AIMS: This review focuses on outlining the findings of studies that have been conducted to display the glycemic effect of Catha edulis, while trying to balance it with findings of the association of its chewing with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search strategy adopted was based on a comprehensive research in Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, JSTOR, Scopus and Cochrane for articles, proceeding abstracts and theses to identify complete reports written in the English language about the glycemic effect of Catha edulis in humans and animals from 1976 to 2016. In addition, bibliographies were also reviewed to find additional reports not otherwise published. Thirty seven records were identified of which, 25 eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis using blood glucose as an outcome measurement. Studies were divided into four subgroups according to the experimental model, namely; non-diabetic animals, diabetic animals, non-diabetic humans and diabetic humans. The pooled mean difference (MD) of blood glucose between experimental and control were calculated using random effects model of the weighted mean difference of blood glucose with 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity between studies was tested using I(2) statistic and a value of P<0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.
RESULTS: The scientific reports in the literature prevailed that the glycemic effect of Catha edulis were greatly conflicting with the majority of studies indicating that Catha edulis has a mild hypoglycemic effect. However, the meta-analysis indicted that the overall result showed an insignificant reduction in blood glucose (MD=-9.70, 95% CI: -22.17 to 2.76, P=0.13, with high heterogeneity between subgroups, I(2)=88.2%, P<0.0001). In addition, pooled mean difference of blood glucose of non-diabetic animals, diabetic animals and non-diabetic humans showed an insignificant reduction in blood glucose (MD=-18.55, 95% CI: -39.55 to 2.50, P<0.08, MD=-52.13%, 95% CI: -108.24 to 3.99, P=0.07 and MD=-2.71%, 95% CI: -19.19 to -13.77, P=0.75) respectively. Conversely, a significant elevation in the pooled mean difference of blood glucose in diabetic humans was indicated (MD=67.18, 95% CI: 36.93-97.43, P<0.0001). The conflict shown in the glycemic effect of Catha edulis is thought to be cultivar-related, while demographic and epidemiological reports suggested that chewing Catha edulis might be a predisposing factor contributing to the development of type 2 DM.
CONCLUSION: It was difficult to draw a meaningful conclusion from both the systematic and the meta-analysis with respect to the glycemic effect of Catha edulis since the meta-analysis results were insignificant with high heterogeneity among subgroups and are greatly conflicting. The variation is most likely due to unadjusted experimental factors or is related to Catha edulis itself, such as the differences in the phytochemical composition. Therefore, it is highly recommended that further studies of the glycemic effect of the cultivar of Catha edulis being studied should come with the identification and quantification of phytochemical content so that a meaningful assessment can be made with regard to its hypoglycemic properties. In addition, well-controlled clinical studies should be conducted to confirm whether or not chewing Catha edulis is associated with the development of type 2 DM, since this would be a source of concern seeing that the plant is widely consumed in certain populations.
RESULTS: The GI of the calamansi drink tested was calculated as 37, a value within the range of low GI foods. Trial registration Clinical Trials identifier NCT04462016; Retrospectively registered on July 1, 2020.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the association between diet quality evaluated by healthy eating index (HEI) with the glucose outcome in individuals with distinct diabetes progression stages, as well as to identify causal factors in relation to their diabetes status.
METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted at clinical care setting in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) between October 2018-March 2019. Normoglycemic controls (n = 47), at-risk of pre-diabetes (n = 58), pre-diabetes (n = 24) as well as individuals with undiagnosed diabetes (n = 18) were queried about their habitual diet by using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationship between HEI score and 1) Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 2) postprandial blood glucose (2-HPP) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Multinomial regression was performed to identify predictors associated with diabetes status of study participants.
RESULT: Overall, diet quality of study participants was unsatisfactory with the mean score of 58.05 ± 9.07 that need improvement. Total HEI score was negatively correlated with the 2-HPP levels in pre-diabetic patients (r = - 0.45, p = 0.05). No significant association was revealed between glycemic parameters and total HEI score among other groups. Age, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides and female gender were positively correlated with the risk of pre-diabetes, at-risk of pre-diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes (p
METHODS: This was an 8-week, parallel-group, non-randomised study of 60 type 2 diabetes patients who opted for structured Ramadan Nutrition Therapy (sRNT; n = 38) or standard care (SC; n = 22) group. The sRNT group received a structured Ramadan Nutrition Plan incorporated with diabetes-specific formula throughout the study, while SC received standard nutrition care. The 3-day food records assessed dietary intake at three-time points.
RESULTS: At baseline, dietary characteristics were comparable; both groups had macronutrient intakes within the recommended range, but inadequate intakes of fiber and 11 essential micronutrients. After 8 weeks, the sRNT group significantly reduced intakes of carbohydrate, dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and increased percentage of total energy intake from protein, fiber, pyridoxine, vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, and chromium compared with the SC group. In the sRNT group, compliance to diabetes-specific formula predicted changes in HbA1c (p = 0.024), while fiber intake predicted fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.035), after adjusting for age, sex, weight changes and other dietary variables.
CONCLUSION: Intakes of certain nutrients improved significantly in sRNT group after 8 weeks of receiving a structured Ramadan Nutrition Plan compared to the standard care. The structured Ramadan Nutrition Plan with the incorporation of diabetes-specific formula significantly improved glycemic control and dietary adequacy during Ramadan fasting.