Data on blood cholinesterase levels in the Malaysian population is lacking. The spectrophotometric method of Ellman was used to determine the red cell, plasma and whole blood cholinesterase (ChE) levels in 407 Malaysian blood donors. The mean+1SD for plasma ChE in females (n = 48) was 2.37 + 0.70 umol/min/ml and 2.76 + 0.75 umol/min/ml in males (n = 359). The mean plasma ChE in males was higher than in females (p < 0.001). The mean+1SD for red cell ChE in females was 9.01 + 1.20 umol/min/ml whereas in males it was 7.69 +1.30 umol/min/ml (the mean red cell ChE in females was higher than in males, p < 0.0001). The mean+1SD for whole blood ChE for females was 4.31+ 0.58 umol/min/ml and for males it was 4.95 + 0.71 umol/min/ml. The mean whole blood ChE in males was higher than in females (p < 0.0001). Sex influenced the plasma, red cell and whole blood ChE. In males the plasma ChE was affected by the race factor. The mean+1SD plasma ChE for the Malay, Chinese and Indian were 2.92 + 0.80, 2.73 + 0.71 and 2.61+ 0.73 respectively (p < 0.002). The age factor in males affected the red cell ChE with 7.88 + 1.32 in the (30-69) age group and 7.47 + 1.23 in the (15-29) age group (p < 0.005). The whole blood ChE in females was affected by blood groups. The mean+1SD whole blood ChE for blood groups A,B and O were 4.19 + 0.42, 3.93 + 0.46 and 4.49 + 0.62 respectively (p < 0.03). The significant difference is between the ChE of group B and O, but the ChE of group A could not be determined to be different from group B or O. These results serve as guidelines for our local population in the evaluation of cholinesterase levels with regard to pesticide poisoning, liver biosynthetic capacity and unusual sensitivity to succinylcholine.
The huge population of persuadable, active, healthy and young students is the potential as blood donors to meet safe blood donation. This study focused on the existing level of knowledge regarding voluntary blood donation among medical (Faculty of Medicine and Health Science) and nonmedical students with science background (Faculty of Engineering) at the Universiti Malaysia Sabah. Four hundred and fifty-five students consisting of medical (231) and nonmedical (224) were selected through stratified random sampling to participate in the study. Data was collected using validated structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by structural equation modelling using SPSS AMOS Graphics version 22 and SPSS version16. The results showed a significant (pp
Plateletpheresis is a method used to remove platelet from the body either from random volunteer donors, patient's family members or HLA matched donors. A cross sectional study was carried out on 59 plateletpheresis donors aged between 18 and 55 years at National Blood Center (NBC), Kuala Lumpur. We compared the blood parameters before and after plateletpheresis and we found that the platelet count, FVIII, fibrinogen and thrombophilia markers anti-thrombin (AT), protein C and protein S were significantly reduced (p<0.05) with prolonged PT and APTT. There were significant changes in blood coagulation parameters but it is within acceptable range.
Serum ferritin and haemoglobin estimates were carried out on 78 first time blood donors with a view to determining iron store status. Of these 30 were Malays, 20 were Chinese and 28 were Indians. The ferritin level in Malay donors ranged from 16-160 mg/ml (mean 83 +/- 49.4 mg/ml in chinese donors is ranged from 36-500 mg/ml (mean 242.8 +/- 132 mg/ml), and in the Indian donors it ranged from 5 - 270 mg/ml (mean 94.6 +/- 67.9 mg/ml). The haemoglobin concentration for the whole group was 14.9 +/- 1.49 g/dl. There was no correlation of haemoglobin concentration with serum ferritin levels.
Seroreactivity to syphilis is high among Malaysian blood donors and expectant mothers indicating a high degree of treponemal infection. Further epidemiological studies are required to ascertain what proportion of these could be syphilis and what porportion yaws. Blood donors hava a higher reactivity rate than expectant mothers, the reasons probably being soical. The titres obtained in the VDRL test appear to have a relation to FTA-ABS reactivity although this is not to say treponematosis can be excluded on the basis of low titre VDRL results.
The screening for anti-amoebic antibody among a group of donors was to obtain negative control serum samples for an on-going antigen development assay in diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess. Out of 200 samples, 125 (62.5%) were negative, whereas 44 (21.5%) had IHA titer of less than 1:128 and 31 (16.0%) of the samples had significant IHA titers of 1:128 or more, in which 2 serum samples gave titers of 1:4096.
The aim of this study was to screen and identify the types of thalassemia among blood donors at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Thalassemia screening was performed by hemoglobin electrophoresis. A total number of 80 blood samples were obtained from donors at the Transfusion Medicine Unit, HUSM. The ethnic origins of the donors were Malays (n=73, 91.3%) and non-Malays (n=7, 8.75%). Males comprised 88.1% of the donors. Thalassemia was detected in 16.25% (n=13) of the blood donors. Of those with thalassemia, 46.2% (6/13) were anemic. Microcytosis and hypochromia were detected in 84.6% (n=l1) and 84.6% (n=l1) of these donors, respectively. The types of thalassemias detected were Hb E, 11.25% (n=9/80) and beta thalassemia trait, 5% (n=4/80). Among the thalassemias detected, the Hb E hemoglobinopathy was comprised of Hb E/ alpha-thalassemia (38.5%: n=5), Hb E /beta-thalassemia (23.1%: n=3), Hb E trait (7.6%: n=1) and beta-thalassemia (30.8%: n=4). In conclusion, screening for thalassemia trait should be included as part of a standard blood testing before blood donation. Further studies are required to look at the effects of donated thalassemic blood.
Blood donor selection contributes to the safety of both the donor and the recipient. The objective of this study was to identify the number and causes of blood pre-donation deferrals at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). A retrospective study was carried out to retrieve data regarding deferred blood donors at the HUSM in the year 2006. A total of 4,138 blood donors donated blood at the Transfusion Medicine Unit, of whom 231 were deferred or rejected as donors. The percentage of deferred donors was 5.6%. The main reason for deferral was a low hemoglobin (40.7%), with females constituting the majority of those deferred. This was followed by high blood pressure (29.4%) and male donors were predominant in this group. Medical illness caused 15.6% of donor deferrals. The majority of deferred donors were regular donors (64.1%). We recommend setting new hemoglobin criteria for donor deferral according to the reference range obtained for the particular population. Most of the other deferrals were preventable by proper health care education and awareness.
Objective: This study was done to identify blood donors with thalassaemia and iron deficiency. A cross sectional study was carried out at Pusat Darah Negara (PDN), Kuala Lumpur in November 2003.
Methods: Full blood counts were done on 242 blood donors (166 males and 76 females) Hb analysis and serum ferritin assay were done for all the samples. The first time donors were used as controls.
Results: Only 20 (8.3%) donors had MCV <80 fL and MCH <26pg. Six of the 25 donors with iron deficiency had a low MCV <80 fL) and low MCH <26 pg) but all the 8 (40%) donors with thalassaemia or HbE had a low MCV and MCH! The mean ferritin levels were found to be lower among regular blood donors (95.3 ug/L) compared to first time blood donors (116.6 ug/L) but this was not statistically significant. There were 25 donors who were iron deficient: one was a first time donor and 24 were regular donors - 12 (50%) had donated 3 times a year in the last two years. Iron deficiency was seen in 12 Malays, and 9 Chinese, and 4 Indians. 13.3% of the males (22 out of 166 donors) and 4% (3 of 76) of female donors were iron deficient. Thalassaemia and HbE were found in 8 donors. HbE trait was identified in 5 Malay donors. One Malay and 1 Chinese donor had beta-thalassaemia trait. Another Chinese had alpha (a^o) thalassaemia trait. Neither HbE nor thalassaemia were seen in the Indian donors.
Conclusion: In this study thalassaemia and RbE were seen in 3.3% and iron deficiency in 10.3% of the 242 blood donors at PDN. Iron deficiency was present in 3.2% of the first time donors and 12.8% of the regular donors. Regular donors should have the serum ferritin done for their iron status and if their MCV and MCH are low, Hb analysis for thalassaemia or haemoglobinopathy.
Keywords: Blood donors, serum ferritin, iron deficiency, haemoglobinopathy
According to the class of hypovolaemic shock, a blood loss less than 750 ml is not associated with the physiological changes. As a result it may cause a delay in fluid resuscitation. We postulate inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter reduction in inspiration and expiration may resemble the significant volume of blood loss in a healthy adult. We conducted a study to examine the changes of the IVC diameter pre and post blood donation.The inferior vena cava diameter during inspiration (IVCi) and expiration (IVCe) were measured using ultrasound (GE HEALTH) in supine position before and after blood donation of 450 ml. Paired t-test and Wilcoxin rank test were used to analyse the data. Forty two blood donors enrolled during the study period. The mean age of blood donors was 32.3 +/- 8.9 and mainly male blood donors. The mean IVCe of pre and post blood donation was 18.5 +/- 6.2 mm (95%CI 18.23, 18.74) and 16.6 +/- 6.6 mm (95%CI 16.35, 16.76) respectively. Meanwhile, the mean IVCi of pre and post blood donation was 17.1 +/- 8.6 mm (95%CI 16.89,17.30) and 15.6 +/- 6.6 mm (95%CI 15.43,15.81) respectively. The mean difference of IVCe pre and post blood donation was 1.9 +/- 0.5 mm (95%CI 1.75, 2.13) (p<0.001). In contrast, the mean difference of IVCi pre and post blood donation was 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm (95%CI 1.34, 1.68) (p<0.001). As a conclusion, the measurement of IVC diameter by ultrasound can predict the volume of blood loss in simulated type 1 hypovolaemia patient.
Blood donation is important for lives saving and the need is unceasing. However, the shortage of blood supply
is a common issue. While the public is the main source of blood donation, it is unknown whether they are
aware about it. This study was carried out to determine the public's knowledge, perceptions and barriers
towards blood donation. Atotal of 384 male and female respondents were conveniently selected to participate
in this study. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software
version 22.0. Most of the respondents (60.9%) had never donated blood but their knowledge towards blood
donation was high (79.9%). Some misconceptions were indicated among respondents. Afraid of the needle
prick, pain or discomfort were the top barriers among non-donors respondents (45.3%). The majority of the
respondents believed that blood donation is a practice or selfless concern for the well-being of others (98.7%).
A significant relationship was indicated between age and level of education with status of blood donation
We studied the knowledge, attitude and practice of 27 parents of children with Thalassaemia towards their children's disease. The parents' knowledge was satisfactory. Most of them did not reveal details of the disease to their affected children. Some of them had further children despite being explained the risk of recurrence. Parents found it difficult to obtain regular blood donors and some had to resort to 'buying' blood. The Malaysian Association of Thalassaemia has a role to play in the education of patients, their parents and the public.
Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn (HDFN) and Haemolytic Transfusion Reaction (HTR) may occur due to antibodies against Kidd antigen. In Malaysia, the prevalence of RBC alloimmunization due to Kidd antibody for cases of HDFN and HTR have been reported [1-2] however there is insufficient data in Hospital Umum Sarawak (HUS).The aim of this study is to determine whether Kidd alloimmunization causes HDFN and HTR. Indirectly categorize Kidd phenotype blood in regular blood donors.
Blood supply shortage is a worldwide problem including Malaysia. According to statistical data from 2011 to 2015, Terengganu which is one of the states in Malaysia has the lowest blood donation rate. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude score towards blood donation and their associated factors among nondonors of Kuala Terengganu. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire involving systematically random sampling of 320 nondonors attending Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah. Data were analysed using Multiple Logistic Regression and Pearson correlation. Results: The mean knowledge and attitude scores were 5.19 (1.87) and 70.79 (8.19), respectively. Sixty-four percent (64.69%) and 92.81% of the participants have good knowledge and attitude, respectively. Gender, education level, and occupation have a significant association with knowledge, while education level and occupation were found to be significantly associated with attitude. No significant association found between the knowledge and attitude level. Most reported barriers to blood donation were a refusal to give blood to other religion and race. The main source to acquire information pertaining to blood donation was mainly from social media. Conclusion: Refusal of giving blood to other religion and race is recognised as the main issue that hinders participants to donate their blood. Thus, proper education and aggressive promotion regarding blood donation are needed especially among the nondonor in this region of Malaysia.
BACKGROUND: Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 showed that 20.8% of Malaysians above 30 years have diabetes. 10.1%of them are undiagnosed. Mobile blood drives could complement the public health department efforts in diabetes screening for early detection of the illness.
AIMS: This study aims to determine the necessity of diabetes screening as a routine screening program during blood donation campaign.
METHODS AND MATERIAL: Blood donation campaigns which involved the public community between January 2013 and June 2013 were included in this study. Donors above 30-years-old, not known to have diabetes, consented for diabetes screening. Diabetes screening was done by checking random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) levels while performing a Hemoglobin test and ABO grouping. Donors with RCBS of ≥ 7.8 mmol/L were given appointments for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes.
RESULTS: A total of 211 diabetes screenings were performed. Mean RCBS was 6 mmol/L. 43(20.4%) donors had RCBS≥ 7.8 mmol/L. 10 donors were later diagnosed to have diabetes (5.0%) and 5 donors were prediabetes (2.5%). 9 donors (4.3%) did not turn up for further investigation.
CONCLUSIONS: Blood donors are expected to be healthy volunteers. The diabetes prevalence among blood donors (5.0%) is considered low if compared with the prevalence in the whole population (20.8%). However, the number is largely comparable to the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in the country (10.1%). Routine diabetes screening during blood donation campaign should be implemented to safeguard donors' health and serve as a public health initiative to improve community health.
The incidence of HBsAg in random blood donors was found to be twice that of the prisoner population. The anti-HBe however, was about twice that in the prisoners when compared with the random blood donors. Both the random blood donors and the prisoners had similar incidence of HBeAg. The percentage frequency of HBsAg positivity with anti-HBe positivity was also similar in both groups. The 18 normal non-blood donors did not have HBsAg, HBeAg or anti-HBe.
A study of Kuala Lumpur blood donors for HBsAG, anti-HBc and DNA polymeraes showed that 5.5% in the sample population was positive for HBsAG, 50.1% for anti-HBc and 10.1% for DNA polymerase activity. There was no significant difference of the HBsAG among the Malay, Chinese and Indian groups. However, a significant difference was observed for the anti-HBc and DNA polymerase activity between the Indian and the Malay/Chinese groups. Both analysis were significantly lower in the Indians but there was no significant difference between the Chinese and the Malays.