Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 738 in total

  1. Ghosh KC
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose
  2. Buttery JE, de Witt GF, Ahmad UO
    Med J Malaya, 1967 Jun;21(4):362-5.
    PMID: 4230505
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/analysis*
  3. Lim HH, Zaini-Rahman M
    Med J Malaysia, 1979 Jun;33(4):317-20.
    PMID: 522742
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/analysis*
  4. Teoh ST, Hussain S, Hong JYH
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2022;37(2):49-59.
    PMID: 36578892 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.037.02.08
    OBJECTIVES: This study described and compared glycaemic changes with the use of the following Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) metrics: time in range, time in hyperglycaemia and time in hypoglycaemia from retrospective CGM data among children and adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), before and during Ramadan to better understand the impact of fasting during this season.

    METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted in 2 tertiary centres: Hospital Putrajaya (HPJ) and Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) from February to May 2020. Muslim T1DM patients between ages 8 to18 who intended to fast during Ramadan were given Ramadan-focused education. CGM iPro2® (Medtronic) was used before and during Ramadan, complemented by finger-prick glucose monitoring or self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG).

    RESULTS: Of the 32 patients, only 24 (12 female) were analysed. Mean age was 13.6 ± 3.1 years old, mean HbAlc was 9.6 ± 1.9% and mean duration of illness was 5.4 ± 3.4 years. Majority (91.7%) were on multiple dose injections (MDI) while only 8.3% were on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). All fasted in Ramadan without acute complications. Retrospective CGM analysis revealed similar results in time in range (TIR), time in hyperglycaemia and time in hypoglycaemia before and during Ramadan, indicating no increased hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic events related to fasting. Glycaemic variability before Ramadan as measured by the LBGI, HBGI and MAG, were similar to values during Ramadan.

    CONCLUSION: Ramadan fasting among T1DM children and adolescents, by itself, is not associated with short-term glycaemic deterioration. T1DM youths can fast safely in Ramadan with the provision of focused education and regular SMBG.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods
  5. Mastura I
    Malays Fam Physician, 2008;3(3):168-9.
    PMID: 25606148
    This article described the author's reflection on conducting research in primary care. Certainly hand-on experience will give a better learning experience for a person to explore further in research and research training will help too. Conducting a collaborative research with other institutions also help in better research outcome. Research capacity building is important as most patients are seen in primary care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring*
  6. Buttery JE, de Witt GF, Omar Ahmad U
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Sep;23(1):54-7.
    PMID: 4237558
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/analysis*
  7. Kalra S, Czupryniak L, Kilov G, Lamptey R, Kumar A, Unnikrishnan AG, et al.
    Diabetes Ther, 2018 Dec;9(6):2185-2199.
    PMID: 30390228 DOI: 10.1007/s13300-018-0521-2
    Premixed insulins are an important tool for glycemic control in persons with diabetes. Equally important in diabetes care is the selection of the most appropriate insulin regimen for a particular individual at a specific time. Currently, the choice of insulin regimens for initiation or intensification of therapy is a subjective decision. In this article, we share insights, which will help in rational and objective selection of premixed formulations for initiation and intensification of insulin therapy. The glycemic status and its variations in a person help to identify the most appropriate insulin regimen and formulation for him or her. The evolution of objective glucometric indices has enabled better glycemic monitoring of individuals with diabetes. Management of diabetes has evolved from a 'glucocentric' approach to a 'patient-centered' approach; patient characteristics, needs, and preferences should be evaluated when considering premixed insulin for treatment of diabetes.Funding: Novo Nordisk, India.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  8. Nawawi H, Sazali BS, Kamaruzaman BH, Yazid TN, Jemain AA, Ismail F, et al.
    Ann. Clin. Biochem., 2001 Nov;38(Pt 6):676-83.
    PMID: 11732650
    The effect of ambient temperature on the analytical and clinical performance of a glucose meter was examined. A total of 114 venous whole blood samples were analysed for glucose by a reference method, and by a glucose meter at 21-22 degrees C, room temperatures, 26-27 degrees C and 33-34 degrees C. Glucose meter readings at each temperature were compared with the reference values and evaluated by analysis of variance, Spearman's correlation, the percentage of glucose meter readings within +/- 10% of the reference value and error grid analysis. Analysis of covariance was used to determine the effect of temperature on glucose meter readings. There were no significant differences in the glucose meter readings and in accuracy of the meter readings between different temperatures. Temperature was not a significant independent determinant of the glucose meter readings. For each glucose concentration, the precision of the meter and clinical performance were comparable between the different temperatures. In conclusion, ambient temperature does not affect the accuracy, precision and clinical performance of the Omnitest Sensor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/analysis; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation*; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/standards; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/statistics & numerical data
  9. Alsalahi A, Alshawsh MA, Mohamed R, Alyousefi NA, Alshagga MA, Shwter AN, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Jun 20;186:30-43.
    PMID: 27025406 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.03.045
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditionally, the leaves of Catha edulis Forsskal (Khat) are consumed by the people of Yemen primarily for its recreational effect, and secondarily, for achieving certain tasks. Additionally, Yemeni diabetics chew such leaves in the belief that this can control their elevated blood glucose level.

    AIMS: This review focuses on outlining the findings of studies that have been conducted to display the glycemic effect of Catha edulis, while trying to balance it with findings of the association of its chewing with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search strategy adopted was based on a comprehensive research in Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, JSTOR, Scopus and Cochrane for articles, proceeding abstracts and theses to identify complete reports written in the English language about the glycemic effect of Catha edulis in humans and animals from 1976 to 2016. In addition, bibliographies were also reviewed to find additional reports not otherwise published. Thirty seven records were identified of which, 25 eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis using blood glucose as an outcome measurement. Studies were divided into four subgroups according to the experimental model, namely; non-diabetic animals, diabetic animals, non-diabetic humans and diabetic humans. The pooled mean difference (MD) of blood glucose between experimental and control were calculated using random effects model of the weighted mean difference of blood glucose with 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity between studies was tested using I(2) statistic and a value of P<0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.

    RESULTS: The scientific reports in the literature prevailed that the glycemic effect of Catha edulis were greatly conflicting with the majority of studies indicating that Catha edulis has a mild hypoglycemic effect. However, the meta-analysis indicted that the overall result showed an insignificant reduction in blood glucose (MD=-9.70, 95% CI: -22.17 to 2.76, P=0.13, with high heterogeneity between subgroups, I(2)=88.2%, P<0.0001). In addition, pooled mean difference of blood glucose of non-diabetic animals, diabetic animals and non-diabetic humans showed an insignificant reduction in blood glucose (MD=-18.55, 95% CI: -39.55 to 2.50, P<0.08, MD=-52.13%, 95% CI: -108.24 to 3.99, P=0.07 and MD=-2.71%, 95% CI: -19.19 to -13.77, P=0.75) respectively. Conversely, a significant elevation in the pooled mean difference of blood glucose in diabetic humans was indicated (MD=67.18, 95% CI: 36.93-97.43, P<0.0001). The conflict shown in the glycemic effect of Catha edulis is thought to be cultivar-related, while demographic and epidemiological reports suggested that chewing Catha edulis might be a predisposing factor contributing to the development of type 2 DM.

    CONCLUSION: It was difficult to draw a meaningful conclusion from both the systematic and the meta-analysis with respect to the glycemic effect of Catha edulis since the meta-analysis results were insignificant with high heterogeneity among subgroups and are greatly conflicting. The variation is most likely due to unadjusted experimental factors or is related to Catha edulis itself, such as the differences in the phytochemical composition. Therefore, it is highly recommended that further studies of the glycemic effect of the cultivar of Catha edulis being studied should come with the identification and quantification of phytochemical content so that a meaningful assessment can be made with regard to its hypoglycemic properties. In addition, well-controlled clinical studies should be conducted to confirm whether or not chewing Catha edulis is associated with the development of type 2 DM, since this would be a source of concern seeing that the plant is widely consumed in certain populations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose*
  10. Siner A, Sevanesan MS, Ambomai T, Abd Wahab Z, Lasem L
    BMC Res Notes, 2020 Aug 28;13(1):404.
    PMID: 32859257 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-020-05250-8
    OBJECTIVE: Glycaemic Index (GI) ranks the body's response to carbohydrate content in food such that high GI food increases postprandial blood glucose levels. One of the popular drinks at food and beverage outlets is a drink made from calamansi, a citrus that is believed not to induce an increase in blood glucose levels. In this non-randomised single-blind (participants) study, capillary blood from 10 healthy males were sampled following consumption of either glucose or the calamansi drink. The blood glucose measurements were then used to calculate the GI for the drink.

    RESULTS: The GI of the calamansi drink tested was calculated as 37, a value within the range of low GI foods. Trial registration Clinical Trials identifier NCT04462016; Retrospectively registered on July 1, 2020.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose*
  11. Siddiqui S, Zainal H, Harun SN, Ghadzi SMS
    Clin Nutr ESPEN, 2020 10;39:165-172.
    PMID: 32859312 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.06.022
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of preventable deaths and becomes a major public health concern in Malaysia. Multiple studies have reported the association between diet quality and glycemic parameters among known diabetic subjects. Its influence in individuals with borderline diabetes (i.e. pre-diabetes) or unknown diabetes is still unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the association between diet quality evaluated by healthy eating index (HEI) with the glucose outcome in individuals with distinct diabetes progression stages, as well as to identify causal factors in relation to their diabetes status.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted at clinical care setting in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) between October 2018-March 2019. Normoglycemic controls (n = 47), at-risk of pre-diabetes (n = 58), pre-diabetes (n = 24) as well as individuals with undiagnosed diabetes (n = 18) were queried about their habitual diet by using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationship between HEI score and 1) Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 2) postprandial blood glucose (2-HPP) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Multinomial regression was performed to identify predictors associated with diabetes status of study participants.

    RESULT: Overall, diet quality of study participants was unsatisfactory with the mean score of 58.05 ± 9.07 that need improvement. Total HEI score was negatively correlated with the 2-HPP levels in pre-diabetic patients (r = - 0.45, p = 0.05). No significant association was revealed between glycemic parameters and total HEI score among other groups. Age, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides and female gender were positively correlated with the risk of pre-diabetes, at-risk of pre-diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose*
  12. Sulaiman, I.M., HS, Lee, Balan, S., Jaafar, M.Z.
    Medicine & Health, 2006;1(1):20-24.
    Fifty Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) patients undergoing surgery under epidural anaesthesia were studied. All patients received dextrose 5% infusion at 100 ml/hr from the period of fasting until upon arrival to the operation room. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in Group 1 (n=25) received normal saline while patients in Group 2 (n=25) were given Ringer’s lactate. Both groups received their infusion throughout the operative period up to four hours postoperatively. Blood glucose level was measured at baseline, 45 minutes intra operatively and postoperatively at 30 minutes and four hours by using a glucometer. Patients in Group 2 has a larger mean increase in blood glucose level of 1.5 mmol/L between 4 hours postoperatively and baseline compared to 0.96 mmol/L in Group 1. However, this was not statistically significant. There was no difference in the increase of mean glucose level at 30 minutes when compared to baseline. There was a significant increase in mean blood glucose level in both groups in the postoperative period when compared to baseline. This study demonstrated that patients with NIDDM receiving Ringer’s lactate has a larger increase in mean blood glucose level compared to those receiving normal saline, but the magnitude is not statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  13. Lopez-Jaramillo P, Gomez-Arbelaez D, Martinez-Bello D, Abat MEM, Alhabib KF, Avezum Á, et al.
    Lancet Healthy Longev, 2023 Jan;4(1):e23-e33.
    PMID: 36521498 DOI: 10.1016/S2666-7568(22)00247-1
    BACKGROUND: The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is an easily accessible surrogate marker of insulin resistance, an important pathway in the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, the association of the TyG index with cardiovascular diseases and mortality has mainly been investigated in Asia, with few data available from other regions of the world. We assessed the association of insulin resistance (as determined by the TyG index) with mortality and cardiovascular diseases in individuals from five continents at different levels of economic development, living in urban or rural areas. We also examined whether the associations differed according to the country's economical development.

    METHODS: We used the TyG index as a surrogate measure for insulin resistance. Fasting triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose were measured at the baseline visit in 141 243 individuals aged 35-70 years from 22 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. The TyG index was calculated as Ln (fasting triglycerides [mg/dL] x fasting plasma glucose [mg/dL]/2). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random effects to test the associations between the TyG index and risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. The primary outcome of this analysis was the composite of mortality or major cardiovascular events (defined as death from cardiovascular causes, and non-fatal myocardial infarction, or stroke). Secondary outcomes were non-cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all myocardial infarctions, stroke, and incident diabetes. We also did subgroup analyses to examine the magnitude of associations between insulin resistance (ie, the TyG index) and outcome events according to the income level of the countries.

    FINDINGS: During a median follow-up of 13·2 years (IQR 11·9-14·6), we recorded 6345 composite cardiovascular diseases events, 2030 cardiovascular deaths, 3038 cases of myocardial infarction, 3291 cases of stroke, and 5191 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for all other variables, the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases increased across tertiles of the baseline TyG index. Compared with the lowest tertile of the TyG index, the highest tertile (tertile 3) was associated with a greater incidence of the composite outcome (HR 1·21; 95% CI 1·13-1·30), myocardial infarction (1·24; 1·12-1·38), stroke (1·16; 1·05-1·28), and incident type 2 diabetes (1·99; 1·82-2·16). No significant association of the TyG index was seen with non-cardiovascular mortality. In low-income countries (LICs) and middle-income countries (MICs), the highest tertile of the TyG index was associated with increased hazards for the composite outcome (LICs: HR 1·31; 95% CI 1·12-1·54; MICs: 1·20; 1·11-1·31; pinteraction=0·01), cardiovascular mortality (LICs: 1·44; 1·15-1·80; pinteraction=0·01), myocardial infarction (LICs: 1·29; 1·06-1·56; MICs: 1·26; 1·10-1·45; pinteraction=0·08), stroke (LICs: 1·35; 1·02-1·78; MICs: 1·17; 1·05-1·30; pinteraction=0·19), and incident diabetes (LICs: 1·64; 1·38-1·94; MICs: 2·68; 2·40-2·99; pinteraction <0·0001). In contrast, in high-income countries, higher TyG index tertiles were only associated with an increased hazard of incident diabetes (2·95; 2·25-3·87; pinteraction <0·0001), but not of cardiovascular diseases or mortality.

    INTERPRETATION: The TyG index is significantly associated with future cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that insulin resistance plays a promoting role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Potentially, the association between the TyG index and the higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes in LICs and MICs might be explained by an increased vulnerability of these populations to the presence of insulin resistance.

    FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  14. Ch'ng SL, Marinah TA
    Clin Chim Acta, 1988 Apr 15;173(2):165-71.
    PMID: 3378356 DOI: 10.1016/0009-8981(88)90254-9
    In vitro glycation of sera dried on water-resistant medium (Parafilm) and on paper were studied by measuring the change of glucose level, fructosamine:total protein ratio, glycated protein concentration and alteration of electrophoretic mobility of sera before and after drying. The results suggested the instability of glucose in dried sera was due to in vitro glycation which was influenced by surface properties of media on which the sera were deposited. A new method for rapid effective in vitro glycation of sera was also proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/analysis*
  15. Sharma M, Chan HK, Lavilla CA, Uy MM, Froemming GRA, Okechukwu PN
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 2023 Aug;37(4):769-778.
    PMID: 36905079 DOI: 10.1111/fcp.12892
    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic islets. STZ is currently used clinically for the treatment of metastatic islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas and the induction of diabetes mellitus (DM) in rodents. So far, there has been no previous research to show that STZ injection in rodents causes insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to determine if rats (Sprague-Dawley) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus (insulin resistance) after 72 h of intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg STZ. Rats with fasting blood glucose levels above 11.0 mM, 72 h post-STZ induction, were used. The body weight and plasma glucose levels were measured every week throughout the 60-day treatment period. The plasma, liver, kidney, pancreas, and smooth muscle cells were harvested for antioxidant, biochemical analysis, histology, and gene expression studies. The results revealed that STZ was able to destroy the pancreatic insulin-producing beta cell, as evidenced by an increase in plasma glucose level, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Biochemical investigation indicates that STZ can generate diabetes complications through hepatocellular damage, elevated HbA1c, kidney damage, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular damage, and impairment of the insulin-signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  16. Harun Haron R, Imran MK, Haspani MS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Oct;18(4):69-77.
    PMID: 22589675 MyJurnal
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with an acute stress response mediated by the sympathoadrenomedullary axis, which can be assessed by measuring blood glucose level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose
  17. Rashid MR, Nor Aripin KN, Syed Mohideen FB, Baharom N, Omar K, Md Taujuddin NMS, et al.
    J Nutr Metab, 2019;2019:3176018.
    PMID: 30863635 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3176018
    Background: Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) poses a higher risk of diabetes. Honey has been reported to improve metabolic abnormalities including lowering hyperglycemia. This study is sought at determining the effect of Malaysian Kelulut honey (KH) on fasting glucose levels and metabolic parameters in IFG patients.
    Methods: This quasi-experimental intervention study of 30-day duration was conducted among 60 adult patients with IFG. They were allocated into taking 30 g/day KH group (experimental group, n=30) and not taking KH group (control group, n=30). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose, and lipid profile levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein) were measured before and after treatment.
    Results: There was no significant difference in all measured variables at day 30 compared to day 1 within both groups. Similarly, all measured variables neither at day 1 nor at day 30 had shown a statistically significant difference between the groups.
    Conclusions: Daily intake of 30 g KH for 30 days resulted in insignificant effect on fasting glucose, fasting lipid profiles, and other metabolic parameters in patients with IFG. Further studies that employ longer study duration are needed to ascertain the finding.
    Study site: Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) Specialist Centre, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, and Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose
  18. Minh HV, Tien HA, Sinh CT, Thang DC, Chen CH, Tay JC, et al.
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), 2021 03;23(3):529-537.
    PMID: 33415834 DOI: 10.1111/jch.14155
    Insulin resistance (IR), a metabolic risk factor, is linked to the pathogenetic mechanism of primary hypertension. Detecting IR in the patients with hypertension will help to predict and stratify the added cardiovascular risk, institute appropriate IR management, and manage hypertension optimally. There are many methods for assessing IR, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages. The euglycemic insulin clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance test, gold standards for measuring IR, are used in research but not in clinical practice. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), a method for assessing β-cell function and IR, is frequently applied presently, particularly in Asia. Besides, the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) first published by South American authors showed a good correlation with the insulin clamp technique and HOMA-IR index. This simple, convenient, and low-cost TyG index is of research interest in many countries in Asia and can be used to screen for IR in the Asian hypertensive community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose
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