Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Xu Y, Zhang H, Lit LC, Grothey A, Athanasiadou M, Kiritsi M, et al.
    Sci Signal, 2014 Jun 17;7(330):ra58.
    PMID: 24939894 DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2005170
    Lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3) is associated with cell proliferation and endocrine resistance in breast cancer. We found that, in cultured breast cancer cell lines, LMTK3 promotes the development of a metastatic phenotype by inducing the expression of genes encoding integrin subunits. Invasive behavior in various breast cancer cell lines positively correlated with the abundance of LMTK3. Overexpression of LMTK3 in a breast cancer cell line with low endogenous LMTK3 abundance promoted actin cytoskeleton remodeling, focal adhesion formation, and adhesion to collagen and fibronectin in culture. Using SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) proteomic analysis, we found that LMTK3 increased the abundance of integrin subunits α5 and β1, encoded by ITGA5 and ITGB1. This effect depended on the CDC42 Rho family guanosine triphosphatase, which was in turn activated by the interaction between LMTK3 and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), an adaptor protein that mediates receptor tyrosine kinase-induced activation of RAS and downstream signaling. Knockdown of GRB2 suppressed LMTK3-induced CDC42 activation, blocked ITGA5 and ITGB1 expression promoted by the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), and reduced invasive activity. Furthermore, abundance of LMTK3 positively correlated with that of the integrin β1 subunit in breast cancer patient's tumors. Our findings suggest a role for LMTK3 in promoting integrin activity during breast cancer progression and metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  2. Guo G, Zhang W, Dang M, Yan M, Chen Z
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 2019 Apr;33(4):e22268.
    PMID: 30431692 DOI: 10.1002/jbt.22268
    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is observed in breast cancer. The major snag faced by the human population is the development of chemoresistance to HER2 inhibitors by advanced stage breast cancer cells. Moreover, recent researchers focussed on fisetin as an antiproliferative and chemotherapeutic agent. Therefore, this study was intended to analyze the effects of fisetin on HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Our results depicted that fisetin induced apoptosis of these cells by various mechanisms, such as inactivation of the receptor, induction of proteasomal degradation, decreasing its half-life, decreasing enolase phosphorylation, and alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  3. Misron NA, Looi LM, Nik Mustapha NR
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(4):1553-8.
    PMID: 25743830
    BACKGROUND: COX-2 has been shown to play an important role in the development of breast cancer and increased expression has been mooted as a poor prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between COX-2 immunohistochemical expression and known predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer in a routine diagnostic histopathology setting.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded tumour tissue of 144 no special type (NST) invasive breast carcinomas histologically diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2012 in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah were immunostained with COX-2 antibody. COX-2 overexpression was analysed against demographic data, hormone receptor status, HER2- neu overexpression, histological grade, tumour size and lymph node status.

    RESULTS: COX-2 was overexpressed in 108/144 (75%) tumours and was significantly more prevalent (87%) in hormone receptor-positive tumours. There was no correlation between COX-2 overexpression and HER2/neu status. Triple negative cancers had the lowest prevalence (46%) (p<0.05). A rising trend of COX-2 overexpression with increasing age was observed. There was a significant inverse relationship with tumour grade (p<0.05), prevalences being 94%, 83% and 66% in grades 1, 2 and 3 tumours, respectively. A higher prevalence of COX-2 overexpression in smaller size tumours was observed but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no relationship between COX-2 expression and lymph node status.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the generally held notion that COX-2 overexpression is linked to poor prognosis, rather supporting a role in tumorigenesis. Larger scale studies with outcome data and basic studies on cancer pathogenetic pathways will be required to cast further light on whether COX-2 inhibitors would have clinical utility in cancer prevention or blockage of cancer progression. In either setting, the pathological assessment for COX-2 overexpression in breast cancers would have an important role in the selection of cancer patients for personalized therapy with COX-2 inhibitors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology*
  4. Tee TT, Cheah YH, Hawariah LP
    Anticancer Res, 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5A):3425-30.
    PMID: 17970090
    F16 is a plant-derived pharmacologically active fraction extracted from Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previously, we have reported that F16 inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death while having some degree of cytoselectivity on a normal human breast cell line, MCF-10A. In this study, we attempted to further elucidate the mode of action of F16. We found that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was invoked, with the reduction of Bcl-2 protein. Then, executioner caspase-7 was cleaved and activated in response to F16 treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis in the MCF- 7 cells was accompanied by the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Surprisingly, caspase-9 and p53 were unchanged with F16 treatment. We believe that the F16-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells occurs independently of caspase-9 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that F16 from E. longifolia exerts anti-proliferative action and growth inhibition on MCF-7 cells through apoptosis induction and that it may have anticancer properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  5. Elsadig RE, Reimann K, Yip CH, Lai LC
    Anticancer Res, 2001 Jul-Aug;21(4A):2693-6.
    PMID: 11724341
    Oestrone sulphate is a major source of active oestrogens in the breast. It is converted to oestrone by oestrone sulphatase. Breast cyst fluid (BCF) is a rich source of sex hormones and growth factors. BCF obtained from British women has been shown to inhibit oestrone sulphatase activity in the MCF-7 oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer cell line. The aim of the present study was to assess whether BCF obtained from Malaysian women inhibited oestrone sulphatase activity in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. The cell lines were grown in supplemented Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium for 3 days, following which a 3-day incubation with sterilised BCF was carried out. At the end of the treatment period the cell monolayers were assayed for oestrone sulphatase activity and the number of cell nuclei counted on a Coulter Counter. BCF was also fractionated on a Bio-Sil SEC 125-5 column by HPLC and the effects of the fractions collected on oestrone sulphatase activity in the MDA-MB-231 cell line were assessed. All 18 samples of BCF tested inhibited cell growth in the MDA-MB-231 cell line while 8 out of 10 samples inhibited MCF-7 cell growth; 15 out of 18 BCF samples inhibited oestrone sulphatase activity in the MDA-MB-231 cell line whereas 5 out of 10 samples stimulated oestrone sulphatase activity in the MCF-7 cell line. HPLC fractions corresponding to molecular weights of > 158 kDa and 28 kDa were found to inhibit oestrone sulphatase activity in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Further work is required to fully characterise these substances as they may have roles to play in the prevention of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology*
  6. Ng JH, Nesaretnam K, Reimann K, Lai LC
    Int J Cancer, 2000 Oct 1;88(1):135-8.
    PMID: 10962451
    Oestrogen is important in the development of breast cancer. Oestrogen receptor positive breast cancers are associated with a better prognosis than oestrogen-receptor negative breast cancers since they are more responsive to hormonal treatment. Oestrone sulphate acts as a huge reservoir for oestrogens in the breast. It is converted to the potent oestrogen, oestradiol (E(2)) by the enzymes oestrone sulphatase and oestradiol-17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E(2)DH). Retinoic acid and carotenoids have been shown to have chemopreventive activity against some cancers. The aim of our study was to determine and compare the effects of retinoic acid and palm oil carotenoids on growth of and oestrone sulphatase and E(2)DH activities in the oestrogen receptor positive, MCF-7 and oestrogen receptor negative, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Retinoic acid and carotenoids inhibited MCF-7 cell growth but had no effect on MDA-MB-231 cell growth. Both retinoic acid and carotenoids stimulated oestrone sulphatase activity in the MCF-7 cell line. E(1) to E(2) conversion was inhibited by 10(-7) M carotenoids but was stimulated at 10(-6) M in the MCF-7 cell line. Retinoic acid had no effect on E(1) to E(2) conversion at 10(-7) M but stimulated E(1) to E(2) conversion at 10(-6) M. Retinoic acid and carotenoids had no effect on E(2) to E(1) conversion in the MCF-7 cell line. Retinoic acid stimulated E(1) to E(2) conversion in the MDA-MB-231 cell line but had no effect on oestrone sulphatase activity or E(2) to E(1) conversion in this cell line. Both oestrone sulphatase and E(2)DH activity were not affected by carotenoids in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. In conclusion, retinoic acid and carotenoids may prevent the development of hormone-dependent breast cancers since they inhibit the growth of the MCF-7 cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology*
  7. Ee YS, Lai LC, Reimann K, Lim PK
    Oncol Rep, 1999 6 22;6(4):843-6.
    PMID: 10373668
    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been shown to inhibit the growth of mammary epithelial cells and may play a protective role in mammary carcinogenesis. In contrast, oestrogens promote the development of breast cancer. Oestrone sulphate (E1S) is a huge reservoir of active oestrogens in the breast being converted to the weak oestrogen, oestrone (E1), by oestrone sulphatase. E1 is reversibly converted by oestradiol-17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to the potent oestrogen, oestradiol (E2). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the TGF-beta1 isoform on growth and oestrogen metabolism in the hormone-dependent MCF-7 and hormone-independent MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that TGF-beta1 significantly inhibited cell growth and stimulated the conversion of E1S to E1 and E1 to E2 in the MCF-7 cell line. In the MDA-MB-231 cell line TGF-beta1 significantly stimulated cell growth and inhibited the interconversions between E1 and E2. In conclusion, the growth inhibitory effect of TGF-beta1 on the MCF-7 cell line would appear to confer a protective effect in breast cancer. However, its ability to increase the amount of E2 would increase the risk of breast cancer. Which of these effects predominates in vivo remains to be explored. The growth stimulatory effect of TGF-beta1 on the MDA-MB-231 cell line probably acts through a mechanism independent of the effect of TGF-beta1 on oestrogen concentrations since this cell line is hormone unresponsive.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  8. Ameli F, Ghafourina Nassab F, Masir N, Kahtib F
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Aug 01;22(8):2603-2609.
    PMID: 34452576 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.8.2603
    INTRODUCTION: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death in women. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) is a hypothetical prognostic marker in invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to determine MMP-13 expression in benign and malignant breast lesions and to evaluate the correlation between MMP-13 expression and tumor characteristics in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: We evaluated cytoplasmic expression of MMP-13 based on staining index using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in epithelial cells, stromal fibroblasts of IDC (n=90) and benign epithelial breast (n=90) lesions. Correlation between IHC and tumor size, lymph node status, distance metastasis, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu was assessed.

    RESULTS: MMP-13 expression was 45% and 38.8% in malignant epithelial cells and peritumoral fibroblasts, respectively. Only low level of MMP-13 expression was seen in benign breast lesions (8.8% in epithelial component and 2.2% in stromal fibroblasts), while high level of MMP-13 expression was noted in malignant tumors, mainly grade II or III. Cytoplasmic MMP-13 expressions in epithelial tumor cells was correlated significantly with peritumoral fibroblasts. MMP-13 expression was directly correlated with distant metastasis and tumor stage in epithelial tumoral cells and was inversely correlated with progesterone expression in both tumoral and stromal cells.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that MMP-13 was a moderator for tumor invasion and metastasis and could be an independent predictor of poor prognosis in breast cancer. The role of MMP-13 in predicting the risk of malignant transformation in benign lesions should be further investigated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  9. Abrahim NN, Kanthimathi MS, Abdul-Aziz A
    PMID: 23153283 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-220
    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology*
  10. Hwa IA, Reimann K, Lim PK, Lai LC
    Int J Mol Med, 1999 Aug;4(2):175-8.
    PMID: 10402485
    Oestrogens play an important role in the development of breast cancer. A very important source of active oestrogens in the breast is oestrone sulphate which is converted to oestrone by oestrone sulphatase. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on oestrone sulphatase activity in, as well as cell growth of, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Cells were grown in supplemented DMEM and treated with varying concentrations of IGFs. At the end of the treatment period, intact cell monolayers were washed and assayed for oestrone sulphatase activity and the number of cell nuclei determined on a Coulter Counter. Oestrone sulphatase activity was significantly stimulated by IGF-I and II at concentrations of 100 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml in MCF-7 cells. IGF-I had no effect on oestrone sulphatase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells over the range of concentrations tested. Significant inhibition of oestrone sulphatase was observed in MDA-MB-231 cells at higher concentrations of IGF-II (50 ng/ml, 100 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml). Both IGF-I and IGF-II at higher concentrations (100 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml) significantly inhibited MCF-7 and stimulated MDA-MB-231 cell growth. Since IGF-I and II have effects on cell growth and oestrone sulphatase activity in breast cancer cell lines they may play a role in the development and progression of human breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology*
  11. Wong SF, Reimann K, Lai LC
    Pathology, 2001 Nov;33(4):454-9.
    PMID: 11827412
    Oestrogens play an important role in the development of breast cancer. Oestrone sulphate (E1S) acts as a huge reservoir of oestrogens in the breast and is converted to oestrone (E1) by oestrone sulphatase (E1STS). E1 is then reversibly converted to the potent oestrogen, oestradiol (E2) by oestradiol-17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E2DH). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) on cell growth, E1STS and E2DH activities in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II alone or in combination inhibited cell growth of both cell lines but no additive or synergistic effects were observed. The treatments significantly stimulated E1STS activity in the MCF-7 cell line, except for TGFbeta1 alone and TGFbeta1 and IGF-I in combination, where no effects were seen. Only TGFbeta1 and IGF-II acted synergistically to stimulate E1STS activity in the MCF-7 cells. There was no significant effect on E1STS activity in the MDA-MB-231 cells with any of the treatments. In the MCF-7 cells, TGFbeta1 and IGF-I, IGF-I and IGF-II, and TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II acted synergistically to stimulate the reductive E2DH activity, while only TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II synergistically stimulated the oxidative E2DH activity. There were no additive or synergistic effects on both oxidative and reductive E2DH activities in the MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II may have effects on oestrogen metabolism, especially in the MCF-7 cell line where they stimulated the conversion of E1S to E1 and E1 to E2 and, thus, may have roles to play in the development of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  12. Tang EL, Rajarajeswaran J, Fung SY, Kanthimathi MS
    PMID: 24517259 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-347
    Coriandrum sativum is a popular culinary and medicinal herb of the Apiaceae family. Health promoting properties of this herb have been reported in pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies. However, studies on C. sativum have always focused on the aerial parts of the herb and scientific investigation on the root is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of C. sativum root, leaf and stem, including its effect on cancer cell migration, and its protection against DNA damage, with special focus on the roots.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  13. Namvar F, Mohamad R, Baharara J, Zafar-Balanejad S, Fargahi F, Rahman HS
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:604787.
    PMID: 24078922 DOI: 10.1155/2013/604787
    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of brown seaweeds Sargassum muticum methanolic extract (SMME), against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines proliferation. This algae extract was also evaluated for reducing activity and total polyphenol content. The MTT assay results indicated that the extracts were cytotoxic against breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 of 22 μg/ml for MCF-7 and 55 μg/ml for MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The percentages of apoptotic MCF-7-treated cells increased from 13% to 67% by increasing the concentration of the SMME. The antiproliferative efficacy of this algal extract was positively correlated with the total polyphenol contents, suggesting a causal link related to extract content of phenolic acids. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of SMME-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by SMME. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Hoechst 33342 and AO/PI staining. Also SMME implanted in vivo into fertilized chicken eggs induced dose-related antiangiogenic activity in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Our results imply a new insight on the novel function of Sargassum muticum polyphenol-rich seaweed in cancer research by induction of apoptosis, antioxidant, and antiangiogenesis effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  14. Tan BS, Tiong KH, Muruhadas A, Randhawa N, Choo HL, Bradshaw TD, et al.
    Mol. Cancer Ther., 2011 Oct;10(10):1982-92.
    PMID: 21831963 DOI: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0391
    Both 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F-203; NSC 703786) and 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (GW-610; NSC 721648) are antitumor agents with novel mechanism(s). Previous studies have indicated that cytochrome (CYP) P450 1A1 is crucial for 5F-203 activity. In the present study, we investigated the functional role of 2 newly identified CYP P450 enzymes, CYP2S1 and CYP2W1, in mediating antitumor activity of benzothiazole compounds. We generated isogenic breast cancer (MDA-MB-468, MCF-7) and colorectal cancer (CRC; KM12 and HCC2998) cell lines depleted for CYP1A1, CYP2S1, or CYP2W1. The sensitivity of these cells to 5F-203 and GW-610 was then compared with vector control cells. 5F-203 exhibited potent activity against breast cancer cells, whereas GW-610 was effective against both breast and colorectal cancer cells. CYP1A1 was induced in both breast cancer and CRC cells, while CYP2S1 and CYP2W1 were selectively induced in breast cancer cells only following treatment with 5F-203 or GW-610. Depletion of CYP1A1 abrogated the sensitivity of breast cancer and CRC cells to 5F-203 and GW-610. Although depletion of CYP2S1 sensitized both breast cancer and CRC cells toward 5F-203 and GW-610, CYP2W1 knockdown caused marked resistance to GW-610 in CRC cells. Our results indicate that CYP-P450 isoforms, with the exception of CYP1A1, play an important role in mediating benzothiazole activity. CYP2S1 appears to be involved in deactivation of benzothiazoles, whereas CYP2W1 is important for bioactivation of GW-610 in CRC cells. Because CYP2W1 is highly expressed in colorectal tumors, GW-610 represents a promising agent for CRC therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology*
  15. Sani HA, Rahmat A, Ismail M, Rosli R, Endrini S
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2004;13(4):396-400.
    PMID: 15563447
    The objective of this study was to determine the anti cancer effects of red spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus Linn) in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro study, microtitration cytotoxic assay was done using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-il)-2,5-diphenil tetrazolium bromide (MTT) kit assay. Results showed that aqueous extract of A gangeticus inhibited the proliferation of liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The IC(50) values were 93.8 mu g/ml and 98.8 mu g/ml for HepG2 and MCF-7, respectively. The inhibitory effect was also observed in colon cancer cell line (Caco-2), but a lower percentage compared to HepG2 and MCF-7. For normal cell line (Chang Liver), there was no inhibitory effect. In the in vivo study, hepatocarcinogenesis was monitored in rats according to Solt and Farber (1976) without partial hepatectomy. Assay of tumour marker enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uridyl diphosphoglucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were carried out to determine the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis. The result found that supplementation of 5%, 7.5% and 10% of A. gangeticus aqueous extract to normal rats did not show any significant difference towards normal control (P <0.05). The exposure of the rats to chemical carcinogens diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) showed a significant increase in specific enzyme activity of GGT, GST, UDPGT and ALP compared to normal control (P <0.05). However, it was found that the supplementation of A. gangeticus aqueous extract in 5%, 7.5% and 10% to cancer-induced rats could inhibit the activity of all tumour marker enzymes especially at 10% (P <0.05). Supplementation of anti cancer drug glycyrrhizin at suggested dose (0.005%) did not show any suppressive effect towards cancer control (P <0.05). In conclusion, A. gangeticus showed anticancer potential in in vitro and in vivo studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  16. Jada SR, Matthews C, Saad MS, Hamzah AS, Lajis NH, Stevens MF, et al.
    Br J Pharmacol, 2008 Nov;155(5):641-54.
    PMID: 18806812 DOI: 10.1038/bjp.2008.368
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Andrographolide, the major phytoconstituent of Andrographis paniculata, was previously shown by us to have activity against breast cancer. This led to synthesis of new andrographolide analogues to find compounds with better activity than the parent compound. Selected benzylidene derivatives were investigated for their mechanisms of action by studying their effects on the cell cycle progression and cell death.
    EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Microculture tetrazolium, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assays were utilized in assessing the in vitro growth inhibition and cytotoxicity of compounds. Flow cytometry was used to analyse the cell cycle distribution of control and treated cells. CDK1 and CDK4 levels were determined by western blotting. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.
    KEY RESULTS: Compounds, in nanomolar to micromolar concentrations, exhibited growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in MCF-7 (breast) and HCT-116 (colon) cancer cells. In the NCI screen, 3,19-(2-bromobenzylidene) andrographolide (SRJ09) and 3,19-(3-chloro-4-fluorobenzylidene) andrographolide (SRJ23) showed greater cytotoxic potency and selectivity than andrographolide. SRJ09 and SRJ23 induced G(1) arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells, respectively. SRJ09 downregulated CDK4 but not CDK1 level in MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis induced by SRJ09 and SRJ23 in HCT-116 cells was confirmed by annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry analysis.
    CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The new benzylidene derivatives of andrographolide are potential anticancer agents. SRJ09 emerged as the lead compound in this study, exhibiting anticancer activity by downregulating CDK4 to promote a G(1) phase cell cycle arrest, coupled with induction of apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  17. Hor SY, Lee SC, Wong CI, Lim YW, Lim RC, Wang LZ, et al.
    Pharmacogenomics J, 2008 Apr;8(2):139-46.
    PMID: 17876342
    Previously studied candidate genes have failed to account for inter-individual variability of docetaxel and doxorubicin disposition and effects. We genotyped the transcriptional regulators of CYP3A and ABCB1 in 101 breast cancer patients from 3 Asian ethnic groups, that is, Chinese, Malays and Indians, in correlation with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of docetaxel and doxorubicin. While there was no ethnic difference in docetaxel and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics, ethnic difference in docetaxel- (ANOVA, P=0.001) and doxorubicin-induced (ANOVA, P=0.003) leukocyte suppression was observed, with Chinese and Indians experiencing greater degree of docetaxel-induced myelosuppression than Malays (Bonferroni, P=0.002, P=0.042), and Chinese experiencing greater degree of doxorubicin-induced myelosuppression than Malays and Indians (post hoc Bonferroni, P=0.024 and 0.025). Genotyping revealed both PXR and CAR to be well conserved; only a PXR 5'-untranslated region polymorphism (-24381A>C) and a silent CAR variant (Pro180Pro) were found at allele frequencies of 26 and 53%, respectively. Two non-synonymous variants were identified in HNF4alpha (Met49Val and Thr130Ile) at allele frequencies of 55 and 1%, respectively, with the Met49Val variant associated with slower neutrophil recovery in docetaxel-treated patients (ANOVA, P=0.046). Interactions were observed between HNF4alpha Met49Val and CAR Pro180Pro, with patients who were wild type for both variants experiencing least docetaxel-induced neutropenia (ANOVA, P=0.030). No other significant genotypic associations with pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of either drug were found. The PXR-24381A>C variants were significantly more common in Indians compared to Chinese or Malays (32/18/21%, P=0.035) Inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations of docetaxel and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics exist, but genotypic variability of the transcriptional regulators PAR, CAR and HNF4alpha cannot account for this variability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  18. Singh P, Charles S, Madhavan T, Munusamy-Ramanujam G, Saraswathi NT, Arasu MV, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2021 Jan 15;891:173697.
    PMID: 33144068 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173697
    We investigated the role of protein arginine methylation (PAM) in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells through pharmacological intervention. Tamoxifen (TAM) or adenosine dialdehyde (ADOX), independently, triggered cell cycle arrest and down-regulated PAM, as reduced protein arginine methyltransferase1 (PRMT1) mRNA and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels. Synergistic effect of these compounds elicited potent anti-cancer effect. However, reduction in ADMA was not proportionate with the compound-induced down-regulation of PRMT1 mRNA. We hypothesized that the disproportionate effect is due to the influence of the compounds on other methyltransferases, which catalyze the arginine dimethylation reaction and the diversity in the degree of drug-protein interaction among these methyltransferases. In silico analyses revealed that independently, ADOX or TAM, binds with phosphatidylethanolamine-methyltransferase (PEMT) or betaine homocysteine-methyl transferase (BHMT); and that the binding affinity of ADOX with PEMT or BHMT is prominent than TAM. These observations suggest that in breast cancer, synergistic effect of ADOX + TAM elicits impressive protective function by regulating PAM; and plausibly, restoration of normal enzyme activities of methyltransferases catalyzing arginine dimethylation could have clinical benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
  19. Jabbarzadeh Kaboli P, Leong MP, Ismail P, Ling KH
    Pharmacol Rep, 2019 Feb;71(1):13-23.
    PMID: 30343043 DOI: 10.1016/j.pharep.2018.07.005
    BACKGROUND: Berberine is an alkaloid plant-based DNA intercalator that affects gene regulation, particularly expression of oncogenic and tumor suppressor proteins. The effects of berberine on different signaling proteins remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to identify the effects of berberine against key oncogenic proteins in breast cancer cells.

    METHODS: Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used for EGFR, p38, ERK1/2, and AKT. The effects of berberine and lapatinib on MAPK and PI3K pathways in MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 cells were evaluated using immunoflorescence assays, and the amounts of phosphorylated kinases were compared to total kinases after treating with different concentrations of berberine.

    RESULTS: Simulations showed berberine accurately interacted with EGFR, AKT, P38, and ERK1/2 active sites in silico (scores = -7.57 to -7.92 Kcal/mol) and decreased the levels of active forms of corresponding enzymes in both cell lines; however, berberine binding to p38 showed less stability. Cytotoxicity analysis indicated that MDA-MB231 cells were resistant to berberine compared to MCF-7 cells [72 h IC50 = 50 versus 15 μM, respectively). Also, lapatinib strongly activated AKT but suppressed EGFR in MDA-MB231 cells. The activity of EGFR, AKT, P38, and ERK1/2 were affected by berberine; however, berberine dramatically reduced EGFR and AKT phosphorylation.

    CONCLUSION: By way of its multikinase inhibitory effects, berberine might be a useful replacement for lapatinib, an EGFR inhibitor which can cause acquired drug resistance in patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology
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