) exceeding the 95th percentile of the value in the population of first-time donors. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity of ferritin was 100%, with a specificity of 90% at a cut-off of 15 mug L(-1). The sensitivity and specificity of RBC-Y at a cut-off of 152 for detecting iron deficiency were 81 and 89%, respectively. Haemoglobin content of reticulocytes, meanwhile, showed sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 93% when a cut-off of 28 pg was used. Both measures compare favourably with haemoglobin which only showed a sensitivity of 50%, although specificity was 91% at a cut-off value of 125 g L(-1). The parameter RBC-Y can be useful as a screening measure for iron deficiency in blood donors.
Hepatitis C virus infection is a major health problem worldwide. The current study estimated seroprevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and evaluated associated factors among volunteer blood donors of the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan. Of 1,131 volunteer blood donors enrolled, 46 (4.1%) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that positive donors were more likely to be 27-32 years old or >32 years old, have had 1-2 injections or >2 injections in the past year, or 1-5 intravenous (IV) drips or >5 I/V drips in the past 5 years. Positive donors had a family history of jaundice and were more likely to have been shaved (facial and armpit) by barbers. There was high prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among blood donors of the NWFP. Public awareness programs should target the identified risk factors to prevent HCV transmission. We highlight the weakness of the health care system for blood donation, as it does not offer any record management for donors.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends in hepatitis B infection among blood donors attending the Transfusion Medicine Unit at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing the results of HBsAg among blood donors for the years 2000 to 2004. During this period, 44,658 blood donors were studied. We noted that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of hepatitis B infection between regular and first time donors. There was also a decreasing trend noticed in both study groups. The mean prevalence was significantly different between first time (1.83%) and regular donors (0.45%) (p < 0.005). There is a need to improve public awareness programs to lower the incidence of hepatitis B infection in the general population and consequently first time blood donors. Future studies are also required to determine the trends and outcomes of these programs.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a species-specific DNA virus of the Herpetoviridae family. After a primary infection, HCMV persists in a latent form most probably in bone marrow progenitor cells or in peripheral blood monocytes. The virus can reactivate to result in shedding of the virus leading to virus dissemination and new infections. Immunocompromized patients are the ones most vulnerable to serious diseases occasionally acquired in blood transfusions. In a human population, HCMV seropositivity increases steadily with age to become approximately 100% in adults. This study was performed to detect seropositivity among regular blood donors in The Hospital of the Universiti Sains Malaysia, in the state of Kelantan. Using an enzyme immunoassay, it was found that 97.6% of blood donors were HCMV-positive. HCMV is highly prevalent and may be endemic in Kelantan. Hence, long-term strategies are required for the reduction of disease dissemination, and to prevent the exposure of immunocompromized patients to the virus.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection and the signal/cutoff (S/CO) value for false reactive, false positive, indeterminate and true positive HCV infection among apparently healthy blood donors in our area. This retrospective study was conducted at the Transfusion Medicine Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from June 2008 to June 2009. Blood samples were screened for anti-HCV using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Reactive cases were confirmed by recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Sixty-one blood donors were found to be reactive after the first screening test. Twenty-nine blood donors had reactive repeat screening, with only 9 samples being true positives. The S/ CO for false reactive, false positive, indeterminate and true positive anti-HCV samples were 1.02 to 1.45, 1.01 to 2.09, 1.07 to 2.43 and 35.95 to 119.89, respectively. The analysis showed the low incidence of HCV infections among blood donors in our area, however, thorough donor screening and stringent selection criteria are still recommended to eliminate high risk donors to improve our blood transfusion service.