This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS) content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%). The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young's modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements.
Hydroxyapatite is a biocompatible material that is extensively used in the replacement and regeneration of bone material. In nature, nanostructured hydroxyapatite is the main component present in hard body tissues. Hence, the state of the art in nanotechnology can be exploited to synthesize nanophase hydroxyapatite that has similar properties with natural hydroxyapatite. Sustainable methods to mass-produce synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are being developed to meet the increasing demand for these materials and to further develop the progress made in hard tissue regeneration, especially for orthopedic and dental applications. This article reviews the current developments in nanophase hydroxyapatite through various manufacturing techniques and modifications.
This study was conducted based on the hypothesis that mineral and physicochemical properties of cockle shells similarly resemble the properties of corals (Porites sp.). Hence, the mineral and physicochemical evaluations of cockle shells were conducted to support the aforementioned hypothesis. The results indicated that cockle shells and coral exoskeleton shared similar mineral and physicochemical properties.
A novel hydrothermal process has been developed various hydroxyapatite(HA) powder. The HA powder was investigated in different calcination temperatures over the range of 200 degrees C-800 degrees C. TG/DTA and XRD analysis revealed that at temperatures of 700-800 degrees C the decomposition processes and phase changes took place. It is due to the appearance of TCP phase substituting the HA phase. FESEM observation showed that the produced hydroxyapatite powder was extraordinarily fine with nanosize primary particles and almost evenly spherical in shaped. Its high purity proved that the powder fulfills medical requirement.
Powder-based inkjet 3D printing method is one of the most attractive solid free form techniques. It involves a sequential layering process through which 3D porous scaffolds can be directly produced from computer-generated models. 3D printed products' quality are controlled by the optimal build parameters. In this study, Calcium Sulfate based powders were used for porous scaffolds fabrication. The printed scaffolds of 0.8 mm pore size, with different layer thickness and printing orientation, were subjected to the depowdering step. The effects of four layer thicknesses and printing orientations, (parallel to X, Y and Z), on the physical and mechanical properties of printed scaffolds were investigated. It was observed that the compressive strength, toughness and Young's modulus of samples with 0.1125 and 0.125 mm layer thickness were more than others. Furthermore, the results of SEM and μCT analyses showed that samples with 0.1125 mm layer thickness printed in X direction have more dimensional accuracy and significantly close to CAD software based designs with predefined pore size, porosity and pore interconnectivity.
The sintering behaviour of synthesized HA powder that was calcined at various temperatures ranging from 700 degrees C to 1000 degrees C was investigated in terms of phase stability, bulk density, Young's modulus and Vickers hardness. The calcination treatment resulted in higher crystallinity of the starting HA powder. Decomposition of HA phase to form secondary phases was not observed in all the calcined powders. The results also indicated that powder calcination (up to 900 degrees C) prior to sintering has negligible effect on the sinterability of the HA compacts. However, powder calcined at 1000 degrees C was found to be detrimental to the properties of sintered hydroxyapatite bioceramics.
The effect of Manganese (Mn) addition on the Vickers hardness and relative density of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) dense bodies were studied. The starting Mn doped HA powders was synthesized via sol-gel method with Mn concentration varies from 2 mol% up to 15 mol% Mn. The Mn doped HA disc samples were prepared by uniaxial pressing at 200MPa and subsequently sintered at 1300 degrees C. Characterization was carried out where appropriate to determine the phases present, bulk density, Vickers hardness of the various content of Mn doped HA dense bodies. The addition of Mn was observed to influence the color appearance of the powders and dense bodies as well. Higher Mn concentration resulted in dark grey powders. It was also found that the hardness and relative density of the material increased as the Mn content increased and influenced by the crystallinity of the prepared Mn doped HA powders.
In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features.
In this in vivo study, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used to investigate the bioactivity as well as the microstructural and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V samples embedded with hydroxyapatite (HA) using two different coating methods-superplastic embedment (SPE) and superplastic deformation (SPD). The HA layer thickness for the SPE and SPD samples increased from 249.1 ± 0.6 nm to 874.8 ± 13.7 nm, and from 206.1 ± 5.8 nm to 1162.7 ± 7.9 nm respectively, after 12 weeks of implantation. The SPD sample exhibited much faster growth of newly formed HA compared to SPE. The growth of the newly formed HA was strongly dependent on the degree of HA crystallinity in the initial HA layer. After 12 weeks of implantation, the surface hardness value of the SPE and SPD samples decreased from 661 ± 0.4 HV to 586 ± 1.3 HV and from 585 ± 6.6 HV to 425 ± 86.9 HV respectively. The decrease in surface hardness values was due to the newly formed HA layer that was more porous than the initial HA layer. However, the values were still higher than the substrate surface hardness of 321 ± 28.8 HV. Wear test results suggest that the original HA layers for both samples were still strongly intact, and to a certain extent the newly grown HA layers also were strongly bound with the original HA layers. This study confirms the bioactivity and mechanical stability of the HA layer on both samples in vivo.
Ayurveda oil contains numerous source of biological constituents which plays an important role in reducing the pain relief caused during bone fracture. The aim of the study is to fabricate the polyurethane (PU) scaffold for bone tissue engineering added with ayurveda amla oil using electrospinning technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the fabricated nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (758 ± 185.46 nm) than the pristine PU (890 ± 116.91 nm). Fourier Infrared Analysis (FTIR) revealed the existence of amla oil in the PU matrix by hydrogen bond formation. The contact angle results revealed the decreased wettability (116° ± 1.528) of the prepared nanocomposites compared to the pure PU (100° ± 0.5774). The incorporation of amla oil into the PU matrix improved the surface roughness. Further, the coagulation assay indicated that the addition of amla oil into PU delayed the blood clotting times and exhibited less toxic to red blood cells. Hence, the fabricated nanocomposites showed enhanced physicochemical and better blood compatibility parameters which may serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering.
A major weakness of current orthopedic implant materials, for instance sintered hydroxyapatite (HA), is that they exist as a hardened form, requiring the surgeon to fit the surgical site around an implant to the desired shape. This can cause an increase in bone loss, trauma to the surrounding tissue, and longer surgical time. A convenient alternative to harden bone filling materials are injectable bone substitutes (IBS). In this article, recent progress in the development and application of calcium phosphate (CP)-based composites use as IBS is reviewed. CP materials have been used widely for bone replacement because of their similarity to the mineral component of bone. The main limitation of bulk CP materials is their brittle nature and poor mechanical properties. There is significant effort to reinforce or improve the mechanical properties and injectability of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and this review resumes different alternatives presented in this specialized literature.
This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incorporated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-OH and MWCNTs-COOH). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compressive strength tests, injectability tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the properties of the final products. Compressive strength tests and SEM observations demonstrated particularly that the concomitant admixture of BSA and MWCNT improved the mechanical properties, resulting in stronger CPC composites. The presence of MWCNTs and BSA influenced the morphology of the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in the CPC matrix. BSA was found to act as a promoter of HA growth when bounded to the surface of CPC grains. MWCNT-OH-containing composites exhibited the highest compressive strengths (16.3 MPa), being in the range of values for trabecular bone (2-12 MPa).
In this study, porous hydroxyapatite (HA) samples were fabricated via sponge techniques with the aid of sago as part of the binder mixture. Development processes for the production of porous bone graft substitutes are studied using polyurethane sponge. To obtain the optimum amount of binder for successful fabrication of porous HA were done. Initially, porous HA powder was synthesized using calcium hydroxide and orthorphosphoric acid. Meanwhile, sago was mixed with PVA in a certain ratio to be used as binder for preparing the porous HA. After a series of investigative tests were conducted to characterize the sintered samples, the use of the sago and polymeric mixture was found to successfully aid the fabrication of porous HA samples. In this investigation, comparison of physical and mechanical characteristics between samples prepared using difference techniques was made.
Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is widely investigated as an implantable material for hard tissue restoration due to its osteoconductive properties. However, hydroxyapatite in bulk form is limited as its mechanical properties are insufficient for load-bearing orthopedic applications. Attempts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite, by incorporating ceramic fillers, but the resultant composite materials require high sintering temperatures to facilitate densification, leading to the decomposition of hydroxyapatite into tricalcium phosphate, tetra-calcium phosphate and CaO phases. One method of improving the properties of hydroxyapatite is to incorporate bioactive glass particles as a second phase. These typically have lower softening points which could possibly facilitate sintering at lower temperatures. In this work, a bioactive glass (SiO2-CaO-ZnO-Na2O-TiO2) is incorporated (10, 20 and 30 wt%) into hydroxyapatite as a reinforcing phase. X-ray diffraction confirmed that no additional phases (other than hydroxyapatite) were formed at a sintering temperature of 560 ℃ with up to 30 wt% glass addition. The addition of the glass phase increased the % crystallinity and the relative density of the composites. The biaxial flexural strength increased to 36 MPa with glass addition, and there was no significant change in hardness as a function of maturation. The pH of the incubation media increased to pH 10 or 11 through glass addition, and ion release profiles determined that Si, Na and P were released from the composites. Calcium phosphate precipitation was encouraged in simulated body fluid with the incorporation of the bioactive glass phase, and cell culture testing in MC-3T3 osteoblasts determined that the composite materials did not significantly reduce cell viability.
Recently, a modified form of a three-dimension (3D) porous poly(caprolactone-trifumarate) (PCLTF) scaffold has been produced using a fabrication technique that involves gelatin microparticles porogen leaching. This poly(caprolactone trifumarate-gelatin microparticles) (PCLTF-GMPs) scaffold has been shown to be biocompatible, more flowable clinically, and has a shorter degradation time as compared to its existing predecessors. In this report, a detailed characterization of this new scaffold was performed by testing its cytocompatibility, analyzing the surface topography, and understanding its thermal, physical and mechanical properties. The result showed that the PCLTF-GMPs has no critical cytotoxic effect. To confirm improvement, the surface properties were compared against the older version of PCLTF fabricated using salt porogen leaching. This PCLTF-GMPs scaffold showed no significant difference (unpaired t-test; p>0.05) in mechanical properties before and after gelatin leaching. However, it is mechanically weaker when compared to its predecessors. It has a high biodegradability rate of 16weeks. The pore size produced ranges from 40 to 300μm, and the RMS roughness is 613.7±236.9nm. These characteristics are condusive for osteoblast in-growth, as observed by the extension of filopodia across the macropores. Overall, this newly produced material has good thermal, physical and mechanical properties that complements its biocompatibility and ease of use.
Bioceramic nanoparticles with high specific surface area often tend to agglomerate in the polymer matrix, which results in undesirable mechanical properties of the composites and poor cell spreading and attachment. In the present work, bredigite (BR) nanoparticles were modified with an organosilane coupling agent, 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), to enhance its dispersibility in the polymer matrix. The polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvaletare (PHBV) nanofibrous scaffolds containing either bredigite or GPTMS-modified bredigite (G-BR) nanoparticles were fabricated using electrospinning technique and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and tensile strength. Results demonstrated that modification of bredigite was effective in enhancing nanoparticle dispersion in the PHBV matrix. PHBV/G-BR scaffold showed improved mechanical properties compared to PHBV and PHBV/BR, especially at the higher concentration of nanoparticles. In vitro bioactivity assay performed in the simulated body fluid (SBF) indicated that composite PHBV scaffolds were able to induce the formation of apatite deposits after incubation in SBF. From the results of in vitro biological assay, it is concluded that the synergetic effect of BR and GPTMS provided an enhanced hFob cells attachment and proliferation. The developed PHBV/G-BR nanofibrous scaffolds may be considered for application in bone tissue engineering.
Various materials have been used as scaffolds to suit different demands in tissue engineering. One of the most important criteria is that the scaffold must be biocompatible. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of HA or TCP/HA scaffold seeded with osteogenic induced sheep marrow cells (SMCs) for bone tissue engineering.
We conducted a prospective study in order to audit our experience of repairing cranial defects using Methyl methacrylate. This included a total of 49 patients undergoing cranioplasty using methyl methacrylate, of which 45 were males and 4 females. The age of patients at the time of surgery ranged from 16 to 40 years old, with an average of 24 years. Malays were the majority (67%), followed by Chinese (23%) and Indian (10%). Cranial defects were mainly caused by motor vehicle accident (94%), while gunshot wounds, industrial accidents and tumours, each contribute 2%. Bone flaps were commonly removed during previous surgery related to traumatic subdural haemorrhage (33%), contusion (21%) and intracerebral haemorrhage (14%). The size of cranial defects ranged from 28 cm2 to 440 cm2, with an average of 201 cm2. Most had right sided (55%) and lateral defects [temporoparietal (52%) followed by temporal (16%), frontal (16%), frontotemporal (14%) and occipital (2%)]. Duration of surgery ranged from 70 to 275 minutes, with an average of 135 minutes. Nine of 12 patients (75%) with neurological disability had some improvement while 85% of symptomatic patients had symptoms improvement after cranioplasty. The infection rate in this series was 4%.